Ch 9 part 2 ICS flashcards |

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  • The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defines a hazardous material (hazmat) as

    any substance or material that when released may cause harm, serious injury, or death to humans or animals, or harm the environment.

    CBRNE chemical threats include both

    industrial chemical hazards as well as weaponized chemical hazards.

    Industrial chemical hazards are typically encountered in

    hazardous materials release incidents, such as accidents involving tanker or semi-trucks, railroad cars, gasoline
    stations, and manufacturing plants.

    weaponized chemical hazards are usually

    associated with acts of terrorism or war

    (HAZMAT) The level of competency expected or required during the performance of this duty is called the

    standard of care

    it is essential that the officer identify the type of
    hazardous material involved, but the officer should never

    put him- or herself at risk in
    the process.

    To identify the hazardous material

    officers may have to examine documents/shipping papers or
    conduct interviews with the transport driver or facility staff.

    If the officer cannot identify the hazardous material's specific name:

    he or she should make safety decisions as an awareness-level responder based on minimizing potential health hazards.

    Occupancy refers to a

    structure and its use.

    examples: are manufacturing facilities,
    storage facilities, retail establishments, and residences. Knowing what type of building they are entering helps officers anticipate what hazardous materials may be present.

    Location refers to an

    area and its use

    for example, industrial
    parks, business districts, agricultural areas, and residential neighborhoods

    The shape of the container involved in the hazmat incident can provide

    useful information regarding the type of hazard involved.

    The main types of containers include (3)

    portable containers, fixed containers, and transportation containers.

    There is usually a direct correlation between the size of the container and the

    size of the affected geographical area

    Containers that store contents under pressure, such as propane or oxygen tanks, can present

    additional hazards, like explosions and vapor releases.

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requires

    most vehicles transporting hazardous materials to display placards that describe the class of
    hazardous materials on board.

    The Placards usually appear on

    all four sides of a vehicle, railcar, or other
    large container, and on the individual packages of the material.

    Under special circumstances, the DOT may

    not require placards

    Anything that holds TWO or MORE classes of hazardous materials must display the

    "DANGEROUS" placard and may use it instead of the specific placard for each class
    of material.

    The classification and amount of hazardous materials being transported restrict the use of the

    "Dangerous" placard

    Materials such as ______ and _____ gases cannot use
    the "DANGEROUS" placard.

    1. explosives
    2.Toxic

    The Environmental Protection Agency requires all

    pesticides and some other chemical substances to
    display warning labels on the exterior of the container to provide awareness of the harmful contents.

    Be mindful that the absence of a placard, label, or other warning does not mean that

    hazardous materials are not present

    There are NINE common classes of hazardous materials as defined by the DOT.

    Class 1: explosives
    Class 2: gases
    Class 3: flammable liquids (and combustible liquids)
    Class 4: flammable solids
    Class 5: oxidizers and organic peroxides
    Class 6: toxic materials and infectious substance.
    Class 7: radioactive substances
    Class 8: corrosive substances
    Class 9: miscellaneous dangerous goods

    Level 1: Explosives

    are materials or devices designed to release energy very rapidly. Emergency responders should consider all explosives to be extreme hazards when they are involved
    in or near a fire. Some examples of explosive materials are dynamite, black powder, and small arms ammunition.

    level 2: Gases

    are materials that are neither solid nor liquid at ordinary temperatures; they are contained under
    pressure. They may be flammable, non-flammable, poisonous, or corrosive. Some examples of potentially
    hazardous gases are acetylene, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia.

    level 3: flammable liquids

    These materials burn in the presence of an ignition source. Some examples are gasoline, diesel fuel, and acetone.

    level 4: flammable solids

    These materials are neither liquid nor gas and burn in the presence of an ignition source. Some ignite
    spontaneously or in the presence of heat or friction. Others are dangerous when wet. Some examples are
    magnesium, sulfur, and calcium carbide.

    level 5: oxidizers and organic peroxides

    These materials may cause spontaneous combustion or increase the intensity of a fire. Examples include
    bromine or calcium hypochlorite (bleach).

    level 6: toxic materials and infectious substance.

    This includes medical waste and biological hazards.

    Class 7: radioactive substances

    This category includes nuclear waste, radioactive medical materials, and X-ray equipment.

    Class 8: corrosive substances

    Materials in this category include acids, solvents, or other materials that may cause irreversible damage to
    human tissues.

    Class 9: miscellaneous dangerous goods

    Not belonging to Classes 1-8, these hazardous materials are subject to DOT regulations on transportation.
    Some examples are molten sulfur, PCBs (poly-chlorinated biphenyls), and hazardous waste.

    Commercial vehicle operators

    are required to carry documents that list the contents of their shipment.

    shipping papers

    Commercial vehicle operators are required to carry documents that list the contents of their shipment. These
    documents are commonly referred to as ______ ________and serve as a valuable resource to help first responders identify the materials involved as well as the associated hazards and protective measures if exposures occur.

    Facility documents

    are required by law in many areas and outline the type of hazardous materials stored or
    manufactured on site.

    One example of a facility document is the

    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).

    MSDS are required to be

    displayed in facilities where a hazardous substance is stored, manufactured, or used in the
    workplace. Other facility documents include the employer's Emergency Response Plan.

    The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed

    a standard facility marking system called the
    704 system.

    The diamond-shaped symbol is divided into

    four segments that indicate the following risks:
    โ€ข Blue: Health hazards
    โ€ข Red: Flammability hazards
    โ€ข Yellow: Reactivity
    โ€ข White: other (provides information on any special hazards of the material)

    a number from 0 to 4 indicates the material's relative hazard with

    0 indicating no hazard
    4 indicating the highest hazard.

    Sight and sound are considered

    "low risk" and can help officers identify a hazmat from a safe distance. Officers
    use these senses to pay attention for:
    โ€ข pressure release
    โ€ข smoke and/or fire
    โ€ข liquids, gas leaks, or vapor cloud
    โ€ข condensation on pipelines or containers
    โ€ข chemical reactions
    โ€ข mass casualties

    Smell, touch, and taste are considered

    "high risk" and should never be used to identify a hazardous material.

    Only a properly equipped and trained officer should

    approach any potential hazmat situation, always using
    extreme caution.

    If you cannot approach from upwind, your next choice is

    crosswind.

    The main objectives are
    to isolate the area without

    entering it, keep people away from the scene, and ensure people are upwind and out of low-lying areas.

    Prevent direct contamination by avoiding

    contact with the product and its gases, vapors, or smoke.

    prevent secondary contamination resulting from

    contact with items or people who have not been properly
    decontaminated. Do not allow anyone or anything to leave the area without evaluation for decontamination
    by properly protected qualified personnel.

    The sound decisions that first responders make during the first critical minutes of hazmat incidents greatly

    increase chances of survival.

    Resources that help an officer make sound decisions include the agency's

    ERP and standard operating procedures (SOP), and the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG).

    The guidebook's purpose is to

    aid in the identification of materials, outline basic actions for first responders, recommend areas
    of protective action, and give responders an initial safety plan.

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