CH.8 part 2 :)!!! flashcards |

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  • The sketch should show,

    room by room, the size and relationship of
    entrances, exits, and contents.

    If you leave something out of a sketch, such as a window, a piece of furniture, or a light fixture, be prepared to explain the omission at the

    deposition or trial.

    Additional information to include in the sketch:

    compass direction, relevant items of physical evidence
    along with the location of such items indicated by measurements from at least two fixed points or other
    methods, and a legend of the symbols used to identify objects or points of interest on the sketch.

    Sketches should include the statement

    "not to scale"
    unless you are prepared to testify that every item is precisely drawn to scale on the sketch.

    A sketch that is drawn to scale shows the objects with accurate sizes except

    that they have all been reduced or enlarged by a certain
    amount relative to each other.

    Evidence markers

    help to document the relative positions of evidence items in the crime scene. Place evidence markers next to each piece of evidence within the crime scene after initially photographing the scene and developing your initial sketch.

    (diagrams and sketching) Include the case number, location, date and time, and your name when submitting


    A person can be a crime scene or part of a

    crime scene.

    Visible evidence can include

    bruises, lacerations, broken bones, gunshot wounds, and trace or transfer evidence.

    The person you are photographing has to be a

    suspect, witness, or victim of a crime to support taking a

    A suspect does not have the right to

    refuse photographing injuries such as scratches from the
    victim or blood evidence.

    Apply the same photographic perspectivesโ€”overall, midrange, and close-upโ€”when documenting injuries
    and evidence on

    people!! Use a scale or identifier to document the extent of the injury.

    If you need to take photographs of an injury to any external genital organs, have an officer of the

    same gender as the victim observe and photograph the injuries. It may be prudent to have a witness present
    when photographing these types of injuries.

    (person) Include the case number, location, date and time, and your name when submitting a

    photograph of a person

    Dr. Edmond Locard (1877-1966), a pioneer in forensic science, formulated the fundamental principle of forensic science:

    "Every contact leaves a trace." Referred to as
    Locard's Exchange Principle, this contends that everyone who enters a crime scene will both bring something into and take something from it.

    The job of a crime scene analyst is to

    determine what evidence at the scene belongs to the criminal and not to the victims or witnesses.

    At any crime scene, the victim and the suspect usually

    leave or take away some sort of evidence.

    A few examples of evidence that you may find and collect at a crime scene are

    fingerprints, shoe prints, blood, fibers, hair, tool marks, paint scratches, broken glass,
    bodily fluids, controlled substances, electronics equipment and computers, firearms,
    broken or damaged materials, tire tracks, documents, and bones.

    personal protective equipment


    Never handle evidence with your

    bare hands.

    PPE will protect the

    evidence from contamination and you from exposure to dangerous substances.

    To avoid contamination,

    change gloves between
    collecting each piece of evidence collected for DNA analysis.

    wet evidence, such as items soaked with bodily fluids or living plant material, must either be

    air-dried, packaged in breathable containers such as paper bags, or both.

    If packaged improperly, wet items will

    deteriorate to a point where they have no evidentiary value.

    Place evidence collected for DNA analysis
    in its own,

    separate container.

    Use one or more of the following search patterns: (5)

    strip/line search pattern: grid search pattern: pie/wheel search pattern: spiral search pattern: zone/quadrant search pattern:

    โ€ข strip/line search pattern:

    usually used outside by several people. Divide the
    search area into lanes. Have one or more people search each lane by moving in both directions, examining all areas.

    โ€ข grid search pattern:

    often used indoors; a variation of the strip/line search
    pattern. Searchers overlap a series of lanes in a cross pattern, making the search
    more methodical and thorough

    โ€ข pie/wheel search pattern:

    entails dividing the area into a number of wedge-shaped
    sections, which are usually searched using the strip/line search pattern. Use this method for extremely large search areas.

    โ€ข spiral search pattern:

    usually used outside by one person. The searcher begins
    at a certain point and walks in increasingly larger circles to the outermost boundary of the search area.

    โ€ข zone/quadrant search pattern:

    used for vehicle searches, outdoors, or a large
    area. Divide the area into four different sections and search each using one of the patterns above.


    is the process of microscopically analyzing trace evidence, such as paint, glass, and cloth fibers, to determine a possible source or origin. Microanalysis can
    identify and compare other materials such as textile fibers, plastics, duct tape, lamp filaments, and fractured, torn, or cut items.

    Sometimes fibers transfer between the

    clothes of the victim and the assailant.

    Fibers can come from

    clothing, carpet, rope, automobile carpeting, upholstery, or other common articles.

    The relation that fiber evidence has to the victim, suspect, or the crime scene is crucial

    evidence in many cases.

    Broken windows, torn screens, or other sharp
    edges may

    snag fibers during a subject's entry into or exit from a building.

    When the inside of a vehicle is part of a crime scene, examine the

    seat belts, airbag, steering wheel, and other components for fibers.

    Holding a flashlight to create side light and using a
    magnifying glass may help you

    spot fiber evidence.

    Comparing and matching fragments from a broken piece of glass can establish a

    common origin and a relationship between the victim, the suspect, and the crime scene.

    The crime laboratory can analyze the glass pieces and compare characteristics, such as

    color, density, thickness, and type of glass (tempered window, non-tempered, headlight, and bottle) to match and identify its origin.

    if a suspect or victim is near a piece of glass when it breaks, glass fragments may

    contaminate the person's body, shoes,
    and clothing.

    The direction of force or the order in which glass is broken can determine on which

    side of the glass the suspect stood, thus establishing the suspect's entry or exit path.

    Paint transfer can provide

    provide useful evidence in solving crimes such as a hit-and-run crash.

    Tools used to gain illegal entry into buildings and safes can leave

    paint residue

    Sometimes, soil from a crime scene attaches to a suspect's or victim's clothing, shoes, tires, or other objects, and the person transports it to

    another location.

    Trace Evidence

    hairs,fibers, clothing,paint chips,
    transfer evidence, glass, wood, soil, dirt

    and Touch

    blood, semen, saliva, bones, teeth, body tissues, hair, DNA,
    Touch DNA


    fingerprints,tire tracks, footwear
    impressions,footprints, bite marks, tool marks


    weapons, projectiles, gunshot
    residue, cartridge
    cases, tool marks, database


    computers,cell phones, PDA, thumb drives, external hard
    drives, CDs, DVDs,VHS tapes, digital cameras, answering
    machines,digital recording devices

    Chemistry or

    blood alcohol
    levels, drugs,
    poisons, etc


    checks, bank statements, address books, wire transfers, credit cards, phone bills, photographs
    or cameras, photo copies

    trace evidence

    materials that could be transferred during the commission of a violent crime. These trace materials include human hair, animal hair, textile fibers and fabric, rope, feathers, soil, glass, and building materials.

    Biological evidence left at crime scenes may contain


    DNA evidence

    blood, saliva, urine, semen, perspiration, vaginal
    secretions, feces, or vomit

    blood, saliva, urine, semen, perspiration, vaginal
    secretions, feces, or vomit, You may find this evidence at a:

    murder, aggravated battery, sexual assault, hit-andrun,
    and burglary scenes.

    Crime laboratory experts in serology can identify these

    body fluids and, if needed, conduct further
    testing using DNA analysis.

    Sexual assault cases may require an examination of

    semen evidence.

    Other pieces of evidence that may contain saliva, and require examination, are

    cigarette butts, drinking straws, soda and beer
    cans, masks, bottles, etc. Bite marks may also contain saliva.

    Experts can analyze the direction of blood spray or
    spatter to determine the type of

    weapon, the direction of the attack, and the relative size of the attacker.

    Working edges of tools leave

    distinct marks on surfaces.

    Never try to fit a suspect's tool

    into a mark

    You may need to collect the entire

    damaged surface and submit it to the laboratory for comparison with the suspect's

    Comparing the fracture sites of two or more parts of a broken, torn, or cut object and determining
    whether they were once whole can provide

    strong evidence in court.

    Do not attempt to reconstruct the items
    or process latent prints from the pieces before

    submitting them.

    Surface footwear impressions or tire prints can remain on

    wood, tile, paper, or paint, or in dust,
    blood, or grease

    Teeth can provide

    dental evidence in the form of bite mark impressions that can lead to the identity of the

    Photograph bite marks

    as soon as possible.

    There is a high likelihood of saliva being present in

    bite marks


    Patent prints, plastic print, Latent prints,

    Patent prints

    are transferred from the friction ridges on fingers by a FOREIGN SUBSTANCE (not a body residue), like blood, paint, or dirt, and are
    readily visible.

    plastic print

    is a MOLDED or IMBEDDED fingerprint created by touching an impressionable surface, such as wet paint or mud that you can easily see.

    Latent prints

    are among the most valuable types of physical evidence and one of the most common types
    of evidence you will recover at a crime scene. Although generally invisible to the naked eye, latent prints result
    from body residues left behind when the friction ridges of the hands or feet make contact with a surface.

    When collecting evidence, wear

    gloves to prevent leaving your own latent prints. Take care to avoid smudging or smearing existing latent prints when handling and packaging evidence.

    The most common way to process latent fingerprints is by

    dusting them with one of several types of powder, which
    develops the print and makes it visible. Use a fine brush to apply dust to the surface on which someone placed a
    print. Lift a found print from its original surface with clear or frosted tape, then attach it to a small note card.

    Follow these guidelines when dusting for and lifting latent prints:

    1. Wear gloves to avoid contaminating the area with your own fingerprints. Be careful not to wipe possible
    prints off the surface.
    2. Hold a flashlight at an angle, and look for obvious signs of a latent print.
    3. Take your brush and lightly dab into the powder once you find a target area.
    4. Tap and twirl the excess powder off the brush in the jar of powder. Use it sparingly because it tends to
    get on everything. It is better to use too little than too much.
    5. Lightly brush from side to side, or swirl the brush, on the target area. If the powder adhered to the print
    is too thick, brush off the excess powder with a clean brush and adjust the amount of powder.
    6. When you find a print, apply the tape in the following manner:
    a. Place a suitable fingerprint card on a flat surface nearby so that it is ready for the print you lift with
    the tape.
    b. Turn under the end of the lifting tape to form a tab.
    c. Extend the tape to a distance long enough to cover the print.
    d. Place the rolled end of the tape just above the latent print, but keep it off the print.
    e. Make sure that you do not trap foreign matter or air bubbles under the tape.
    f. Smooth from the tabbed end of the tape back toward the rolled end or vice versa. Use your finger,
    pen, or another object to smooth out the tape and release any trapped air. It is the same basic
    process as putting a decal on a window. With time and practice, you will develop your own
    technique for applying the tape.
    7. Slowly lift the tape containing the developed prints from both ends, being careful not to touch the tape
    to another surface, such as your gloves.
    8. Carefully place the tape on the fingerprint card in the same way that you placed the tape over the latent
    print. Place the print in the designated place on the correct side of the card.
    9. On the back of the fingerprint print card, record the date, case number, the location within the crime
    scene where you retrieved the fingerprint and any other information your agency's policies and
    procedures require. Be careful not to damage the print.
    10. Follow your agency policies and procedures to submit print evidence.

    Lifting a print is often a

    "one shot" opportunity and should be treated as such.

    Elimination prints

    allow fingerprint analysts to distinguish between prints belonging to either the victims
    and witnesses or the possible suspects. To make this distinction, take inked fingerprints from innocent parties,
    who may have been at the crime scene, in order to eliminate their prints from the scene.

    Always properly secure the


    Clear all bullets from the

    chamber or cylinder

    Dislodge the magazine and

    any ammunition.

    Place the weapon in a firearm or

    evidence box;

    put the magazine and the
    ammunition in a

    separate container, then place them both in the firearm or evidence box.

    Before placing the firearm in the box,

    carefully examine it to identify the manufacturer, country of origin, serial number, model number, and caliber.

    Use the identifying marks on the firearm to conduct an

    NCIC/FCIC database check on the firearm.

    This will tell you if the firearm is lost, stolen, or found?

    running the firearm serial number through FCIC/NCIC database

    Conduct an eTrace database search through the

    Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) to determine the original owner of the firearm or the firearms dealer.

    If a wooden object or other material contains an embedded bullet, do not

    attempt to remove it.

    The firearms section of a laboratory

    firearms for function and safety.

    Analysts can examine fired bullets

    cartridge cases, and shotgun shells to determine if the suspect's weapon fired them. They examine bullets recovered from a crime scene to identify the make and type of weapon involved. An analyst may also examine the crime scene for the presence of gunpowder and shot pellet spread to determine firing distance. Analysts can identify tool marks, aftermarket modifications, and serial number restoration

    Electronic Evidence


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