Ammunition Terms flashcards |

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  • Case / Casing

    the metal or plastic container that holds all parts of a round of ammunition: primer, powder charge, and bullet

    Rim

    the edge on the base of a cartridge case that stops the progress of the case
    into the chamber

    Crimp

    the part of the case mouth that bends inward to grip the bullet; with shotgun shells, the term applies to the closure at the case mouth.

    Headstamp

    markings found on the head of ammunition that indicate caliber or gauge and identify manufacturer

    Shot

    spherical pellets of various sizes, usually made of lead

    Primer

    small, metal cup containing the detonating mixture used to ignite the
    propellant or powder charge

    Powder

    propellant used in most firearms; produces a large volume of gas
    when ignited

    Wad

    the only part not found in any other centerfire cartridge; this is used to seal/confine gases; can be made of plastic or compressed cardboard

    Bullet

    portion of the cartridge that becomes a projectile when in flight

    Round

    complete ammunition cartridge that contains all parts of ammunition; a military term meaning one single cartridge

    Caliber

    a measurement used to identify different cartridge (projectile) sizes. It is determined by measuring the diameter of the bore of the firearm

    Gauge

    a measurement of shotgun bores derived from the number of bore-sized balls of lead per pound

    Round Nose

    the nose of the bullet is round

    Hollow Point

    there is a hole in the bullet that creates expansion when a target is struck, creating more damage

    Blank Round

    a round designed for training or noise; the casing's cardboard material becomes a
    projectile when fired; the projectile cannot penetrate
    drywall or hollow core doors.

    Lead Round Nose

    cartridge design that features a solid lead bullet with a round nose; this bullet has a
    medium velocity. By design, it easily penetrates interior walls or hollow core doors and then ricochets.

    Jacketed Soft Point

    one-half to three-quarters of this lead bullet is jacketed with copper; the exposed
    lead on the flat nose allows for expansion upon impact. Usually of high velocity, this bullet is designed
    for antipersonnel. The round easily penetrates interior walls and solid doors.

    Hollow Point

    lead or copper-jacketed lead with a hollow cavity in the bullet's nose; as the bullet expands
    upon impact, it expends its kinetic energy. Since a ___ expands quickly, it does not penetrate
    as deeply as a round-nose bullet. This design reduces ricochet. Usually of high velocity, it delivers
    maximum shock upon striking a surface of soft tissue.

    Full Metal Jacket

    a round-nose lead bullet completely covered with a copper jacket; sometimes called ball ammunition, it is normally of medium to high velocity. Used extensively by the military, it has low
    expansion and high penetration capabilities. The chance for ricochet is high.

    Frangible

    normally made of brass or copper dust held together with a resin material that disintegrates
    upon impact with steel or concrete; it can penetrate hollow core doors, drywall, or thin wood material

    Armor Piercing

    made of solid carbon or tungsten steel coated with bright green Teflon; it has a
    considerably sharper point than most manufactured rounds. The round can pierce protective body
    armor or steel. In Florida, its use or possession is illegal for anyone but law enforcement.

    Tracer

    full metal-jacketed bullet with incendiary material in the casing of its base; when fired, the round can be visually tracked by the burning material. The bullet tip is normally painted red or orange. Having the same velocity as a full metal-jacketed bullet, it is most often used by the military in fully automatic weapons.

    Birdshot

    normally used for bird hunting or practice; this shell has a load of small diameter lead or steel shot
    pellets. When fired at close range, these pellets can be dangerous and cause injury.

    OO Buckshot

    The standard 2 3/4-inch shell contains nine .33 caliber lead pellets. The spread pattern from a 20-inch barrel is
    approximately one-inch spread per yard

    Rifled Slug

    a single, hollow lead bullet that weighs from 7/8 to 1 1/8 ounce.

    Scrape

    indentation in the case that may weaken the case wall; a ___ makes a layer of the case wall metal look as if it has been scratched or torn away

    Dent

    dimple or depression in the case; the case looks like someone struck it with a hard object, crushing part of it inward

    Corrosion

    layering of the case with oxidation or foreign material, such as mold, fungi layers, congealed oil, and lubricants

    Puncture

    actual tear, detachment, or rip that looks like an opening in the case body

    Duty Life

    the recommended time (normally expressed in months) for which you can expect ammunition
    to be reliable when used on duty.

    Shelf Life

    the recommended time (normally expressed in years) for which you can expect ammunition to
    be reliable from manufacture time to issue time.

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