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  • complainant

    someone who reports a crime or alleges that a crime has been committed

    confidential informant

    someone who provides information in confidence about a crime, either from a sense of civic duty or in the expectation of some personal benefit or advantage, and whose identity is normally not disclosed until required by law.

    mirroring

    act as if you are looking into a mirror, seeing the interviewee as a reflection of yourself.

    minimal encouragers

    are brief statements which indicate that the officer hears what the interviewee is saying and is inclined to hear more. Examples include "Okay," and "Go on," and "Then what?"

    affirmation

    is a solemn and formal declaration or assertion made in place of an oath.

    oath

    is a vow or a pledge to tell the truth regarding an incident or occurrence.

    statement

    is a permanent, verbal, or written record of a person's account of an incident or occurrence that may or may not be made under oath or affirmation.

    sworn statement

    is written or oral facts that are stated under oath or penalty of perjury.

    report

    is a written document which gives information about an event, situation, occurrence, or incident.

    homophone

    are words that are easily confused in use and spelling.

    sentence

    is a group of words that contains a subject (a noun), a verb (action), and an object (affected or receives action) and that expresses a complete thought.

    sentence fragment

    is a group of words that lacks a subject, verb, or object or fails to express a complete thought.

    narrative

    is defined as paragraphs containing specific details, pertinent information, and the elements of an incident.

    jargon

    is the technical vocabulary of a profession which has meaning specific to the people who work in the particular field or profession.

    prose

    (writing in a normal continuous form, e.g., as used in this textbook) format, detailing a chronological sequence of events

    slang

    consists of informal, nonstandard words often characterized by regional or specific group usage.

    Written statements and recorded electronic evidence

    will receive equal treatment to field notes as sources of information.

    The __________ of an incident is a legal requirement regarding the statute of limitation and right to a speedy trial.

    when

    Notes

    help officers remember facts about a particular call for service.

    The motive for an incident

    may be a mystery during the initial investigation and may never be discovered.

    Officers must record facts

    immediately as they become available.

    The __________ of an incident represents everyone who may have information about what happened.

    who

    How do notes (taken during an interview) help?

    complete the final investigative report

    other officers to acclimate themselves to the case later on

    officers remember facts

    prepare for deposition or trial

    How do field notes help when writing reports?

    hold up as evidence in court (in some cases)

    officers recall the events of the incident

    document information for further or follow-up investigation

    do case preparations

    The time of an incident

    can be critically important to checking alibis given by suspects.

    When taking field notes,

    it is important to note unique physical attributes that might later help identify a person, such as scars, body piercing, or tattoos.

    Notes help officers remember a person's exact statement; however, it's better to rely on memory alone.

    False

    The __________ of an incident is a legal requirement which provides jurisdiction and is generally one of the first pieces of information an officer will obtain.

    location

    When taking field notes,

    any additional information about a person such as height, weight, type of clothing, hair color and length, and unique mannerisms or speech patterns should be included.

    Additional ways to take notes

    may include written statements and recorded electronic evidence.

    An officer should not

    jump to conclusions about motive or intent based on the first or loudest witness.

    An officer's interview field notes will contain facts about what?

    evidence that might aid in future investigations

    information gathered from investigators

    specific events

    It is best

    to begin taking notes early in the interview and investigation.

    reason for an incident is sometimes called the motive or the __________.

    why

    __________: specifies how an incident occurred. This should include what was used to commit the offense.

    How

    Taking notes during an interview

    is necessary and must be done with great care.

    These are the basic facts that field notes should include.

    Where did the incident take place? When did the incident take place? Who was involved? What happened? How did it happen? Why did it happen? Actions taken by the officer-

    _________ are normally the primary source documents that an officer will use when writing reports.

    Field notes

    __________: is the information regarding the nature of an incident.

    What

    When taking notes,

    it is important to include facts about the interviewee such as name, address, date of birth and other basic facts, because these questions help the interviewee get used to answering questions while the officer writes.

    All interviews with children,

    whether they are considered victims or suspects, should be documented.

    commonly accepted abbreviation

    date of birth /DOB
    Black/ B
    suspect /S
    phone / ph
    female / F
    victim / V
    afternoon or evening / p.m
    turned over to / tot
    Asian / A
    hour / hr
    year / yr
    time of day/ tod
    years of age / yoa
    also known as/ aka
    White/ W
    male/ M
    mile/ mi
    month/ mo
    minute/ min
    mile/ mi
    morning/ a.m
    no middle initial/
    witness / W

    A(n) __________ is a noncustodial meeting where information is obtained from a person.

    interview

    While interviewing a juvenile, what does the officer need to consider about the interviewee (to understand the nature of the interview)?

    experience

    intellect

    age

    background

    education

    What should an interviewer do?

    obtain all pertinent information relating to the incident

    determine whether to administer Miranda warnings or an oath or affirmation

    follow agency interview policies and procedures

    compare collected information with other case information

    The longer you delay writing down what you see or hear,

    the greater the chances are that you will not accurately recall some of the information.

    While interviewing a juvenile,

    the officer should document the method of communication applied.

    An officer's field notes

    should contain information regarding the actions taken during the investigation.

    Officers should take notes

    all throughout the information collection process.

    Before asking the first question in an interview,

    officers must take certain steps to ensure that the interview will be successful.

    When writing a report, __________ information may result in the wrong person being arrested or in an acquittal of a guilty person.

    inaccurate

    An officer's field notes should

    include information about possible motives or evidence of intent.

    The goal of an interview is

    to obtain a truthful statement, admission, or confession.

    A custodial meeting, where information is obtained from a person, is referred to as a(n) __________.

    interrogation

    Agency and local court policies

    can limit the number of times a child can be interviewed. (3 times)

    While interviewing a juvenile, the officer should

    ensure that the person understands whether the interview is custodial or non-custodial.

    if you are uncertain of the proper spelling of a witness's name (when writing a report),

    ask the witness to spell it. If a witness is not sure of the spelling of another subject's information, write the word phonetically and try to find the correct spelling later.

    Proof of criminal intent

    is essential in obtaining a conviction.

    What does the pre-interview process include?

    where to interview

    the order of interviews

    determining whom to interview and when to interview them

    what information to obtain

    how to record the interviews

    Writing notes while interviewing a witness may cause an officer to not hear some of the witness's statement. A good technique is to listen and ask the witness to pause so that you can write down the information. This __________ method will permit you to hear and record information accurately from witnesses.

    alternating

    The purpose of an interview is

    to collect facts and establish what occurred during an incident.

    In preparing for an interview, an officer should check what information for the interviewee?

    name through FCIC/NCIC

    if the individual is a wanted person

    background information

    Identify the important people to interview regarding an incident.

    victim(s)

    witnesses

    suspect(s)

    confidential informant

    complainant

    An officer can handle a(n) __________ interviewee by establishing rapport, confirming the interviewee's observations and statements, asking direct questions, and not confusing or frustrating the interviewee.

    cooperative

    An officer can handle a(n) __________ interviewee by establishing the purpose of the interview, being patient, and asking closed-ended questions to redirect the interviewee back to the subject of the interview.

    talkative

    While interviewing a juvenile, the officer should

    document how the person consented to the interview.

    During an interview, officers should avoid asking questions, such as, "And then she hit you with the bat, right?" This is an example of a(n) __________ question, which is framed to evoke a specific response from the interviewee.

    leading

    An officer can handle a(n) __________ interviewee by considering the safety of all concerned, by giving Miranda warnings (when applicable), by not stereotyping, pre-judging, ridiculing, or bullying the interviewee, and by being honest and straightforward.

    suspect

    If the opportunity to speak with a witness at the scene is not available,

    the officer should schedule a post-scene interview with the witness.

    Officers can decide which people to interview at the scene of an incident

    by asking people around the scene some general questions and seeking information from anyone who knows something about the incident.

    How can an officer handle a hostile interviewee?

    Maintain a neutral demeanor.

    Establish control of the interview.

    Try to reduce the interviewee's stress and anxiety.

    Do not argue with the interviewee.

    Ask direct questions.

    Follow safety precautions, including checking for a weapon.

    Generally, the people that should be interviewed belong to one or more of __________ categories.

    five

    When identifying potential interviewees, you

    should determine the extent of each interviewee's knowledge about involvement in the incident.

    The proper __________ to interview will depend on various factors, including the physical and emotional state or condition of the interviewee.

    time

    A(n) __________ is someone who reports a crime or alleges that a crime has been committed.

    complainant

    While interviewing a juvenile, the officer should note

    whether the person understood the Miranda warning (when consenting to the interview) and what it means to waive one's rights.

    An officer can handle interviewees __________ involved with the incident by listening carefully to the interviewee, being polite, patient, and understanding, and encouraging the interviewee to disclose information.

    not directly

    Answers to general, open-ended questions, such as-"Can you describe what happened?"-can help identify potential

    interviewees

    An officer can handle a(n) __________ interviewee by establishing control of the interview and keeping his or her composure.

    uncooperative

    An officer can handle a(n) __________ interviewee by establishing rapport, stating the purpose of the interview, and speaking in a subdued tone of voice.

    reluctant

    During an interview, the officer should ask questions aimed at establishing the _________.

    elements of a crime

    An officer can handle a __________ interviewee by evaluating whether the interviewee is physically and mentally able to participate in the interview. Also, the officer can build rapport, be aware of the interviewee's verbal and nonverbal cues, prompt the interviewee with primary and follow-up questions, and maintaining a relaxed and calm interview environment.

    victim

    Interviews should be conducted __________ or shortly after a crime in order to obtain the most accurate and helpful information.

    immediately

    If a particular person is not interviewed, the officer.

    must explain reasons for not doing so in a report

    A(n) __________ is someone who provides information in confidence about a crime, either from a sense of civic duty or in the expectation of some personal benefit or advantage, and whose identity is normally not disclosed until required by law.

    confidential informant

    Interviewing __________ people with knowledge of the incident is important.

    all

    Examples of open-ended questions include-__________ : __________ did you call for help? __________ did the incident happen?

    Why

    Examples of open-ended questions include-__________ : __________ did he throw the knife? __________ did the incident occur? An officer should use the answer provided to establish the jurisdiction where the incident occurred.

    Where

    Officers are allowed

    to be deceptive to a point during an interview.

    The __________ should ask evenly spaced, nonthreatening, open-ended questions about the crime. These questions usually require more than "yes" or "no" answers.

    interviewer

    During the ___________ stage, the officer establishes rapport and builds understanding with the interviewee.

    warm-up

    An interviewee is likely

    to answer open-ended questions with more detail.

    Prior to recording the interview,

    the officer should ensure that all recording equipment functions properly.

    Creating physical evidence for use during an interview

    is an example of officers' limitations.

    The initial stage of the interviewing process is the __________.

    warm-up

    The attitudes of potential witnesses

    will help the officer decide the order in which to conduct the interviews.

    Officers have limitations of

    promising leniency during an interview.

    Officers have limitations on

    making threats during an interview.

    Closed-ended questions

    do not encourage conversation and require the interviewees to think, reflect, and provide their opinions and feelings.

    Examples of open-ended questions include-__________ : __________ happened? __________ did you see? __________ were the circumstances? __________ offense was committed?

    What

    Whatever interview location the officer chooses, it should be safe, out of the weather, and as __________ as much as possible from other witnesses, victims, and suspects.

    far removed

    Interviews may be conducted

    at the scene of the incident or in the officer's patrol vehicle.

    Factors that influence the success of an interview include what?

    having privacy, which helps build rapport and gains trust

    the location of the interview

    an atmosphere that will encourage honesty and forthrightness from the interviewee

    isolating the interviewee, which prevents outside influences

    a good physical and emotional comfort level

    During the __________ stage, begin by explaining the purpose of the interview and describe why the information is important and how it will be collected and used.

    warm-up

    Examples of open-ended questions include-__________ : __________ can I help you? __________ did the incident happen?

    How

    Examples of open-ended questions include-__________ : __________ did you realize something was happening? __________, in terms of date and time, did the incident occur?

    When

    Examples of open-ended questions include-__________ : __________ were you with? __________ was involved? __________ do you think did it? __________ is the victim?

    Who

    Generally, the __________ or victim is the first person to be interviewed, but officer safety and scene security factors may dictate otherwise.

    complainant

    When conducting interviews,

    officer safety is of paramount importance.

    There are limitations on

    what an officer may say or do during an interview.

    Creating physical evidence for use during an interview

    is an example of officers' limitations.

    During the __________ stage, the officer should verify contact information from the interviewee in case additional questions come up in the future, and then summarize all information collected for the report.

    closing

    __________ are brief statements which indicate that the officer hears what the interviewee is saying and is inclined to hear more. Examples include "Okay", and "Go on", and "Then what?"

    Minimal encouragers

    Statements may include

    sworn, unsworn, and confession statements.

    When using the __________ technique, ask interviewees questions related to who, what, where, when, why, and how.

    cognitive interviewing

    Once you understand an interviewee's normal behavior,

    you should transition to asking questions related to the incident, continuing to observe any changes in the interviewee in correlation to specific questions asked.

    For the __________ technique, ask the interviewee to think back to the original event, to recall the physical surroundings (time of day, workspace, etc.), as well as the emotional situation (rushed, bored, and so on).

    minimal encouragers

    When using the __________ technique, you repeat what the interviewee says but rephrase responses as questions and statements that help clarify information or elicit a more detailed response.

    mirroring

    During the __________ stage, the officer obtains information about the incident from the interviewee.

    primary

    __________ questions elicit only "yes" or "no" answers.

    Closed-ended

    __________ involves asking questions designed to reveal cognitive memory through the five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.

    Cognitive interviewing

    When conducting an interview, begin by

    engaging interviewees in friendly conversation and asking non-threatening questions to establish how the interviewee normally behaves and physiologically functions.

    A(n) __________ is a permanent, verbal, or written record of a person's account of an incident or occurrence that may or may not be made under oath or affirmation.

    statement

    Most jurisdictions require

    that a statement be sworn.

    During the primary interview stage, the officer will ask a variety of __________ questions designed to collect as much information as possible.

    open-ended

    To evaluate the effectiveness of their interviewing skills,

    officers can compare the results of an interview with the case paperwork and other completed interviews from the case.

    While truthful interviewees may display behavioral or physiological indications of deception,

    these indicators will likely appear to be consistent with questions related to the incident.

    A(n) __________ statement is written or oral facts that are stated under oath or penalty of perjury.

    sworn

    The __________ stage concludes the interview, and the officer should express an appreciation to the interviewee for his or her time.

    closing

    __________ may be taken from anyone-witnesses, suspects, and victims-who has information about any crime, incident, or occurrence.

    Statements

    If the who, what, when, where, why and how of the incident can be answered by the interview,

    then most likely, the interview provided valuable results.

    During the primary stage, __________ questions are used to get specific answers or help the interviewee refocus.

    closed-ended

    Determining if the information from the interview is suitable for submission to court

    is a method an officer can use to evaluate his or her interviewing skills.

    __________ is a technique in which the interviewer acts as if he or she is looking into the mirror, seeing the interviewee as a reflection of him- or herself.

    Mirroring

    During the primary stage, answers to __________ questions help an officer assess how the interviewee handled a similar situation in the past.

    past performance

    If an interviewee is unable to sign the statement,

    the officer should write the reason the person was unable to sign the statement.

    Individuals cannot be forced to provide statements;

    however, they can be subpoenaed and be required to appear in court.

    When taking statements in languages other than English,

    a certified translator is needed.

    If a person gives a written statement but refuses to sign it, the officer should note"_________".

    refused to sign

    Information contained in witness statements can be used for what purposes?

    may be admissible in court

    file an affidavit

    obtain a warrant

    establish probable cause

    complete a report

    In some situations, an interviewee

    may be injured, sick or incapacitated and unable to sign the statement.

    Information contained in witness statements .

    may be admissible in court and could help solve a crime or identify additional suspects or witnesses who have information about the crime, incident, or occurrence

    A witnessing __________ should notarize the written statement (in a situation when the officer writes the interviewee's statement).

    officer

    If an interviewee does not read or write, or for any other acceptable limitation,

    the officer may write the statement for the interviewee.

    When taking statements in languages other than English,

    it is necessary to be familiar with agency policy regarding the use of translators.

    If a person refuses to give a statement,

    this should be indicated in the officer's notes.

    When writing a statement, individuals should describe, to the best of their recollection, what was involved in the incident.

    every weapon

    all property

    every event

    every vehicle

    every person

    In a situation when you write the interviewee's statement,

    the person providing the statement should read the oath printed on the statement form and sign his or her name to indicate that the information contained is correct and factual.

    At the beginning and the end of a written statement (that the officer writes for the interviewee),

    the officer annotes the phrase: "Dictated by __________ and written by Officer __________ ".

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