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  1. Reliability
  2. ISO 9001:2008
  3. ISO 14000—International Environmental Standard
  4. Line flow
  5. Engineer to Order (ETO) START here
  6. Conformance
  7. Quality level
  8. ISO 9000:2005
  9. Total Cost of Manufacturing (TCM) (aka Total Delivered Cost) includes:
  10. Brand power
  11. Aesthetics
  12. Job shop
  13. Product/Process Characteristics:
  14. Volume
  15. Market Characteristics:
  16. Design for Logistics Interface
  17. Assemble to Order (ATO)
  18. Perceived Quality
  19. Continuious flow
  20. Batch
  21. Logistical Interfaces
  22. Four approaches to achieve this are:
  23. Materials Requirements Planning (MRP) Interfaces
  24. Design for Manufacture
  25. TQM's basic conceptual elements are:
  26. Standards in the ISO 14000 series are:
  27. Six sigma concepts
  28. Make to Order (MTO
  29. Durability
  30. Primary Objectives of Lean Systems
  31. Lead time
  32. Make to Stock (MTS)
  33. Performance
  34. TCM
  35. Just-in-time (JIT) Interfaces
  36. Mass Customization
  37. Lean Systems
  38. Serviceability
  39. Manufacturing terms
  40. What ISO provides
  41. Features
  42. The Elements of Lean Production - The Seven Wastes
  43. Management Standards have been Established by the ISO in both Quality and Environment
  44. Total Quality Management (TQM)
  45. ISO Certified Suppliers are Frequently Preferred by Procurement Departments
  46. What do the following stakeholders want/expect from manufacturing?
  47. The Elements of Lean Production
  48. ISO 9004:2009 -
  49. Variety
  50. ISO 19011:2011 -
  1. a Modular or adjustable product building blocks
    Predictable components/functions interactions
    Standardized process/skill building blocks
    Reasonable lead times, steps, work content
  2. b -Lean is a philosophy that is focused on the customer
    -Defining principle is the elimination of "waste". Waste is anything that does not add value for the customer
    -Lean emphasizes the minimization of the amount of all resources (including time) used in the operation of a company
  3. c 1.)Produce only the products that customers want
    2.)Produce products only as quickly as customers want them
    3.)Produce products with perfect quality
    4.)Produce in the minimum possible lead times
    5.)Produce products with features that customers want and no others

    6.)Produce with no waste of labor, materials or equipment; designate a purpose for every movement to leave zero idle inventory.
    7.)Produce with methods that reinforce the occupational development of workers
  4. d Top Management commitment and support
    Maintaining a customer focus in product, service and process performance
    Integrated operations within and between organizations
    A commitment to continuous improvement
  5. e - sets out the requirements of a quality management system.
    This standard is being replaced with ISO 9001:2015 The final updated version is expected by the end of 2015.
  6. f -The International Organization for Standards (ISO) was formed after World War II
    -The ISO 9000—International Quality Standard (first published in 1987) is a family of various aspects of quality management and contains some of ISO's best known standards.
    -The standards provide guidance and tools for companies and organizations who want to ensure that their products and services consistently meet customer's requirements, and that quality is consistently improved.
  7. g Product variety: High
    Volume: low
    Strategy: ETO/MTO/ATO
    Lead time: Long
  8. h is traditionally treated according to the principle of economy of scale

    -Average cost to produce product declines as manufacturing volume increases
    -Particularly important when high fixed costs are present
  9. i -Design-for-assembly - focuses on minimizing the number of parts and on easing assembly processes.

    -Design-for-product-serviceability - focuses on easing the disassembly and reuse of product components.

    -Design-for-six-sigma - systematically evaluates the consistency with which a good or service can be produced or delivered given the capabilities of the processes used.
  10. j is the measure of elapsed time between release of a work order to the shop floor and completion of all work on the product to achieve ready-to-ship status
  11. k Individually customized products being produced at the low cost of standardized, mass produced goods.
    Increase variety for customer while realizing the cost advantages of high volume continuous and line flow processes
    "On-Demand", "To Order", "Postponement", "Agile Mfg"
  12. l Purchased materials and components arrive at the manufacturing or assembly point just at the time they are required for the transformation process
    Raw material and work in process inventories are minimized
    Demand for materials depends on the finalized production schedule
    Close cooperation with suppliers is essential!
    Lot sizes are as low as one unit
  13. m Just-in-Time (JIT)
    Materials Requirements Planning (MRP)
    Design for Manufacture (DFM)
    Design for Logistics (DFL)
  14. n is the measure of customer preference based on reputation, product quality and supply chain capabilities
  15. o features economies of scale, large volumes, long production runs, low variety, and distribution channels
    Note: The textbook refers to this as Make to Plan (MTP)
  16. p -TCM generally expressed as cost per unit
    -Procurement and production costs go down as volume goes up (generally-step function applies as more capital is required to produce)
    -Inventory and warehousing costs go up as volume goes up
    -Transportation costs go down as volume goes up, but level off at high volumes
  17. q Is the styling, color, workmanship pleasing to the customer
  18. r focuses on how to make a quality management system more efficient and effective
  19. s -Constraints interact with volume and variety to create realistic manufacturing plans
    -Capacity is how much can you produce in a given unit of time
    -Equipment considers how flexible it is
    -Is one particular piece a bottleneck?
    -Setup/Changeover considers how quickly can you
    change from one variety of product to another
  20. t - covers the basic concepts and language
  21. u is used when products are unique and extensively customized for the specific needs of individual customers
  22. v Procurement and production activities
    Inventory and warehousing activities
    Transportation activitie
  23. w ISO 14001 - Specification of Environmental Management Systems
    ISO 14004 - Guideline Standard
    ISO 14010 through ISO 14015 - Environmental Auditing and Related Activities
    ISO 14020 through ISO 14024 - Environmental Labeling
    ISO 14031 through ISO 14032 - Environmental Performance Evaluation
    ISO 14040 through ISO 14043 - Life Cycle Assessment
    ISO 14050 - Terms and Definition
  24. x Product variety: Very limited
    Volume: Very high
    Strategy: MTS (MTP)
    Lead time: Very short
  25. y ) relies on relatively small quantities, but more complexity
    Requires much interaction with customer to work out design and specification
    Usually shipped direct to customer
    Can utilize postponement
  26. z Resources must be procured, positioned, and coordinated as needed to support the manufacturing strategy selected
  27. aa What is the ease of fixing or repairing the product if it fails
  28. ab -Six sigma approach is to identify sources of variability and then systematically reduce them. Get to the "root cause"

    -The six sigma goal is to achieve a process standard deviation that is six times smaller than the range of outputs allowed by the product's design specification

    -DMAIC methodology is a systematic approach to eliminating defects and keeping the process in control
  29. ac Sales & Marketing
  30. ad Sufficiently large customer segment that values "translatable variety"
    Turbulent, dynamic market
    Unpredictable demand - but not entirely unpredictable!
    Little impact of regulation or other constraints (designer drugs?
  31. ae Based on customer's experience before, during and after they purchase a product
  32. af is a philosophy focused on meeting customer expectations with respect to all needs, across all company functions, and recognizing all customers, both internal and external
    It is a total, organization-wide activity versus a technical task
  33. ag is when base components are made, stocked to forecast, but products are not assembled until customer order is received
    Manufacturing postponement practiced here
  34. ah Overproducing
    Waiting - Excess idle machine & operator & inventory wait time
    Over-processing - Non-value adding manufacturing & other activities
    Excess Inventory
    Excess Movement
    Scrap & Rework
  35. ai How well the product performs in comparison to how it was designed to perform
  36. aj Three sigma quality level
    Produces defect free product 99.74 percent of the time
    66,807 defects per million parts produced

    Six sigma quality level
    Produces defect free product 99.99966 percent of the time
    3.4 defects per million parts produced
  37. ak -manage the environmental effect of their business practices.
    -manages the environment inside it's facilities and the immediate outside environment
    - analysis of the entire life cycle of a product
    - do not mandate a particular level of pollution
    -does not release a company from any national or local regulations
  38. al -They have to conform to an externally defined set of standards for quality and delivery of service
    -They are usually more open to sharing supply chain information
    -They welcome building relationships with their customers
    -Formal processes in place for continual
    - easier for procurement to initially qualify and
    periodically audit
    -Certification is done by an external register agency
    -Recertified every three years
  39. am Does the product meet its specifications as designed
  40. an involves frequent product runs and high repetition of small lot sizes

    -Processes that can rapidly switch production from one product to another while retaining efficiency are said to have economy of scope
  41. ao Procurement has a key role in insuring all the components are obtained on time to make an end item
    Key information requirement is the bill of materials (BOM)
    Particularly for more complex manufacturing (i.e., MTO, ETO) where large numbers of components or subassemblies are used to produce a final product

    -Planning sometimes spans multiple manufacturing locations
  42. ap Waste Reduction
    Lean Supply Chain Relationships
    Lean Layouts
    Inventory & Setup Time Reduction
    Small Batch Scheduling
    Continuous Improvement
    Workforce Empowerment

    Lean, in particular Value Stream mapping, is a great tool in administrative processes
  43. aq Design for logistics concept incorporates the requirements and framework for logistical support of the product in the early phases of product development

    What we are going to make
    How we are going to make it
    What logistics capabilities do we need
    How we are going to integrate our suppliers into the process
    Any subassembly manufacture by suppliers
    The need for outsourcing of some parts or assemblies
  44. ar -Shows commitment to providing a high level of customer satisfaction

    -Demonstrates the existence of an effective quality management system that satisfies the rigors of an independent, external audit

    -Can boost your organization's brand reputation and be a useful promotional tool, especially when going up against competitors who aren't certified.
  45. as sets out guidance on internal and external audits of quality management systems.
  46. at What different functions or tasks can the product perform
  47. au The actual life expectancy of the product
  48. av Product variety: Limited
    Volume: High
    Strategy: ATO/MTS
    Lead time: Short
  49. aw Likelihood that the product will perform throughout its expected life
  50. ax Product variety: High
    Valume: very low
    Strategy: ETO/MTO
    Lead time: Very long
    Do any JOB that is needed