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Why do we begin in the 18th century?

Themes of the 18th century
- Reason, logic, wisdom (Enlightenment)
- Questioning organised religion
- Appreciation of science

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18th century aesthetic theory and relationships to the past: ideas about history/Looking archeologically/Challenging status quo

- Discovery of Pompeii in 1748: study of the past
- Looking back to nature and antiquities to find out about why are things what they are

'Essay on architecture' 1753, Marc Antoine Laugier (1713 - 1769)

- Laugier: one can ascertain his raison d'รชtre by looking back to the past
- Laugier's paintings: trees and nature/post, lintel, and columns
- Trees symbolise logical growth and structure
- Like Nรฎmes in Acroplis
- Classics is timeless and elegant

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Neoclassicism/Neoclassical

Greek:
- Stone
- Post, lintel, and column
- Democracy
- Peaceful, elegant
- Sacred
- Philosophical
Roman:
- Concrete
- Arches
- Tyranny, militaristic, grave and serious
- secular
- engineering

The orders:
- Doric: simple, restrained metope, muscular, blocky
- Ionic: feminine, elegant, continuous frieze, taller
- Corinthian: expressive, the most feminine, tall, slender

Plates from: "Antiquities of Athens", 1762 (1789, 1795)
artists/architects/archeologists:James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)

- Pursued the pure model of ancient Greece.
- Archaeological approach to ancient antiquity
- Bring knowledge of ancient Greece to Britain
- Sponsored by the society of dilettante

Akropolis, Parthenon 447 - 438 B.C.

Traveling helped people develop appreciation of Greek architecture as rational.

Horologion of Andronicos (Tower of the Winds) c. 100 B.C.
James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)

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Horologion of Andronicos c. 100 B.C.
James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)

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Lysicrates Monument, 334 B.C. James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)

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Lysicrates Monument (334 BC), Athens, Daguerreotype, May 1850, Jean BapBste Gros (1793-1870)

Daguerreotype faithfully captures architectural details and helped dissemination of knowledge

Edmund Burke, Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful,1757

Sublime
- Danger and beauty
- Danger: thrill that compels or destroys/daunting/overpowering/infinitely extending/timeless/moody
- Nature: emotional/exciting/terrifying/wonderful
- Foster rationality by facing emotion. Extreme feelings bring extreme self-consciousness

Picturesque
- Regular and pretty
- Regular: nature-perfected, purposeful and careful planning to look like unplanned, framed
- Pretty: little buildings or follies (Jane Austen), "landscape that replicates a painting"
- "Central park, English gardens..."

Buildings can be both picturesque and sublime
E.g.: Woodland cemetery. Picturesque landscape that mimics a picture + monumental cross and infinite trails

Sublime can be achieved from Gothic/Baroque.
E.g.: Forthill Abbey: sublime (gothic) on the inside, picturesque on the outside

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Why Gothic?

- Rejection of French culture in Germany
- neoclassical style built by Napoleon
- Gothic germanic tribe, german oak, cementary
- emphasize feeling against reason
- Medieval world, pageantry, chivalry is dead

Cenotaph, EgypBan Style, c. 1784, project, arch.: EBenne Louis Boullรฉe (1728-1799)

Sublime
- Death (in Egyptian tradition) and eternity
- Monumental size

Shugborough (Staffordshire), Monument to Lysicrates, arch.: James Stuart (1713-88)

...

Sourton, Wiltshire, Stourhead, landscape garden, 1741 THE PICTURESQUE
FOLLIES

Picturesque
- Stone folly
- English garden

Stowe House
1677-1788
Architects: MulBple Architects
(Vanbrugh, John (1664 - 1726), Adam, Robert (1728 - 1792),
Gibbs, James (1682 - 1754), Kent, William (1684 - 1748), Soane, John (1753 - 1837))

Picturesque
- Deliberate regularity

Stowe House
1677-1788
Architects: MulBple Architects
(Vanbrugh, John (1664 - 1726), Adam, Robert (1728 - 1792),
Gibbs, James (1682 - 1754), Kent, William (1684 - 1748), Soane, John (1753 - 1837))

Non-classical vocabulary
- mythical, magical, ruin, incredible romantic
- recreate rain, non-functional, alluding to mystery
- overwhelming sublime effect

Stowe House
1677-1788
Architects:
Multiple Architects Worked on Interior Marble Room

...

Stowe House
1677-1788
Architects:
Multiple Architects Worked on Interior Marble Room

...

Paris, Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

Nationalism expressed in adaptation of Greek and Roman architecture

Combination of classical antiquity with national elements
- Power
- Seeking learning like Athens tradition

Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

- Interest in Rome
- Four horses looted from Venice are placed on top
- Napoleon columns~columns of Trajan

Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

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Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

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Rome, Arch of Septimius Severus, 203 AD

~Arc du Carousel

Paris, Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

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Paris, Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

prizes of war

Arc du Triomphe de l'Etoile, 1806-36,
Arch.: Jean Francois Therese Chalgrin (1739-1811)

- Arc du Triomphe~Arch of Titus
- Napoleon statue~Apollo Belvedere
- Meant to display national power and glory; obvious

Richmond(VA), Capitol, 1785-1789, Arch: Th. Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clerisseau

American version of nationalism expressed in classical antiquity

Charlottesville (VA), University of Virginia, 1817-26, Arch.: Th. Jefferson

...

Paris, Rue de Rivoli, 1806-35, Arch.: Percier & Fontaine

- Large boulevard terminates in grand buildings
- Links to present rulers
- Links to ancient rulers (Rome~Gaul)
- uniform, ordered, vaguely neoclassical urban landscape
- same height and curvature of roof
- shelter for pedestrains across from Louvre

Paris, Rue de Rivoli, 1806-35, Arch.: Percier & Fontaine

Street of Paris, nice broad street, city acquire avenue, building on the either side, remake city
- poor district ends up in the east
- prevailing wing, obnoxious
- cohabitation, building was for all social classes
- nostalgic, city transformed.

Berlin, Altes Museum, 1823-28, Arch.: K.F.Schinkel

Background:
- Rise of the middle class
- Demeaning aristocracy
- Nationalism, imperial aspiration
- Schinkel: architect, administrator, designer of the iron cross

Berlin, Altes Museum, 1823-28, Arch.: K.F.Schinkel

- Emperor turned part of his private space to the museum, symbolizing communication between the learned bourgeoisie and the ruling class
- Balance between culture and power

Berlin, Altes Museum, 1823-28, Arch.: K.F.Schinkel

- Stoa: arcade. Greek space for philosophical discussion
- Easily accessible
- Chronologically arranged exhibition: travel through time and history
- technology: iron cast handrails. Not hidden from the design
- Clarity of design
- Greek stoa + Roman rotunda + treasures looted form Napoleon = display nationalism through classical anquitities

Charlottesville (VA), Monticello, 1768-84, 1793-1809, Arch.: Thomas Jefferson

America
- Did not debate over Greek or Roman, but over how to embody the spirit of democracy in architecture
- Neoclassical language~Republican model of Rome~Maison Carree

- Doric: serious, strength, protective; accessible and democratic
- Sees Americans as agrarian gentile farmers
- "Southern planter"
- Quotes classical antiquity but also Renaissance.
~Chiswick House/Villa Rotunda
- Brick and wood, not stone: cheap, agrarian, common

Charlottesville (VA), University of Virginia, 1817-26, Arch.: Th. Jefferson

- Not surrounding one building, but all the buildings form a village
- Spread out the buildings as well as let them stand on their own

Charlottesville (VA), University of Virginia, 1817-26, Arch.: Th. Jefferson

- The academic buildings are in relationship to each other, and are slightly different form one another. Chapel is the focal point
- Chapel is higher on the lawn. ~Pantheon
- Pantheon: all the gods~all the knowledge~university liberal arts education
- 1st example of campus as a whole

Cenotaph to Isaac ton, 1784, project, Arch.: Etienne Louis Boullรฉe

- Sublime
- Egyptian style
- Referring to Caesar's tomb
- Vaguely moody
- symbolises immortality
- Do not need education to read this language
- More universal than neoclassicism
- More communicative
- Forms that speak: Architecture Parlante

Cenotaph to Isaac ton, 1784, project, Arch.: Etienne Louis Boullรฉe

- Elevating science/knowledge to the status of military/powerful figures
- At night, sky is recreated within the cenotaph
- At day, universe is recreated
- Funeral aspect: cypress
~Caesar's tomb
- Simple abstract form of a sphere

Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux

- Modern factory building
- Logical, rational layout
- Regularized layout: peasants live more regularised middle class life. Formalized, domesticated, scheduled
- Peasants as "savage", who needs to be educated
- Belief that such design can carry out social reform
- Panoptic: All roads lead to the administrator~all roads lead to the king's bedroom
- Constant surveillance: so that people behave in a certain way~prison where prisoners cannot see administrator
- Prevent bad behaviour: transform people's behaviour through omniscient gaze rather than beating & prisoning

Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux

- Building: order and regularity. Meant to be cold
- Straight: this is an authoritative and authoritarian building
- Prototype of modern building: straightforwardness

Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux

The plan resembles Versailles, circa 1700, director usually surveying without being watched, able to achieve constant surveilance

Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux

Director house, center of complex, see everything

Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux

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Plan for a Prison in Aix-en-Provence, c.1790, Arch.: C.N. Ledoux

- Interior is ordered and regimented
- Exterior looks like Bastille
- Reminiscence of punishment and terror
- Play off of classical architecture parlante
- Heavy walls and tiny entrance

Paris, Passage des Panoramas, ca. 1802, Arch.: unknown

- Arcade: directional streets running through the urban fabric
- changed the way of shopping
- the space is both public & private
- women start to make more public appearances

Paris, Passage des Panoramas, ca. 1802, Arch.: unknown

- provide woman leisure time activity
- women are taste makers, central stair case
- changing in marketing, a variety of grids, miscellaneous stuffs

London, Regent's Park and Regent Street, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)

- A monumental walkway from royal residence to park
- a meandering street that curves through the pre-existing structures.
- an incredibly lucrative street

vs. Versailles Square

London, Regent's Park and Regent Street, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)

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Regent Street, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)

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London, Regent's Park, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)

London, Regent's Park, Cumberland Terrace, 1826-27, Arch.: J. Nash

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London, Langham Place, All Soul's, 1822-24, Arch.: J. Nash

- An evangelical church in All Soul's Neighbourhood
- The idiosyncratic spire is composed of seventeen concave sides encircled by a peripteros of Corinthian columns
- Gothic Revival (?)

London, Horner's Colosseum at Regent's Park, 1824, Arch.: Decimus Burton (1800-1881)

- polygon of 16 faces + Doric portico of 6 columns
- holds James Horner's panoramic painting of London
- built in bricks and cement, in imitation of stone

Henri Labrouste, Bibliothรจque S. Geneviรจve, Paris, 1843-48

- location: next to the Pathรฉon, not visible from open street
- proportion: long
- a highly rational building
- regular spacing on the side, larger window on the second floor - reading room
- double vault structure
material: cast iron
- honesty of material, gives an interior look of an industrial building
- carved names of great ancient thinkers and Rafael's School of Athens -> Public library stands as encyclopaedia
- Architecture parlante

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London, Euston Station, 1835-39 Arch:Philip Hardwick

- Structure like a palace
- Monumentalizing entrance into a city
- "Hotels/rail stations were cathedrals"

Paris, Opera, 1861-74, arch.: Charles Garnier

- location: at a focal point of Hausmann's avenue
- big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
- less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
- refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
- three entrances at different levels
- inside can be read from outside spaces
- Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

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Stowe, England, Gothic Temple, 1739-50, Arch: John Vanbrugh, William Kent and Lancelot "Capability" Brown

- Folly in a open landscape garden
- trace to 18th century's theme of picturesque
- Gothic windows, circular rooms with the main vault in the center
- built with darker ironstone, contrasts with the lighter limestone building nearby; neo-Gothic contrasts with classical design

Cologne Cathedral, begun 1248, Cologne, Germany, restoration and completion 1842-1880 (headed by August Reichensberger)

- in High Gothic idiom of 13th century
- carries Germany's national identity - Gothic

A.w.n. Pugin, 'Contrasts'. 1836/1841. pamphlet.

- Pugin thinks that Gothic is morally superior to the other styles in the modern period (Neoclassical...)
- paired images of late medieval institutions and its modern counterpart
- aesthetic revolution against the industrial age

Staffordshire, England, St. Giles Cheadle, 1840-46, A.W.N. Pugin

- emphasis on altar;
- interior fully gilded and decorated - shown the spiritual and religious richness that is embedded in England's history, with which Pugin though England has lost touch.
- Gothic windows;
- flat-patterning, saturating, the tiling of the floor.

Paris, Au Bon Marche, Dep. Store, 1854, 1872, Alexandre Laplage, Louis-Auguste Boileau, Gustave Eiffel

- first modern Department store; precedent of today's mall
- more private than arcade;
- space for social mixing - akin to the Opera
- "aspirational space" b/c people of different social class can not tell the difference
- a variety of goods offered in one place & price is marked and fixed - allowed consumers to make decision by themselves
- pioneering idea: exchange and refund policy

Paris, Au Bon Marche, Dep. Store, 1854, 1872, Alexandre Laplage, Louis-Auguste Boileau, Gustave Eiffel

Chatsworth, Victoria Regia House, 1849, Joseph Paxton

- the test-bed of prefabricated, materials in the industrial age: cast iron and glass
- Chatsworth Garden greenhouses
- a light wooden frame, ridge-and-furrow roof to let in more light and drain rainwater away.

Chatsworth, Victoria Regia House, 1849, Joseph Paxton

Crystal Palace I, Hyde Park, London, 1850/51, Arch.: Joseph Paxton

- location: in the Hyde Park
- derived from elites of industry, not dilettantes
- further explores the use of material, especially iron and glass
- walls dissolve as if extending to infinity
- the need for skilled labor on site was reduced
- was taken down and reassembled in Sydenham
- interior colouring: red, yellow, blue

Paris, Notre Dame, 1163-1345; Restoration, 1845-68, Arch.: E.E. Viollet-le-Duc

- Gothic is superior because of structural rationalism (not for religious reasons)
- Laugier
- Every decorative element has a reason
- Flying buttresses support building
- Pointed arch: eyes go up
- Embracing technology: iron

Paris, Notre Dame, 1163-1345; Restoration, 1845-68, Arch.: E.E. Viollet-le-Duc

Rationalism
- Nationalism connotations (Gothic was actually created by medieval Frenchmen)
- Backdrop: Haussmanization in Paris
- Conjectural work. Not necessarily archaeologically correct
- Idealizing

Problem:
- "Purifying" things to an extent that the interior objects were gotten rid of
- Clients' needs change, so a building cannot be truly "finished"
- Ruskin: "restoration is the worst manner of destruction"

John Ruskin, 'The Seven Lamps of Architecture' (1849) and 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)

7 lamps of architecture (1849)
1. The lamp of Truth
2. The lamp of Sacrifice
3. The lamp of Power
4. The lamp of Beauty
5. The lamp of Life
6. The lamp of Memory
7. The lamp of Obedience

- Ruskin's opposed to Viollet-le-Duc's idea of restoration; he thinks "restoration is the worst kind of destruction"
- the art of Gothic building implies more freedom; morally superior b/c its imperfection shows human touch
- design and build should go hand-in-hand
- secular view of Gothic style
- hater of his own age - industrialisation
- calls out three deceits: structural/ surface/ operation

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Morris, Marshall, Faulkner&Co., founded 1861, and renamed as Morris and Co. in 1875

-designed typefaces and furnitures
- textile
- a philosophy becomes a style.
- Morris later became socialist activist
-moral imperative

Philip Webb and William Morris, The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, 1859-60

- Mythologizing the idea of vernacular (local artisan, commonplace)
- interior design reflects exterior
- material: humble red bricks
- skilled craftsman
- represents "GESAMTKUNSTWERK" (total work of art"

Paris, Notre Dame, 1163-1345; Restoration, 1845-68, Arch.: E.E. Viollet-le-Duc

- Restoration led by Viollet-le-Duc, who develops his theory on restoration of Gothic works
- "reinstate in a complete state", frozen in time
- advocates materials - iron

Philip Webb and William Morris, The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, 1859-60

General Plan for Riverside, Illinois, 1869, designers: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux

Nostalgia for pre-industrialized world
- self-sustained society
- number of shared spaces, communal parkland
pleasrable linkage to chicago
- train, transportation
- looking to English landscape for ideals

features:
1. expansive river front
2. triangular islands
3. common areas
4. curvilinear roadways

Philip Webb and William Morris, The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, 1859-60

-Humble red brick, deep porches, steep roof, door hinges
The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, designed for William Morris, Virtue, imperfection of being beautiful

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"Stones of Venice"

"Imperfection, good, human touch, some ind of creations, freedom, beautiful,unified whole"

"Classical perfection results in the slavery of the workman compared the freedom of the gothic workman, praising its very impression..."

General Plan for Riverside, Illinois, 1869, designers: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux

General Plan for Riverside, Illinois, 1869, designers: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux

Central Park, York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux

"Garden City" (Concept proposed by Ebenezer Howard)
- The population cannot exceed 32,000
- Self-sustaining, garden spaces, not dependent on the city
- Everyone is cooperative, essentially renting, "everyone is an owner"
- Cooperative ownership, making things artificially.

Central Park, York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux

- Park similar to art museum
- City surrounded the park, converting royal hunting grounds
-public park is surrounded, let the common people on their land
- planning around town square
- elevating public access for both the rich and the poor
- antidote to the "evil" of urban life
- is highly artificial but reads as natural
- picturesque: French and English garden landscape style

General Plan for Riverside, Illinois, 1869, designers: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux

- Suburbs, Garden Cities, Parks
- A social ideal, physical ideal, freestanding, distant setting
- middle class, american dwelling,

Central Park, York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux

- The entire structure by urban grid
- captures the ideal American ideals based on Jeffersonian ideals
- recreation, transportation
continuous english & french architect
-providing reservoir
- the park provides light and air, not a space for sports
- 20,000 workers, shift earth, 3 million cubic yard
- creating artificial & natural
- picturesque/ combination & curvilinear road
- cross sheet is indeed in the preplanning process
- transport and water supply
- ramble and cascade, view carefully framed
- bridge and folly, highly contrived

Literary Walk, 1869, Central Park, York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux

- Ally of trees, versaille
- Literary works

Bethesda Terrace 1862, Central Park, York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux

Space benefit literal and illiterate

Central Park, York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux

Dairy, 1869, Central Park, York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux

- Nostalgia for the pastoral
- provision of milk for the working class and the poor
- symbolic gestre, increase in infant mortality
- a consideration for health environment
- refer back to healthy age

Central Park, York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux

- Transportation, traffic pattern
- roads for people, carriage traffic
-east side and west side of view without obstructing the view
- other roads, eyes never register them, smooth circulation
-40 overpasses

Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson

Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson

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What is Beaux Arts?

- symmetrical, axial, easily accessible, read as public building
- based around the court yard
- classical detail, clear reference, logical & rational

Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson

Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson

- Stylistic ramification
- axial planning, tend to be symmetrical
-everything based of parti, result of Richardson's training

Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson

Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson

Familiar with Haussman
- The Beaux Arts+ romanesque features
- axial planning, classical order
- Similar in style to the Salamanca Old Cathedral
-impressed by romanesque/ round arches/ weight/ training/ local brown stone
- adapting them american context

Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)

Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson

- renovate old cathedral to trinity church
-situated at backbay
- the building is legible from the outside
-weightiness, dye pigment
- play with surface, rough, hume surface
flatness of the wall, original diagram
- John Lafarge, stained glass window

Pennsylvania Station, NYC, 1906-10, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)

- portico, architectural detailing, legible on the outside
- main axis, all roads lead to main area

Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead

- The viewers will enter on a boat

Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)

- storage area, reading book
Compare to Bibliothรจque S. Genevieve, 1843
-Bibliothรจque S. Genevieve is creating its own vocab

Pennsylvania Station, NYC, 1906-10, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)

- elevate american life
-makes you walk like the queen (boss of the gym)

Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)

legible, regular spacing, round arches

Court of Honor, Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead

-Major pavilion, store art works
-axial focus

Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)

vestibules, painting by French

Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)

- barrel vaults, coffer ceiling, roman
- one large space ๅพˆๅคงๅพˆ็ฒ—ๅฃฎ

Pennsylvania Station, NYC, 1906-10, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)

- supposed to be easily legible
- iron&glass, monumentalized the structure
- ennoble the act of everyday life

Ho-Ho-Den (Japanese Pavilion), Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893

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Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead

- the designers want uniformity, same corner's height
- at night, the electric light will light up the exposition
- read as connected building, same classical style
- White Chicago, for the benefit of the visitors.
- Facade, not honest.

John Ruskin, 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)

John Ruskin, 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)

Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead

- vegas version, utopia
- the face chicago wants to show the world
-skyscraper, economic mighty, not cultural city beautiful

John Ruskin, 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)

Administration Building, 1893, Arch.: Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895)

Cement, supported by steel and wood frame, impermanent material unskilled labor, deconstruct the world, done in the recession, american cast itself as the rome.

Turkish Pavilion, Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead

Folly, picturesque

Administration Building, 1893, Arch.: Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895)

Laing Stores, Murray and Washington Street (NYC), 1848-49, ironwork by James Bogardus

Chicago, First Leiter Building, 1879, William LeBaron Jenney

Chicago, First Leiter Building, 1879, William LeBaron Jenney

Chicago, First Leiter Building, 1879, William LeBaron Jenney

Administration Building, 1893, Arch.: Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895)

Compare to crystal palace:
Side note:
1. The lamp of truth
3 deceits:
---Structural deceit: suggestion of a mode of structure or support other than the true one. ---Surface deceit: painting of surfaces to represent some other material than that of which they actually consist.
---Operative deceit: The use of cast or machine made ornaments of any kind.

โ€ข

What is the Chicago school of architecture?

- The Chicago Fire gave the city an opportunity to rebuild and experiment.
- Balloon framing, steel framing replace the traditional mortise and tenon framing
-Boxlike, utilitarian, simple, tall
- less organized, mixing of pilasters, styling
- reduced labor construct, erecting timber
-labor saving technique
-wood&iron
-US, cutting-edge material
-fresh starts

Chicago, First Leiter Building, 1879, William LeBaron Jenney

Simple post and beams, celebrated a beautiful form

Laing Stores, Murray and Washington Street (NYC), 1848-49, ironwork by James Bogardus

-replicated in iron
-classical order and classical prototype
-engraver, cladding the material, cast iron

Chicago, Reliance Building, 1890-95, Arch.: Burnham + Root

Chicago, Reliance Building, 1890-95, Arch.: Burnham + Root

London, Euston Station, 1835-39, Philip Hardwick

- symbolic meaning: the point of entry to get into the city
- location: at the centre of London, therefore a part of the urban fabric
- is a triumph gate monument at every level
- focus of division of spaces: entry sequence/// train railroads
- Greek Doric Columns + large tall tollgates, extends to infinity

Chicago, Reliance Building, 1890-95, Arch.: Burnham + Root

-Chicago window, ventilation
- valorize the Chicago style

Buffalo, Guaranty Building, 1894-95, Arch.: L. Sullivan

- Sullivan, drops out MIT
- access to german cutting-edge theory
- Honey comb, Virtue , Interior, circulatory system
- American vernacular, american regional
- "forms follow function"
-exterior form reflects the interior function

Loftiness
- extend definitely
- resemble columns, extrapolating, cornice
- buffalo, guaranty building
- making american columns

London, Euston Station, 1835-39, Philip Hardwick

St. Louis, Wainwright Building, 1890-91, L.Sullivan

Loftiness, recessed in, shallow
base, heavier, light, carefully calibrated
- the pattern is inspired by american native plants
- cladding helps to protect service, cast sun shadow, provide the building.

Oak Park, III. Home and Studio 1889-1909, Frank Lloyd Wright

- rework and renovate
- shingle, following shingle style architecture
- elemental style, large plinth, perplexed hallmark of his work
- Demarkation of space, hipped roof, heavy, hat, turkish pavilion, blocky form
- the showroom: showing his drawing, ample light window, great natural light, halo space
- couldn't see the surrounding, elevate domestic space
- Design every aspect of the home
- Wright design every aspect of the home
- all Wright's clients are progressive thinker, want a more privilege art and life.
- reunite living spaces and working spaces
- design elements

Oak Park, III. Home and Studio 1889-1909, Frank Lloyd Wright

- Everything is based around the fire place
-differentiating height.
- design elements
- Incorporate Morris style: flat-pattern wall paper

Flickr Creative Commons Images

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