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  1. 18th century aesthetic theory and new relationships to the past: new ideas about history/Looking archeologically/Challenging status quo
    - the test-bed of prefabricated, new materials in the industrial age: cast iron and glass
    - Chatsworth Garden greenhouses
    - a light wooden frame, ridge-and-furrow roof to let in more light and drain rainwater away.

          

  2. What is the Chicago school of architecture?Themes of the 18th century
    - Reason, logic, wisdom (Enlightenment)
    - Questioning organised religion
    - Appreciation of science

          

  3. Lysicrates Monument (334 BC), Athens, Daguerreotype, May 1850, Jean BapBste Gros (1793-1870)
    ...

          

  4. General Plan for Riverside, Illinois, 1869, designers: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux
    - location: in the Hyde Park
    - derived from elites of industry, not dilettantes
    - further explores the use of material, especially iron and glass
    - walls dissolve as if extending to infinity
    - the need for skilled labor on site was reduced
    - was taken down and reassembled in Sydenham
    - interior colouring: red, yellow, blue

          

  5. Philip Webb and William Morris, The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, 1859-60

          

  6. London, Regent's Park, Cumberland Terrace, 1826-27, Arch.: J. Nash
    - An evangelical church in All Soul's Neighbourhood
    - The idiosyncratic spire is composed of seventeen concave sides encircled by a peripteros of Corinthian columns
    - Gothic Revival (?)

          

  7. John Ruskin, 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)

          

  8. London, Regent's Park, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)

          

  9. What is Beaux Arts?- symmetrical, axial, easily accessible, read as public building
    - based around the court yard
    - classical detail, clear reference, logical & rational

          

  10. Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
    Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

    - Large boulevard terminates in grand buildings
    - Links to present rulers
    - Links to ancient rulers (Rome~Gaul)
    - uniform, ordered, vaguely neoclassical urban landscape
    - same height and curvature of roof
    - shelter for pedestrains across from Louvre

          

  11. Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
    "Garden City" (Concept proposed by Ebenezer Howard)
    - The population cannot exceed 32,000
    - Self-sustaining, garden spaces, not dependent on the city
    - Everyone is cooperative, essentially renting, "everyone is an owner"
    - Cooperative ownership, making things artificially.

          

  12. Pennsylvania Station, NYC, 1906-10, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)
    - elevate american life
    -makes you walk like the queen (boss of the gym)

          

  13. John Ruskin, 'The Seven Lamps of Architecture' (1849) and 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)

    7 lamps of architecture (1849)
    1. The lamp of Truth
    2. The lamp of Sacrifice
    3. The lamp of Power
    4. The lamp of Beauty
    5. The lamp of Life
    6. The lamp of Memory
    7. The lamp of Obedience

    - Ruskin's opposed to Viollet-le-Duc's idea of restoration; he thinks "restoration is the worst kind of destruction"
    - the art of Gothic building implies more freedom; morally superior b/c its imperfection shows human touch
    - design and build should go hand-in-hand
    - secular view of Gothic style
    - hater of his own age - industrialisation
    - calls out three deceits: structural/ surface/ operation

          

  14. Edmund Burke, Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful,1757
    - Sullivan, drops out MIT
    - access to german cutting-edge theory
    - Honey comb, Virtue , Interior, circulatory system
    - New American vernacular, american regional
    - "forms follow function"
    -exterior form reflects the interior function

    Loftiness
    - extend definitely
    - resemble columns, extrapolating, cornice
    - buffalo, guaranty building
    - making american columns

          

  15. Dairy, 1869, Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
    - Nostalgia for the pastoral
    - provision of milk for the working class and the poor
    - symbolic gestre, increase in infant mortality
    - a consideration for health environment
    - refer back to healthy age

          

  16. Pennsylvania Station, NYC, 1906-10, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)
    - barrel vaults, coffer ceiling, roman
    - one large space 很大很粗壮

          

  17. Rome, Arch of Septimius Severus, 203 AD
    ~Arc du Carousel

          

  18. Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  19. London, Regent's Park and Regent Street, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)
    ...

          

  20. Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)
    - supposed to be easily legible
    - iron&glass, monumentalized the structure
    - ennoble the act of everyday life

          

  21. Pennsylvania Station, NYC, 1906-10, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)
    - storage area, reading book
    Compare to Bibliothèque S. Genevieve, 1843
    -Bibliothèque S. Genevieve is creating its own vocab

          

  22. Staffordshire, England, St. Giles Cheadle, 1840-46, A.W.N. Pugin
    - emphasis on altar;
    - interior fully gilded and decorated - shown the spiritual and religious richness that is embedded in England's history, with which Pugin though England has lost touch.
    - Gothic windows;
    - flat-patterning, saturating, the tiling of the floor.

          

  23. Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson

          

  24. Neoclassicism/NeoclassicalGreek:
    - Stone
    - Post, lintel, and column
    - Democracy
    - Peaceful, elegant
    - Sacred
    - Philosophical
    Roman:
    - Concrete
    - Arches
    - Tyranny, militaristic, grave and serious
    - secular
    - engineering

    The orders:
    - Doric: simple, restrained metope, muscular, blocky
    - Ionic: feminine, elegant, continuous frieze, taller
    - Corinthian: expressive, the most feminine, tall, slender

          

  25. London, Euston Station, 1835-39, Philip Hardwick- Structure like a palace
    - Monumentalizing entrance into a city
    - "Hotels/rail stations were new cathedrals"

          

  26. Paris, Notre Dame, 1163-1345; Restoration, 1845-68, Arch.: E.E. Viollet-le-Duc
    Rationalism
    - Nationalism connotations (Gothic was actually created by medieval Frenchmen)
    - Backdrop: Haussmanization in Paris
    - Conjectural work. Not necessarily archaeologically correct
    - Idealizing

    Problem:
    - "Purifying" things to an extent that the interior objects were gotten rid of
    - Clients' needs change, so a building cannot be truly "finished"
    - Ruskin: "restoration is the worst manner of destruction"

          

  27. Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
    Space benefit literal and illiterate

          

  28. Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux
    - Building: order and regularity. Meant to be cold
    - Straight: this is an authoritative and authoritarian building
    - Prototype of modern building: straightforwardness

          

  29. General Plan for Riverside, Illinois, 1869, designers: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux

          

  30. Paris, Au Bon Marche, Dep. Store, 1854, 1872, Alexandre Laplage, Louis-Auguste Boileau, Gustave Eiffel
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  31. Berlin, Altes Museum, 1823-28, Arch.: K.F.Schinkel
    - Sullivan, drops out MIT
    - access to german cutting-edge theory
    - Honey comb, Virtue , Interior, circulatory system
    - New American vernacular, american regional
    - "forms follow function"
    -exterior form reflects the interior function

    Loftiness
    - extend definitely
    - resemble columns, extrapolating, cornice
    - buffalo, guaranty building
    - making american columns

          

  32. London, Langham Place, All Soul's, 1822-24, Arch.: J. Nash
    - An evangelical church in All Soul's Neighbourhood
    - The idiosyncratic spire is composed of seventeen concave sides encircled by a peripteros of Corinthian columns
    - Gothic Revival (?)

          

  33. Laing Stores, Murray and Washington Street (NYC), 1848-49, ironwork by James Bogardus
    -replicated in iron
    -classical order and classical prototype
    -engraver, cladding the material, cast iron

          

  34. Chicago, Reliance Building, 1890-95, Arch.: Burnham + Root
    -Chicago window, ventilation
    - valorize the Chicago style

          

  35. Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson
    Background:
    - Rise of the middle class
    - Demeaning aristocracy
    - Nationalism, imperial aspiration
    - Schinkel: architect, administrator, designer of the iron cross

          

  36. Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
    Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

    ...

          

  37. Oak Park, III. Home and Studio 1889-1909, Frank Lloyd Wright- Structure like a palace
    - Monumentalizing entrance into a city
    - "Hotels/rail stations were new cathedrals"

          

  38. Oak Park, III. Home and Studio 1889-1909, Frank Lloyd Wright
    Loftiness, recessed in, shallow
    base, heavier, light, carefully calibrated
    - the pattern is inspired by american native plants
    - cladding helps to protect service, cast sun shadow, provide the building.

          

  39. Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux
    Director house, center of complex, see everything

          

  40. Chicago, First Leiter Building, 1879, William LeBaron Jenney

          

  41. Chatsworth, Victoria Regia House, 1849, Joseph PaxtonThemes of the 18th century
    - Reason, logic, wisdom (Enlightenment)
    - Questioning organised religion
    - Appreciation of science

          

  42. Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
    Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

    Nationalism expressed in adaptation of Greek and Roman architecture

    Combination of classical antiquity with national elements
    - Power
    - Seeking learning like Athens tradition

          

  43. Akropolis, Parthenon 447 - 438 B.C.
    Traveling helped people develop new appreciation of Greek architecture as rational.

          

  44. A.w.n. Pugin, 'Contrasts'. 1836/1841. pamphlet.
    - Pugin thinks that Gothic is morally superior to the other styles in the modern period (Neoclassical...)
    - paired images of late medieval institutions and its modern counterpart
    - aesthetic revolution against the industrial age

          

  45. Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead
    - The viewers will enter on a boat

          

  46. Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux

          

  47. Charlottesville (VA), University of Virginia, 1817-26, Arch.: Th. Jefferson
    - Sullivan, drops out MIT
    - access to german cutting-edge theory
    - Honey comb, Virtue , Interior, circulatory system
    - New American vernacular, american regional
    - "forms follow function"
    -exterior form reflects the interior function

    Loftiness
    - extend definitely
    - resemble columns, extrapolating, cornice
    - buffalo, guaranty building
    - making american columns

          

  48. "Stones of Venice""Imperfection, good, human touch, some ind of creations, freedom, beautiful,unified whole"

    "Classical perfection results in the slavery of the workman compared the freedom of the gothic workman, praising its very impression..."

          

  49. London, Horner's Colosseum at Regent's Park, 1824, Arch.: Decimus Burton (1800-1881)
    - polygon of 16 faces + Doric portico of 6 columns
    - holds James Horner's panoramic painting of London
    - built in bricks and cement, in imitation of stone

          

  50. Morris, Marshall, Faulkner&Co., founded 1861, and renamed as Morris and Co. in 1875-designed typefaces and furnitures
    - textile
    - a philosophy becomes a style.
    - Morris later became socialist activist
    -moral imperative

          

  51. Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson
    - Emperor turned part of his private space to the museum, symbolizing communication between the learned bourgeoisie and the ruling class
    - Balance between culture and power

          

  52. Buffalo, Guaranty Building, 1894-95, Arch.: L. Sullivan
    - Sullivan, drops out MIT
    - access to german cutting-edge theory
    - Honey comb, Virtue , Interior, circulatory system
    - New American vernacular, american regional
    - "forms follow function"
    -exterior form reflects the interior function

    Loftiness
    - extend definitely
    - resemble columns, extrapolating, cornice
    - buffalo, guaranty building
    - making american columns

          

  53. Lysicrates Monument, 334 B.C. James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)
    ...

          

  54. Charlottesville (VA), University of Virginia, 1817-26, Arch.: Th. Jefferson
    - The academic buildings are in relationship to each other, and are slightly different form one another. Chapel is the focal point
    - Chapel is higher on the lawn. ~Pantheon
    - Pantheon: all the gods~all the knowledge~university liberal arts education
    - 1st example of campus as a whole

          

  55. Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
    - Ally of trees, versaille
    - Literary works

          

  56. Turkish Pavilion, Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
    Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead

    Folly, picturesque

          

  57. Administration Building, 1893, Arch.: Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895)
    Cement, supported by steel and wood frame, impermanent material unskilled labor, deconstruct the world, done in the recession, american cast itself as the new rome.

          

  58. Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)
    - storage area, reading book
    Compare to Bibliothèque S. Genevieve, 1843
    -Bibliothèque S. Genevieve is creating its own vocab

          

  59. Henri Labrouste, Bibliothèque S. Geneviève, Paris, 1843-48
    ~Arc du Carousel

          

  60. Regent Street, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  61. Paris, Au Bon Marche, Dep. Store, 1854, 1872, Alexandre Laplage, Louis-Auguste Boileau, Gustave Eiffel
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  62. Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  63. Charlottesville (VA), Monticello, 1768-84, 1793-1809, Arch.: Thomas Jefferson
    America
    - Did not debate over Greek or Roman, but over how to embody the spirit of democracy in architecture
    - Neoclassical language~Republican model of Rome~Maison Carree

    - Doric: serious, strength, protective; accessible and democratic
    - Sees Americans as agrarian gentile farmers
    - "Southern planter"
    - Quotes classical antiquity but also Renaissance.
    ~Chiswick House/Villa Rotunda
    - Brick and wood, not stone: cheap, agrarian, common

          

  64. Bethesda Terrace 1862, Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
    - Ally of trees, versaille
    - Literary works

          

  65. Stowe, England, Gothic Temple, 1739-50, Arch: John Vanbrugh, William Kent and Lancelot "Capability" Brown- Folly in a open landscape garden
    - trace to 18th century's theme of picturesque
    - Gothic windows, circular rooms with the main vault in the center
    - built with darker ironstone, contrasts with the lighter limestone building nearby; neo-Gothic contrasts with classical design

          

  66. Stowe House
    1677-1788
    Architects:
    Multiple Architects Worked on Interior Marble Room

    Picturesque
    - Deliberate regularity

          

  67. Paris, Rue de Rivoli, 1806-35, Arch.: Percier & Fontaine
    Street of Paris, nice broad street, city acquire avenue, building on the either side, remake city
    - poor district ends up in the east
    - prevailing wing, obnoxious
    - cohabitation, building was for all social classes
    - nostalgic, city transformed.

          

  68. Philip Webb and William Morris, The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, 1859-60
    -Humble red brick, deep porches, steep roof, door hinges
    The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, designed for William Morris, Virtue, imperfection of being beautiful

          

  69. General Plan for Riverside, Illinois, 1869, designers: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux
    -New Suburbs, Garden Cities, Parks
    - A social ideal, physical ideal, freestanding, distant setting
    - middle class, american dwelling,

          

  70. Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux
    ...

          

  71. Philip Webb and William Morris, The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, 1859-60
    - Mythologizing the idea of vernacular (local artisan, commonplace)
    - interior design reflects exterior
    - material: humble red bricks
    - skilled craftsman
    - represents "GESAMTKUNSTWERK" (total work of art"

          

  72. Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
    Space benefit literal and illiterate

          

  73. Paris, Notre Dame, 1163-1345; Restoration, 1845-68, Arch.: E.E. Viollet-le-Duc
    - Restoration led by Viollet-le-Duc, who develops his theory on restoration of Gothic works
    - "reinstate in a complete state", frozen in time
    - advocates new materials - iron

          

  74. St. Louis, Wainwright Building, 1890-91, L.Sullivan

          

  75. Richmond(VA), Capitol, 1785-1789, Arch: Th. Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clerisseau
    American version of nationalism expressed in classical antiquity

          

  76. Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead

          

  77. 'Essay on architecture' 1753, Marc Antoine Laugier (1713 - 1769)
    - Laugier: one can ascertain his raison d'être by looking back to the past
    - Laugier's paintings: trees and nature/post, lintel, and columns
    - Trees symbolise logical growth and structure
    - Like Nîmes in Acroplis
    - Classics is timeless and elegant

          

  78. Laing Stores, Murray and Washington Street (NYC), 1848-49, ironwork by James Bogardus
    - Interior is ordered and regimented
    - Exterior looks like Bastille
    - Reminiscence of punishment and terror
    - Play off of classical architecture parlante
    - Heavy walls and tiny entrance

          

  79. London, Euston Station, 1835-39 Arch:Philip Hardwick

          

  80. London, Regent's Park and Regent Street, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)
    ...

          

  81. Paris, Opera, 1861-74, arch.: Charles Garnier
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  82. John Ruskin, 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)"Imperfection, good, human touch, some ind of creations, freedom, beautiful,unified whole"

    "Classical perfection results in the slavery of the workman compared the freedom of the gothic workman, praising its very impression..."

          

  83. Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)

          

  84. Chicago, First Leiter Building, 1879, William LeBaron Jenney
    Simple post and beams, celebrated a beautiful form

          

  85. Charlottesville (VA), University of Virginia, 1817-26, Arch.: Th. Jefferson
    - Sullivan, drops out MIT
    - access to german cutting-edge theory
    - Honey comb, Virtue , Interior, circulatory system
    - New American vernacular, american regional
    - "forms follow function"
    -exterior form reflects the interior function

    Loftiness
    - extend definitely
    - resemble columns, extrapolating, cornice
    - buffalo, guaranty building
    - making american columns

          

  86. Why Gothic?- The Chicago Fire gave the city an opportunity to rebuild and experiment.
    - Balloon framing, new steel framing replace the traditional mortise and tenon framing
    -Boxlike, utilitarian, simple, tall
    - less organized, mixing of pilasters, styling
    - reduced labor construct, erecting timber
    -labor saving technique
    -wood&iron
    -US, cutting-edge material
    -fresh new starts

          

  87. Berlin, Altes Museum, 1823-28, Arch.: K.F.Schinkel
    Background:
    - Rise of the middle class
    - Demeaning aristocracy
    - Nationalism, imperial aspiration
    - Schinkel: architect, administrator, designer of the iron cross

          

  88. Cenotaph to Isaac Newton, 1784, project, Arch.: Etienne Louis Boullée
    - Sublime
    - Egyptian style
    - Referring to Caesar's tomb
    - Vaguely moody
    - symbolises immortality
    - Do not need education to read this language
    - More universal than neoclassicism
    - More communicative
    - Forms that speak: Architecture Parlante

          

  89. Cenotaph, EgypBan Style, c. 1784, project, arch.: EBenne Louis Boullée (1728-1799)
    Sublime
    - Death (in Egyptian tradition) and eternity
    - Monumental size

          

  90. London, Euston Station, 1835-39, Philip Hardwick
    - symbolic meaning: the point of entry to get into the city
    - location: at the centre of London, therefore a part of the urban fabric
    - is a triumph gate monument at every level
    - focus of division of spaces: entry sequence/// train railroads
    - Greek Doric Columns + large tall tollgates, extends to infinity

          

  91. Paris, Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
    Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

    ...

          

  92. Sourton, Wiltshire, Stourhead, landscape garden, 1741 THE PICTURESQUE
    FOLLIES

    Picturesque
    - Stone folly
    - English garden

          

  93. Paris, Notre Dame, 1163-1345; Restoration, 1845-68, Arch.: E.E. Viollet-le-Duc
    - Gothic is superior because of structural rationalism (not for religious reasons)
    - Laugier
    - Every decorative element has a reason
    - Flying buttresses support building
    - Pointed arch: eyes go up
    - Embracing technology: iron

          

  94. Chicago, Reliance Building, 1890-95, Arch.: Burnham + Root

          

  95. Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson

          

  96. Paris, Passage des Panoramas, ca. 1802, Arch.: unknown
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  97. Plan for a Prison in Aix-en-Provence, c.1790, Arch.: C.N. Ledoux
    - Arcade: directional streets running through the urban fabric
    - changed the way of shopping
    - the space is both public & private
    - women start to make more public appearances

          

  98. Literary Walk, 1869, Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
    - Ally of trees, versaille
    - Literary works

          

  99. Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux
    The plan resembles Versailles, circa 1700, director usually surveying without being watched, able to achieve constant surveilance

          

  100. Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead
    - vegas version, utopia
    - the face chicago wants to show the world
    -skyscraper, economic mighty, not cultural city beautiful

          

  101. Chatsworth, Victoria Regia House, 1849, Joseph PaxtonThemes of the 18th century
    - Reason, logic, wisdom (Enlightenment)
    - Questioning organised religion
    - Appreciation of science

          

  102. Ho-Ho-Den (Japanese Pavilion), Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
    - location: next to the Pathéon, not visible from open street
    - proportion: long
    - a highly rational building
    - regular spacing on the side, larger window on the second floor - reading room
    - double vault structure
    new material: cast iron
    - honesty of material, gives an interior look of an industrial building
    - carved names of great ancient thinkers and Rafael's School of Athens -> Public library stands as encyclopaedia
    - Architecture parlante

          

  103. Chicago, Reliance Building, 1890-95, Arch.: Burnham + Root

          

  104. Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux
    - An evangelical church in All Soul's Neighbourhood
    - The idiosyncratic spire is composed of seventeen concave sides encircled by a peripteros of Corinthian columns
    - Gothic Revival (?)

          

  105. John Ruskin, 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)

          

  106. Crystal Palace I, Hyde Park, London, 1850/51, Arch.: Joseph Paxton
    - location: in the Hyde Park
    - derived from elites of industry, not dilettantes
    - further explores the use of material, especially iron and glass
    - walls dissolve as if extending to infinity
    - the need for skilled labor on site was reduced
    - was taken down and reassembled in Sydenham
    - interior colouring: red, yellow, blue

          

  107. Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson
    - renovate old cathedral to trinity church
    -situated at backbay
    - the building is legible from the outside
    -weightiness, dye pigment
    - play with surface, rough, hume surface
    flatness of the wall, original diagram
    - John Lafarge, stained glass window

          

  108. Paris, Passage des Panoramas, ca. 1802, Arch.: unknown
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  109. Horologion of Andronicos (Tower of the Winds) c. 100 B.C.
    James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)

    ...

          

  110. Stowe House
    1677-1788
    Architects: MulBple Architects
    (Vanbrugh, John (1664 - 1726), Adam, Robert (1728 - 1792),
    Gibbs, James (1682 - 1754), Kent, William (1684 - 1748), Soane, John (1753 - 1837))

    Picturesque
    - Deliberate regularity

          

  111. Berlin, Altes Museum, 1823-28, Arch.: K.F.Schinkel
    - Stoa: arcade. Greek space for philosophical discussion
    - Easily accessible
    - Chronologically arranged exhibition: travel through time and history
    - New technology: iron cast handrails. Not hidden from the design
    - Clarity of design
    - Greek stoa + Roman rotunda + treasures looted form Napoleon = display nationalism through classical anquitities

          

  112. Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  113. Stowe House
    1677-1788
    Architects: MulBple Architects
    (Vanbrugh, John (1664 - 1726), Adam, Robert (1728 - 1792),
    Gibbs, James (1682 - 1754), Kent, William (1684 - 1748), Soane, John (1753 - 1837))

    Non-classical vocabulary
    - mythical, magical, ruin, incredible romantic
    - recreate rain, non-functional, alluding to mystery
    - overwhelming sublime effect

          

  114. Paris, Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
    Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

    Nationalism expressed in adaptation of Greek and Roman architecture

    Combination of classical antiquity with national elements
    - Power
    - Seeking learning like Athens tradition

          

  115. Cologne Cathedral, begun 1248, Cologne, Germany, restoration and completion 1842-1880 (headed by August Reichensberger)
    ...

          

  116. Chicago, First Leiter Building, 1879, William LeBaron Jenney

          

  117. Chicago, First Leiter Building, 1879, William LeBaron Jenney

          

  118. Plates from: "Antiquities of Athens", 1762 (1789, 1795)
    artists/architects/archeologists:James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)

    - Pursued the pure model of ancient Greece.
    - Archaeological approach to ancient antiquity
    - Bring knowledge of ancient Greece to Britain
    - Sponsored by the society of dilettante

          

  119. Stowe House
    1677-1788
    Architects:
    Multiple Architects Worked on Interior Marble Room

    Picturesque
    - Deliberate regularity

          

  120. Administration Building, 1893, Arch.: Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895)
    Compare to crystal palace:
    Side note:
    1. The lamp of truth
    3 deceits:
    ---Structural deceit: suggestion of a mode of structure or support other than the true one. ---Surface deceit: painting of surfaces to represent some other material than that of which they actually consist.
    ---Operative deceit: The use of cast or machine made ornaments of any kind.

          

  121. General Plan for Riverside, Illinois, 1869, designers: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux
    - Transportation, traffic pattern
    - roads for people, carriage traffic
    -east side and west side of view without obstructing the view
    - other roads, eyes never register them, smooth circulation
    -40 overpasses

          

  122. Why do we begin in the 18th century?Themes of the 18th century
    - Reason, logic, wisdom (Enlightenment)
    - Questioning organised religion
    - Appreciation of science

          

  123. Paris, Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
    Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)

    prizes of war

          

  124. Paris, Rue de Rivoli, 1806-35, Arch.: Percier & Fontaine
    - Large boulevard terminates in grand buildings
    - Links to present rulers
    - Links to ancient rulers (Rome~Gaul)
    - uniform, ordered, vaguely neoclassical urban landscape
    - same height and curvature of roof
    - shelter for pedestrains across from Louvre

          

  125. Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

          

  126. Shugborough (Staffordshire), Monument to Lysicrates, arch.: James Stuart (1713-88)
    - emphasis on altar;
    - interior fully gilded and decorated - shown the spiritual and religious richness that is embedded in England's history, with which Pugin though England has lost touch.
    - Gothic windows;
    - flat-patterning, saturating, the tiling of the floor.

          

  127. Horologion of Andronicos c. 100 B.C.
    James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)

    ...

          

  128. Cenotaph to Isaac Newton, 1784, project, Arch.: Etienne Louis Boullée
    - renovate old cathedral to trinity church
    -situated at backbay
    - the building is legible from the outside
    -weightiness, dye pigment
    - play with surface, rough, hume surface
    flatness of the wall, original diagram
    - John Lafarge, stained glass window

          

  129. Arc du Triomphe de l'Etoile, 1806-36,
    Arch.: Jean Francois Therese Chalgrin (1739-1811)

    - Arc du Triomphe~Arch of Titus
    - Napoleon statue~Apollo Belvedere
    - Meant to display national power and glory; obvious

          

  130. Court of Honor, Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead
    - The viewers will enter on a boat

          

  131. Administration Building, 1893, Arch.: Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895)