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131 Multiple choice questions


  1. - Pugin thinks that Gothic is morally superior to the other styles in the modern period (Neoclassical...)
    - paired images of late medieval institutions and its modern counterpart
    - aesthetic revolution against the industrial age

  2. - Sublime
    - Egyptian style
    - Referring to Caesar's tomb
    - Vaguely moody
    - symbolises immortality
    - Do not need education to read this language
    - More universal than neoclassicism
    - More communicative
    - Forms that speak: Architecture Parlante

  3. ...

  4. ...

  5. - Arc du Triomphe~Arch of Titus
    - Napoleon statue~Apollo Belvedere
    - Meant to display national power and glory; obvious

  6. Street of Paris, nice broad street, city acquire avenue, building on the either side, remake city
    - poor district ends up in the east
    - prevailing wing, obnoxious
    - cohabitation, building was for all social classes
    - nostalgic, city transformed.

  7. Non-classical vocabulary
    - mythical, magical, ruin, incredible romantic
    - recreate rain, non-functional, alluding to mystery
    - overwhelming sublime effect

  8. - rework and renovate
    - shingle, following shingle style architecture
    - elemental style, large plinth, perplexed hallmark of his work
    - Demarkation of space, hipped roof, heavy, hat, turkish pavilion, blocky form
    - the showroom: showing his drawing, ample light window, great natural light, halo space
    - couldn't see the surrounding, elevate domestic space
    - Design every aspect of the home
    - Wright design every aspect of the home
    - all Wright's clients are progressive thinker, want a more privilege art and life.
    - reunite living spaces and working spaces
    - design elements

  9. - The entire structure by urban grid
    - captures the ideal American ideals based on Jeffersonian ideals
    - recreation, transportation
    continuous english & french architect
    -providing reservoir
    - the park provides light and air, not a space for sports
    - 20,000 workers, shift earth, 3 million cubic yard
    - creating artificial & natural
    - picturesque/ combination & curvilinear road
    - cross sheet is indeed in the preplanning process
    - transport and water supply
    - ramble and cascade, view carefully framed
    - bridge and folly, highly contrived

  10. Director house, center of complex, see everything

  11. Loftiness, recessed in, shallow
    base, heavier, light, carefully calibrated
    - the pattern is inspired by american native plants
    - cladding helps to protect service, cast sun shadow, provide the building.

  12. - vegas version, utopia
    - the face chicago wants to show the world
    -skyscraper, economic mighty, not cultural city beautiful

  13. - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant

  14. - Sullivan, drops out MIT
    - access to german cutting-edge theory
    - Honey comb, Virtue , Interior, circulatory system
    - New American vernacular, american regional
    - "forms follow function"
    -exterior form reflects the interior function

    Loftiness
    - extend definitely
    - resemble columns, extrapolating, cornice
    - buffalo, guaranty building
    - making american columns

  15. - A monumental walkway from royal residence to park
    - a meandering street that curves through the pre-existing structures.
    - an incredibly lucrative street

    vs. Versailles Square

  16. Daguerreotype faithfully captures architectural details and helped dissemination of knowledge

  17. - Park similar to art museum
    - City surrounded the park, converting royal hunting grounds
    -public park is surrounded, let the common people on their land
    - planning around town square
    - elevating public access for both the rich and the poor
    - antidote to the "evil" of urban life
    - is highly artificial but reads as natural
    - picturesque: French and English garden landscape style

  18. - barrel vaults, coffer ceiling, roman
    - one large space 很大很粗壮

  19. - polygon of 16 faces + Doric portico of 6 columns
    - holds James Horner's panoramic painting of London
    - built in bricks and cement, in imitation of stone

  20. - An evangelical church in All Soul's Neighbourhood
    - The idiosyncratic spire is composed of seventeen concave sides encircled by a peripteros of Corinthian columns
    - Gothic Revival (?)

  21. ...

  22. - storage area, reading book
    Compare to Bibliothèque S. Genevieve, 1843
    -Bibliothèque S. Genevieve is creating its own vocab

  23. - Everything is based around the fire place
    -differentiating height.
    - design elements
    - Incorporate Morris style: flat-pattern wall paper

  24. legible, regular spacing, round arches

  25. Sublime
    - Death (in Egyptian tradition) and eternity
    - Monumental size

  26. - location: next to the Pathéon, not visible from open street
    - proportion: long
    - a highly rational building
    - regular spacing on the side, larger window on the second floor - reading room
    - double vault structure
    new material: cast iron
    - honesty of material, gives an interior look of an industrial building
    - carved names of great ancient thinkers and Rafael's School of Athens -> Public library stands as encyclopaedia
    - Architecture parlante
  27. "Imperfection, good, human touch, some ind of creations, freedom, beautiful,unified whole"

    "Classical perfection results in the slavery of the workman compared the freedom of the gothic workman, praising its very impression..."

  28. - Not surrounding one building, but all the buildings form a village
    - Spread out the buildings as well as let them stand on their own

  29. -replicated in iron
    -classical order and classical prototype
    -engraver, cladding the material, cast iron

  30. Picturesque
    - Deliberate regularity
  31. - Folly in a open landscape garden
    - trace to 18th century's theme of picturesque
    - Gothic windows, circular rooms with the main vault in the center
    - built with darker ironstone, contrasts with the lighter limestone building nearby; neo-Gothic contrasts with classical design

  32. - Laugier: one can ascertain his raison d'être by looking back to the past
    - Laugier's paintings: trees and nature/post, lintel, and columns
    - Trees symbolise logical growth and structure
    - Like Nîmes in Acroplis
    - Classics is timeless and elegant

  33. - Interior is ordered and regimented
    - Exterior looks like Bastille
    - Reminiscence of punishment and terror
    - Play off of classical architecture parlante
    - Heavy walls and tiny entrance

  34. - renovate old cathedral to trinity church
    -situated at backbay
    - the building is legible from the outside
    -weightiness, dye pigment
    - play with surface, rough, hume surface
    flatness of the wall, original diagram
    - John Lafarge, stained glass window
  35. - Rejection of French culture in Germany
    - neoclassical style built by Napoleon
    - Gothic germanic tribe, german oak, cementary
    - emphasize feeling against reason
    - Medieval world, pageantry, chivalry is dead

  36. Sublime
    - Danger and beauty
    - Danger: thrill that compels or destroys/daunting/overpowering/infinitely extending/timeless/moody
    - Nature: emotional/exciting/terrifying/wonderful
    - Foster rationality by facing emotion. Extreme feelings bring extreme self-consciousness

    Picturesque
    - Regular and pretty
    - Regular: nature-perfected, purposeful and careful planning to look like unplanned, framed
    - Pretty: little buildings or follies (Jane Austen), "landscape that replicates a painting"
    - "Central park, English gardens..."

    Buildings can be both picturesque and sublime
    E.g.: Woodland cemetery. Picturesque landscape that mimics a picture + monumental cross and infinite trails

    Sublime can be achieved from Gothic/Baroque.
    E.g.: Forthill Abbey: sublime (gothic) on the inside, picturesque on the outside

  37. - Stylistic ramification
    - axial planning, tend to be symmetrical
    -everything based of parti, result of Richardson's training

  38. - Nostalgia for the pastoral
    - provision of milk for the working class and the poor
    - symbolic gestre, increase in infant mortality
    - a consideration for health environment
    - refer back to healthy age

  39. America
    - Did not debate over Greek or Roman, but over how to embody the spirit of democracy in architecture
    - Neoclassical language~Republican model of Rome~Maison Carree

    - Doric: serious, strength, protective; accessible and democratic
    - Sees Americans as agrarian gentile farmers
    - "Southern planter"
    - Quotes classical antiquity but also Renaissance.
    ~Chiswick House/Villa Rotunda
    - Brick and wood, not stone: cheap, agrarian, common

  40. prizes of war
  41. - Structure like a palace
    - Monumentalizing entrance into a city
    - "Hotels/rail stations were new cathedrals"

  42. ...
  43. - the designers want uniformity, same corner's height
    - at night, the electric light will light up the exposition
    - read as connected building, same classical style
    - White Chicago, for the benefit of the visitors.
    - Facade, not honest.

  44. vestibules, painting by French

  45. - Mythologizing the idea of vernacular (local artisan, commonplace)
    - interior design reflects exterior
    - material: humble red bricks
    - skilled craftsman
    - represents "GESAMTKUNSTWERK" (total work of art"

  46. Space benefit literal and illiterate

  47. Traveling helped people develop new appreciation of Greek architecture as rational.

  48. Nationalism expressed in adaptation of Greek and Roman architecture

    Combination of classical antiquity with national elements
    - Power
    - Seeking learning like Athens tradition

  49. Nostalgia for pre-industrialized world
    - self-sustained society
    - number of shared spaces, communal parkland
    pleasrable linkage to chicago
    - train, transportation
    - looking to English landscape for ideals

    features:
    1. expansive river front
    2. triangular islands
    3. common areas
    4. curvilinear roadways
  50. - The Chicago Fire gave the city an opportunity to rebuild and experiment.
    - Balloon framing, new steel framing replace the traditional mortise and tenon framing
    -Boxlike, utilitarian, simple, tall
    - less organized, mixing of pilasters, styling
    - reduced labor construct, erecting timber
    -labor saving technique
    -wood&iron
    -US, cutting-edge material
    -fresh new starts

  51. - Arcade: directional streets running through the urban fabric
    - changed the way of shopping
    - the space is both public & private
    - women start to make more public appearances

  52. ...

  53. Simple post and beams, celebrated a beautiful form

  54. - emphasis on altar;
    - interior fully gilded and decorated - shown the spiritual and religious richness that is embedded in England's history, with which Pugin though England has lost touch.
    - Gothic windows;
    - flat-patterning, saturating, the tiling of the floor.

  55. - Ally of trees, versaille
    - Literary works

  56. - location: in the Hyde Park
    - derived from elites of industry, not dilettantes
    - further explores the use of material, especially iron and glass
    - walls dissolve as if extending to infinity
    - the need for skilled labor on site was reduced
    - was taken down and reassembled in Sydenham
    - interior colouring: red, yellow, blue

  57. The plan resembles Versailles, circa 1700, director usually surveying without being watched, able to achieve constant surveilance

  58. - Emperor turned part of his private space to the museum, symbolizing communication between the learned bourgeoisie and the ruling class
    - Balance between culture and power

  59. ...

  60. ~Arc du Carousel

  61. Rationalism
    - Nationalism connotations (Gothic was actually created by medieval Frenchmen)
    - Backdrop: Haussmanization in Paris
    - Conjectural work. Not necessarily archaeologically correct
    - Idealizing

    Problem:
    - "Purifying" things to an extent that the interior objects were gotten rid of
    - Clients' needs change, so a building cannot be truly "finished"
    - Ruskin: "restoration is the worst manner of destruction"

  62. -Major pavilion, store art works
    -axial focus

  63. ...

  64. Compare to crystal palace:
    Side note:
    1. The lamp of truth
    3 deceits:
    ---Structural deceit: suggestion of a mode of structure or support other than the true one. ---Surface deceit: painting of surfaces to represent some other material than that of which they actually consist.
    ---Operative deceit: The use of cast or machine made ornaments of any kind.

  65. - portico, architectural detailing, legible on the outside
    - main axis, all roads lead to main area
  66. Greek:
    - Stone
    - Post, lintel, and column
    - Democracy
    - Peaceful, elegant
    - Sacred
    - Philosophical
    Roman:
    - Concrete
    - Arches
    - Tyranny, militaristic, grave and serious
    - secular
    - engineering

    The orders:
    - Doric: simple, restrained metope, muscular, blocky
    - Ionic: feminine, elegant, continuous frieze, taller
    - Corinthian: expressive, the most feminine, tall, slender

  67. American version of nationalism expressed in classical antiquity

  68. ...

  69. Cement, supported by steel and wood frame, impermanent material unskilled labor, deconstruct the world, done in the recession, american cast itself as the new rome.

  70. "Garden City" (Concept proposed by Ebenezer Howard)
    - The population cannot exceed 32,000
    - Self-sustaining, garden spaces, not dependent on the city
    - Everyone is cooperative, essentially renting, "everyone is an owner"
    - Cooperative ownership, making things artificially.

  71. -Chicago window, ventilation
    - valorize the Chicago style

  72. - The viewers will enter on a boat

  73. - Transportation, traffic pattern
    - roads for people, carriage traffic
    -east side and west side of view without obstructing the view
    - other roads, eyes never register them, smooth circulation
    -40 overpasses

  74. - Ruskin's opposed to Viollet-le-Duc's idea of restoration; he thinks "restoration is the worst kind of destruction"
    - the art of Gothic building implies more freedom; morally superior b/c its imperfection shows human touch
    - design and build should go hand-in-hand
    - secular view of Gothic style
    - hater of his own age - industrialisation
    - calls out three deceits: structural/ surface/ operation

  75. - elevate american life
    -makes you walk like the queen (boss of the gym)

  76. - The academic buildings are in relationship to each other, and are slightly different form one another. Chapel is the focal point
    - Chapel is higher on the lawn. ~Pantheon
    - Pantheon: all the gods~all the knowledge~university liberal arts education
    - 1st example of campus as a whole

  77. -Humble red brick, deep porches, steep roof, door hinges
    The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, designed for William Morris, Virtue, imperfection of being beautiful

  78. - Building: order and regularity. Meant to be cold
    - Straight: this is an authoritative and authoritarian building
    - Prototype of modern building: straightforwardness

  79. Background:
    - Rise of the middle class
    - Demeaning aristocracy
    - Nationalism, imperial aspiration
    - Schinkel: architect, administrator, designer of the iron cross

  80. - Large boulevard terminates in grand buildings
    - Links to present rulers
    - Links to ancient rulers (Rome~Gaul)
    - uniform, ordered, vaguely neoclassical urban landscape
    - same height and curvature of roof
    - shelter for pedestrains across from Louvre

  81. - the test-bed of prefabricated, new materials in the industrial age: cast iron and glass
    - Chatsworth Garden greenhouses
    - a light wooden frame, ridge-and-furrow roof to let in more light and drain rainwater away.

  82. Familiar with Haussman
    - The Beaux Arts+ romanesque features
    - axial planning, classical order
    - Similar in style to the Salamanca Old Cathedral
    -impressed by romanesque/ round arches/ weight/ training/ local brown stone
    - adapting them american context

  83. - Modern factory building
    - Logical, rational layout
    - Regularized layout: peasants live more regularised middle class life. Formalized, domesticated, scheduled
    - Peasants as "savage", who needs to be educated
    - Belief that such design can carry out social reform
    - Panoptic: All roads lead to the administrator~all roads lead to the king's bedroom
    - Constant surveillance: so that people behave in a certain way~prison where prisoners cannot see administrator
    - Prevent bad behaviour: transform people's behaviour through omniscient gaze rather than beating & prisoning

  84. -New Suburbs, Garden Cities, Parks
    - A social ideal, physical ideal, freestanding, distant setting
    - middle class, american dwelling,

  85. - supposed to be easily legible
    - iron&glass, monumentalized the structure
    - ennoble the act of everyday life
  86. Themes of the 18th century
    - Reason, logic, wisdom (Enlightenment)
    - Questioning organised religion
    - Appreciation of science

  87. - Restoration led by Viollet-le-Duc, who develops his theory on restoration of Gothic works
    - "reinstate in a complete state", frozen in time
    - advocates new materials - iron

  88. - Elevating science/knowledge to the status of military/powerful figures
    - At night, sky is recreated within the cenotaph
    - At day, universe is recreated
    - Funeral aspect: cypress
    ~Caesar's tomb
    - Simple abstract form of a sphere

  89. - Pursued the pure model of ancient Greece.
    - Archaeological approach to ancient antiquity
    - Bring knowledge of ancient Greece to Britain
    - Sponsored by the society of dilettante

  90. Folly, picturesque

  91. - provide woman leisure time activity
    - women are taste makers, central stair case
    - changing in marketing, a variety of grids, miscellaneous stuffs

  92. - symbolic meaning: the point of entry to get into the city
    - location: at the centre of London, therefore a part of the urban fabric
    - is a triumph gate monument at every level
    - focus of division of spaces: entry sequence/// train railroads
    - Greek Doric Columns + large tall tollgates, extends to infinity
  93. - Discovery of Pompeii in 1748: study of the past
    - Looking back to nature and antiquities to find out about why are things what they are

  94. ...

  95. - first modern Department store; precedent of today's mall
    - more private than arcade;
    - space for social mixing - akin to the Opera
    - "aspirational space" b/c people of different social class can not tell the difference
    - a variety of goods offered in one place & price is marked and fixed - allowed consumers to make decision by themselves
    - pioneering idea: exchange and refund policy

  96. - Gothic is superior because of structural rationalism (not for religious reasons)
    - Laugier
    - Every decorative element has a reason
    - Flying buttresses support building
    - Pointed arch: eyes go up
    - Embracing technology: iron
  97. -designed typefaces and furnitures
    - textile
    - a philosophy becomes a style.
    - Morris later became socialist activist
    -moral imperative
  98. - symmetrical, axial, easily accessible, read as public building
    - based around the court yard
    - classical detail, clear reference, logical & rational

  99. ...

  100. - in High Gothic idiom of 13th century
    - carries Germany's national identity - Gothic

  101. Picturesque
    - Stone folly
    - English garden

  102. ...

  103. ...

  104. - Interest in Rome
    - Four horses looted from Venice are placed on top
    - Napoleon columns~columns of Trajan

  105. - Stoa: arcade. Greek space for philosophical discussion
    - Easily accessible
    - Chronologically arranged exhibition: travel through time and history
    - New technology: iron cast handrails. Not hidden from the design
    - Clarity of design
    - Greek stoa + Roman rotunda + treasures looted form Napoleon = display nationalism through classical anquitities

  106. ...

  107. ...