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  1. Henri Labrouste, Bibliothèque S. Geneviève, Paris, 1843-48
  2. Trinity Church, Boston, 1872-77, arch.: H. H. Richardson
  3. Bethesda Terrace 1862, Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
  4. Regent Street, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)
  5. Buffalo, Guaranty Building, 1894-95, Arch.: L. Sullivan
  6. Stowe House
    1677-1788
    Architects: MulBple Architects
    (Vanbrugh, John (1664 - 1726), Adam, Robert (1728 - 1792),
    Gibbs, James (1682 - 1754), Kent, William (1684 - 1748), Soane, John (1753 - 1837))
  7. Shugborough (Staffordshire), Monument to Lysicrates, arch.: James Stuart (1713-88)
  8. Crystal Palace I, Hyde Park, London, 1850/51, Arch.: Joseph Paxton
  9. Why Gothic?
  10. Charlottesville (VA), University of Virginia, 1817-26, Arch.: Th. Jefferson
  11. A.w.n. Pugin, 'Contrasts'. 1836/1841. pamphlet.
  12. 18th century aesthetic theory and new relationships to the past: new ideas about history/Looking archeologically/Challenging status quo
  13. Sourton, Wiltshire, Stourhead, landscape garden, 1741 THE PICTURESQUE
    FOLLIES
  14. Paris, Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
    Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)
  15. Chicago, Reliance Building, 1890-95, Arch.: Burnham + Root
  16. London, Horner's Colosseum at Regent's Park, 1824, Arch.: Decimus Burton (1800-1881)
  17. Why do we begin in the 18th century?
  18. Edmund Burke, Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful,1757
  19. Plates from: "Antiquities of Athens", 1762 (1789, 1795)
    artists/architects/archeologists:James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)
  20. Rome, Arch of Septimius Severus, 203 AD
  21. Pennsylvania Station, NYC, 1906-10, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)
  22. What is the Chicago school of architecture?
  23. Paris, Opera, 1861-74, arch.: Charles Garnier
  24. Cenotaph to Isaac Newton, 1784, project, Arch.: Etienne Louis Boullée
  25. Court of Honor, Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead
  26. London, Euston Station, 1835-39 Arch:Philip Hardwick
  27. Lysicrates Monument (334 BC), Athens, Daguerreotype, May 1850, Jean BapBste Gros (1793-1870)
  28. Administration Building, 1893, Arch.: Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895)
  29. London, Langham Place, All Soul's, 1822-24, Arch.: J. Nash
  30. Stowe, England, Gothic Temple, 1739-50, Arch: John Vanbrugh, William Kent and Lancelot "Capability" Brown
  31. General Plan for Riverside, Illinois, 1869, designers: Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux
  32. What is Beaux Arts?
  33. Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
  34. 'Essay on architecture' 1753, Marc Antoine Laugier (1713 - 1769)
  35. Berlin, Altes Museum, 1823-28, Arch.: K.F.Schinkel
  36. Philip Webb and William Morris, The Red House, Bexleyheath, England, 1859-60
  37. Paris, Rue de Rivoli, 1806-35, Arch.: Percier & Fontaine
  38. Chicago, First Leiter Building, 1879, William LeBaron Jenney
  39. "Stones of Venice"
  40. Turkish Pavilion, Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
    Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead
  41. Oak Park, III. Home and Studio 1889-1909, Frank Lloyd Wright
  42. Stowe House
    1677-1788
    Architects:
    Multiple Architects Worked on Interior Marble Room
  43. John Ruskin, 'The Seven Lamps of Architecture' (1849) and 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)

    7 lamps of architecture (1849)
    1. The lamp of Truth
    2. The lamp of Sacrifice
    3. The lamp of Power
    4. The lamp of Beauty
    5. The lamp of Life
    6. The lamp of Memory
    7. The lamp of Obedience
  44. Chatsworth, Victoria Regia House, 1849, Joseph Paxton
  45. Lysicrates Monument, 334 B.C. James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)
  46. Ho-Ho-Den (Japanese Pavilion), Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
  47. Charlottesville (VA), Monticello, 1768-84, 1793-1809, Arch.: Thomas Jefferson
  48. London, Regent's Park, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)
  49. John Ruskin, 'The Stones of Venice' (1851-53)
  50. Cenotaph, EgypBan Style, c. 1784, project, arch.: EBenne Louis Boullée (1728-1799)
  51. Literary Walk, 1869, Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
  52. London, Euston Station, 1835-39, Philip Hardwick
  53. London, Regent's Park, Cumberland Terrace, 1826-27, Arch.: J. Nash
  54. London, Regent's Park and Regent Street, 1811-1825, Arch.: John Nash (1752-1818)
  55. Neoclassicism/Neoclassical
  56. Chaux (Arc et Senans, Burgundy), Salt Works, 1775-79, Arch.: C.N.Ledoux
  57. Arc du Triomphe de l'Etoile, 1806-36,
    Arch.: Jean Francois Therese Chalgrin (1739-1811)
  58. Dairy, 1869, Central Park, New York, planned 1857, finished 1880, Archs.: Fredrick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux
  59. Cologne Cathedral, begun 1248, Cologne, Germany, restoration and completion 1842-1880 (headed by August Reichensberger)
  60. Morris, Marshall, Faulkner&Co., founded 1861, and renamed as Morris and Co. in 1875
  61. Plan for a Prison in Aix-en-Provence, c.1790, Arch.: C.N. Ledoux
  62. Boston Public Library, 1888-92, arch.: Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and Stanford White (1853-1906)
  63. Paris, Notre Dame, 1163-1345; Restoration, 1845-68, Arch.: E.E. Viollet-le-Duc
  64. Laing Stores, Murray and Washington Street (NYC), 1848-49, ironwork by James Bogardus
  65. Horologion of Andronicos c. 100 B.C.
    James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)
  66. Horologion of Andronicos (Tower of the Winds) c. 100 B.C.
    James Stuart (1713 - 88). Nicholas Revett (1720 - 1804)
  67. Chicago World's Fair (also known as the World's Columbian Exposition), Chicago, 1893, planners: Daniel Burnham and F. L. Olmstead
  68. Richmond(VA), Capitol, 1785-1789, Arch: Th. Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clerisseau
  69. Akropolis, Parthenon 447 - 438 B.C.
  70. Staffordshire, England, St. Giles Cheadle, 1840-46, A.W.N. Pugin
  71. Paris, Passage des Panoramas, ca. 1802, Arch.: unknown
  72. St. Louis, Wainwright Building, 1890-91, L.Sullivan
  73. Arc du Carousel, 1806-08
    Arch.: Charles Percier (1764-1838) and Pierre Fontaine (1762-1853)
  74. Paris, Au Bon Marche, Dep. Store, 1854, 1872, Alexandre Laplage, Louis-Auguste Boileau, Gustave Eiffel
  1. a
    - Pursued the pure model of ancient Greece.
    - Archaeological approach to ancient antiquity
    - Bring knowledge of ancient Greece to Britain
    - Sponsored by the society of dilettante
  2. b
  3. c
    - Interest in Rome
    - Four horses looted from Venice are placed on top
    - Napoleon columns~columns of Trajan
  4. d
    ...
  5. e
    ...
  6. f - Rejection of French culture in Germany
    - neoclassical style built by Napoleon
    - Gothic germanic tribe, german oak, cementary
    - emphasize feeling against reason
    - Medieval world, pageantry, chivalry is dead
  7. g
    - Park similar to art museum
    - City surrounded the park, converting royal hunting grounds
    -public park is surrounded, let the common people on their land
    - planning around town square
    - elevating public access for both the rich and the poor
    - antidote to the "evil" of urban life
    - is highly artificial but reads as natural
    - picturesque: French and English garden landscape style
  8. h
  9. i
    - in High Gothic idiom of 13th century
    - carries Germany's national identity - Gothic
  10. j
    ...
  11. k
    - symbolic meaning: the point of entry to get into the city
    - location: at the centre of London, therefore a part of the urban fabric
    - is a triumph gate monument at every level
    - focus of division of spaces: entry sequence/// train railroads
    - Greek Doric Columns + large tall tollgates, extends to infinity
  12. l
    - A monumental walkway from royal residence to park
    - a meandering street that curves through the pre-existing structures.
    - an incredibly lucrative street

    vs. Versailles Square
  13. m
    - An evangelical church in All Soul's Neighbourhood
    - The idiosyncratic spire is composed of seventeen concave sides encircled by a peripteros of Corinthian columns
    - Gothic Revival (?)
  14. n
    Sublime
    - Death (in Egyptian tradition) and eternity
    - Monumental size
  15. o
  16. p
    Familiar with Haussman
    - The Beaux Arts+ romanesque features
    - axial planning, classical order
    - Similar in style to the Salamanca Old Cathedral
    -impressed by romanesque/ round arches/ weight/ training/ local brown stone
    - adapting them american context
  17. q - symmetrical, axial, easily accessible, read as public building
    - based around the court yard
    - classical detail, clear reference, logical & rational
  18. r
    Traveling helped people develop new appreciation of Greek architecture as rational.
  19. s
    ...
  20. t
    Space benefit literal and illiterate
  21. u
    - polygon of 16 faces + Doric portico of 6 columns
    - holds James Horner's panoramic painting of London
    - built in bricks and cement, in imitation of stone
  22. v
  23. w
  24. x
    - Nostalgia for the pastoral
    - provision of milk for the working class and the poor
    - symbolic gestre, increase in infant mortality
    - a consideration for health environment
    - refer back to healthy age
  25. y
    Folly, picturesque
  26. z
    - Arc du Triomphe~Arch of Titus
    - Napoleon statue~Apollo Belvedere
    - Meant to display national power and glory; obvious
  27. aa
    - Sublime
    - Egyptian style
    - Referring to Caesar's tomb
    - Vaguely moody
    - symbolises immortality
    - Do not need education to read this language
    - More universal than neoclassicism
    - More communicative
    - Forms that speak: Architecture Parlante
  28. ab
    -Major pavilion, store art works
    -axial focus
  29. ac
    Sublime
    - Danger and beauty
    - Danger: thrill that compels or destroys/daunting/overpowering/infinitely extending/timeless/moody
    - Nature: emotional/exciting/terrifying/wonderful
    - Foster rationality by facing emotion. Extreme feelings bring extreme self-consciousness

    Picturesque
    - Regular and pretty
    - Regular: nature-perfected, purposeful and careful planning to look like unplanned, framed
    - Pretty: little buildings or follies (Jane Austen), "landscape that replicates a painting"
    - "Central park, English gardens..."

    Buildings can be both picturesque and sublime
    E.g.: Woodland cemetery. Picturesque landscape that mimics a picture + monumental cross and infinite trails

    Sublime can be achieved from Gothic/Baroque.
    E.g.: Forthill Abbey: sublime (gothic) on the inside, picturesque on the outside
  30. ad
    - Emperor turned part of his private space to the museum, symbolizing communication between the learned bourgeoisie and the ruling class
    - Balance between culture and power
  31. ae
    - Interior is ordered and regimented
    - Exterior looks like Bastille
    - Reminiscence of punishment and terror
    - Play off of classical architecture parlante
    - Heavy walls and tiny entrance
  32. af
    ...
  33. ag
    - Everything is based around the fire place
    -differentiating height.
    - design elements
    - Incorporate Morris style: flat-pattern wall paper
  34. ah
    ...
  35. ai
    - Laugier: one can ascertain his raison d'être by looking back to the past
    - Laugier's paintings: trees and nature/post, lintel, and columns
    - Trees symbolise logical growth and structure
    - Like Nîmes in Acroplis
    - Classics is timeless and elegant
  36. aj
    - Mythologizing the idea of vernacular (local artisan, commonplace)
    - interior design reflects exterior
    - material: humble red bricks
    - skilled craftsman
    - represents "GESAMTKUNSTWERK" (total work of art"
  37. ak
    - location: next to the Pathéon, not visible from open street
    - proportion: long
    - a highly rational building
    - regular spacing on the side, larger window on the second floor - reading room
    - double vault structure
    new material: cast iron
    - honesty of material, gives an interior look of an industrial building
    - carved names of great ancient thinkers and Rafael's School of Athens -> Public library stands as encyclopaedia
    - Architecture parlante
  38. al
    - location: at a focal point of Hausmann's new avenue
    - big central steps: mixing of different social class in the grand staircase
    - less about the opera, but more about the ritual of attending an opera
    - refer back to Baroque in 16th and 17th century, juxtaposition of large spaces
    - three entrances at different levels
    - inside can be read from outside spaces
    - Catholic churches' effort to pull the crowd's from protestant
  39. am
    Picturesque
    - Stone folly
    - English garden
  40. an
    - Sullivan, drops out MIT
    - access to german cutting-edge theory
    - Honey comb, Virtue , Interior, circulatory system
    - New American vernacular, american regional
    - "forms follow function"
    -exterior form reflects the interior function

    Loftiness
    - extend definitely
    - resemble columns, extrapolating, cornice
    - buffalo, guaranty building
    - making american columns
  41. ao
    Loftiness, recessed in, shallow
    base, heavier, light, carefully calibrated
    - the pattern is inspired by american native plants
    - cladding helps to protect service, cast sun shadow, provide the building.
  42. ap
  43. aq
    - Restoration led by Viollet-le-Duc, who develops his theory on restoration of Gothic works
    - "reinstate in a complete state", frozen in time
    - advocates new materials - iron
  44. ar
    ...
  45. as
  46. at
    Street of Paris, nice broad street, city acquire avenue, building on the either side, remake city
    - poor district ends up in the east
    - prevailing wing, obnoxious
    - cohabitation, building was for all social classes
    - nostalgic, city transformed.
  47. au
    - provide woman leisure time activity
    - women are taste makers, central stair case
    - changing in marketing, a variety of grids, miscellaneous stuffs
  48. av
  49. aw - Folly in a open landscape garden
    - trace to 18th century's theme of picturesque
    - Gothic windows, circular rooms with the main vault in the center
    - built with darker ironstone, contrasts with the lighter limestone building nearby; neo-Gothic contrasts with classical design
  50. ax
    Picturesque
    - Deliberate regularity
  51. ay - the designers want uniformity, same corner's height
    - at night, the electric light will light up the exposition
    - read as connected building, same classical style
    - White Chicago, for the benefit of the visitors.
    - Facade, not honest.
  52. az
    ...
  53. ba
    ...
  54. bb
    American version of nationalism expressed in classical antiquity
  55. bc Greek:
    - Stone
    - Post, lintel, and column
    - Democracy
    - Peaceful, elegant
    - Sacred
    - Philosophical
    Roman:
    - Concrete
    - Arches
    - Tyranny, militaristic, grave and serious
    - secular
    - engineering

    The orders:
    - Doric: simple, restrained metope, muscular, blocky
    - Ionic: feminine, elegant, continuous frieze, taller
    - Corinthian: expressive, the most feminine, tall, slender
  56. bd
    - location: in the Hyde Park
    - derived from elites of industry, not dilettantes
    - further explores the use of material, especially iron and glass
    - walls dissolve as if extending to infinity
    - the need for skilled labor on site was reduced
    - was taken down and reassembled in Sydenham
    - interior colouring: red, yellow, blue
  57. be
  58. bf
    ~Arc du Carousel
  59. bg "Imperfection, good, human touch, some ind of creations, freedom, beautiful,unified whole"

    "Classical perfection results in the slavery of the workman compared the freedom of the gothic workman, praising its very impression..."
  60. bh Themes of the 18th century
    - Reason, logic, wisdom (Enlightenment)
    - Questioning organised religion
    - Appreciation of science
  61. bi
    ...
  62. bj - Structure like a palace
    - Monumentalizing entrance into a city
    - "Hotels/rail stations were new cathedrals"
  63. bk
    - elevate american life
    -makes you walk like the queen (boss of the gym)
  64. bl
  65. bm - Discovery of Pompeii in 1748: study of the past
    - Looking back to nature and antiquities to find out about why are things what they are
  66. bn
  67. bo
    Daguerreotype faithfully captures architectural details and helped dissemination of knowledge
  68. bp
    - emphasis on altar;
    - interior fully gilded and decorated - shown the spiritual and religious richness that is embedded in England's history, with which Pugin though England has lost touch.
    - Gothic windows;
    - flat-patterning, saturating, the tiling of the floor.
  69. bq
    America
    - Did not debate over Greek or Roman, but over how to embody the spirit of democracy in architecture
    - Neoclassical language~Republican model of Rome~Maison Carree

    - Doric: serious, strength, protective; accessible and democratic
    - Sees Americans as agrarian gentile farmers
    - "Southern planter"
    - Quotes classical antiquity but also Renaissance.
    ~Chiswick House/Villa Rotunda
    - Brick and wood, not stone: cheap, agrarian, common
  70. br -designed typefaces and furnitures
    - textile
    - a philosophy becomes a style.
    - Morris later became socialist activist
    -moral imperative
  71. bs - The Chicago Fire gave the city an opportunity to rebuild and experiment.
    - Balloon framing, new steel framing replace the traditional mortise and tenon framing
    -Boxlike, utilitarian, simple, tall
    - less organized, mixing of pilasters, styling
    - reduced labor construct, erecting timber
    -labor saving technique
    -wood&iron
    -US, cutting-edge material
    -fresh new starts
  72. bt
    - Ruskin's opposed to Viollet-le-Duc's idea of restoration; he thinks "restoration is the worst kind of destruction"
    - the art of Gothic building implies more freedom; morally superior b/c its imperfection shows human touch
    - design and build should go hand-in-hand
    - secular view of Gothic style
    - hater of his own age - industrialisation
    - calls out three deceits: structural/ surface/ operation
  73. bu
    - Ally of trees, versaille
    - Literary works
  74. bv
    - Pugin thinks that Gothic is morally superior to the other styles in the modern period (Neoclassical...)
    - paired images of late medieval institutions and its modern counterpart
    - aesthetic revolution against the industrial age