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  1. Mosaic TitleworkPrimary place of worship for Islam.

          

  2. DikkaMeteorite/stone that was seen spiritual to the Islams. Housed in the Ka'ba.

          

  3. Influences of the design of the mosque
    Type of Mosque popular in Arabia, North Africa, and Spain. Has a columned hall, and a minaret. Ex. Great Mosque of Cordoba.

          

  4. Maqsura
    A special processional area reserved for the retinue of the caliph.

          

  5. Haram
    Covered prayer hall in a mosque. Where the mass prayer takes place.

          

  6. Columned Hall/Hypostyle Mosques
    Type of Mosque popular in Arabia, North Africa, and Spain. Has a columned hall, and a minaret. Ex. Great Mosque of Cordoba.

          

  7. Sahn
    Arcaded court in a mosque. A courtyard.

          

  8. QiblaMeteorite/stone that was seen spiritual to the Islams. Housed in the Ka'ba.

          

  9. The Great Mosque 785 Cordoba Spain
    Congregational mosque. Umayyad built rectangular minarets. Was a site of a Greek temple and then a Roman temple. Used the foundation walls to create a hypostyle hall. Oldest extant mosque. Constructed under al-Walid I. Had four minarets that had elevated platforms at the corners of the site from which summon the faithful to prayer. Over half of the inner space is the sahn containing a domed fountain pavilion for ritual ablutions and an octagonal pavilion originally used for the public treasury. Has a haram.

          

  10. MosquePrimary place of worship for Islam.

          

  11. Muezzin
    Man who who would climb up on the minaret of a masque to call all men to prayer.

          

  12. Ka'ba Mecca
    Means cube. Cloth draped cubical shrine. Stone structure covered in a cloth. Houses a sacred stone, before Muhammad, the Qibla - meteorite. When Muhammad was 10 a major earthquake happened, damaged the Ka'ba. Muhammad chose where the stone was placed.

          

  13. Dome of the Rock (687-91) in Jerusalem Israel
    Located on Mount Moriah sacred to the Jews and Muslims. Site where Abraham had offered his son Isaac as a sacrifice to the lord and the location of Solomon's temple. Also the place where Mohammed ascended in his night journey to paradise. The shrine was built around the rock. Commemorative mosque built to honor the holy site. Builders were from Syria (previous Byzantine empire). Has a centralized plan. Has marble veneer and mosaic titles on the exterior. The dome was covered in gold leaf and built with wood ribs. Wood boards were then put on the ribs. The boards were covered with lead and then gold leaf. Has 2 ambulatory aisles. Built around a rock outcropping. Arches has alternating black and white marble voussiors.

          

  14. Muqarnas
    Islamic vault treatment that fragments the surface into many concave segments. May be built in masonry or suspended as elements from an overhead structure.

          

  15. The Alhambra Palace, Granada, Spain, 13th-14th century CE
    Umayyad palace built by Caliph al-Walid II. The palace was abandoned before it was ever completed. Has a buttressed, square enclosure.

          

  16. The Great Mosque at Damascus (706-15)
    Congregational, hypostyle mosque with a nearly square plan, half was the sahn and the other half was the haram, which had 10 rows of 11 columns to form a 11-aisled sanctuary. Arches connect the columns. Two arch levels, and are polychrome - composed of white stone voussoirs set alternately red brick ones. Abd al Raham III patron of the mosque. Has a rectangular minaret. Horseshoe arches and columns used as ornament. The floor was covered in a clay tile. Interior has a forest of columns. The mihrab has a dome and clestitory windows. Arches made of brick and stone. Hypostyle hall made of spolia. Building on ancient traditions of the Middle East, Egypt, and Persia. The colonades has a double tier system of arches. New arches has scalloping in the arches and the arches are interlaced.

          

  17. Minbar
    A raised pulpit(platform) with steps leading up to it, from which Qur'anic readings, sermons, or official proclamations and addresses are given by the imam(priest).

          

  18. GessoA large, unroofed open space with a long prayer wall on one side in a Muslim town.

          

  19. Bazaar
    covered market in Islamic cities.

          

  20. House of the Prophet at Medina (ca. 622)
    Congregational mosque. Umayyad built rectangular minarets. Was a site of a Greek temple and then a Roman temple. Used the foundation walls to create a hypostyle hall. Oldest extant mosque. Constructed under al-Walid I. Had four minarets that had elevated platforms at the corners of the site from which summon the faithful to prayer. Over half of the inner space is the sahn containing a domed fountain pavilion for ritual ablutions and an octagonal pavilion originally used for the public treasury. Has a haram.

          

  21. Qibla WallPrayer wall in the mosque that faces Mecca. Back wall of a mosque.

          

  22. Friday Mosque in Isfahan Iran 8th Century
    Earliest iwan mosque. Original form was a rectangular multi-columned hall covered with a wooden roof, with a large sahn at its core. The southern dome covered 20 bays. Later 4 iwans were added, one in the center of each side of the sahn. Had glazed titles in shades of blue, turquoise, white, and yellow, and stalactite-like muqarnas vaults. Entire building, including the dome, is covered in tile.

          

  23. Madrasas
    Covered prayer hall in a mosque. Where the mass prayer takes place.

          

  24. IwanA large, unroofed open space with a long prayer wall on one side in a Muslim town.

          

  25. Cuerda seca
    Took twine and used it to outline the design on the tile and then put twine in between the colors and then put silica on it and bake it. The twine kept the paint from mixing. Could have large painted tiles versus small ones.

          

  26. Ablutions Fountain
    Symbolic or suggestive. This style was used in Islamic ornamentation and design. Design with no living figures.

          

  27. CaliphsReligious and civil ruler in a Muslim country.

          

  28. The 5 pillars of Islam
    Covered prayer hall in a mosque. Where the mass prayer takes place.

          

  29. Congregational/Friday mosque
    Mosque type popular in Turkey. Large, centrally organized mosque with domed spaces.

          

  30. Umayyad Palace, Mshatta, Jordan, c. 740-750 CE
    Founded by Sultan Hassan. It was a religious and a mosque. Has 4 iwans.

          

  31. MuhammadMost important Islamic prophet. Lived near Mecca.

          

  32. Grand Mosque at Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 7th century
    Earliest iwan mosque. Original form was a rectangular multi-columned hall covered with a wooden roof, with a large sahn at its core. The southern dome covered 20 bays. Later 4 iwans were added, one in the center of each side of the sahn. Had glazed titles in shades of blue, turquoise, white, and yellow, and stalactite-like muqarnas vaults. Entire building, including the dome, is covered in tile.

          

  33. Bibi Khanum Mosque, Samarkand, Uzbekistan 1399
    Congregational, hypostyle mosque with a nearly square plan, half was the sahn and the other half was the haram, which had 10 rows of 11 columns to form a 11-aisled sanctuary. Arches connect the columns. Two arch levels, and are polychrome - composed of white stone voussoirs set alternately red brick ones. Abd al Raham III patron of the mosque. Has a rectangular minaret. Horseshoe arches and columns used as ornament. The floor was covered in a clay tile. Interior has a forest of columns. The mihrab has a dome and clestitory windows. Arches made of brick and stone. Hypostyle hall made of spolia. Building on ancient traditions of the Middle East, Egypt, and Persia. The colonades has a double tier system of arches. New arches has scalloping in the arches and the arches are interlaced.

          

  34. Aniconic
    Symbolic or suggestive. This style was used in Islamic ornamentation and design. Design with no living figures.

          

  35. Iwan Mosques
    Mosques popular in Iran and Central Asia. Consists of a rectangular court flanked by large, often vaulted spaces, or iwans.

          

  36. Mosaic: "Visions of Paradise" at the Great Mosque at Damascus
    Aniconic mosaic. Heaven and paradise in the desert is an oasis. Used images of architecture.

          

  37. Multi-Domed Mosques
    Mosque type popular in Turkey. Large, centrally organized mosque with domed spaces.

          

  38. Mihrab
    A raised pulpit(platform) with steps leading up to it, from which Qur'anic readings, sermons, or official proclamations and addresses are given by the imam(priest).

          

  39. IdgabA large, unroofed open space with a long prayer wall on one side in a Muslim town.

          

  40. The Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil at Samarra Iraq (848/49-52)
    Congregational mosque. Umayyad built rectangular minarets. Was a site of a Greek temple and then a Roman temple. Used the foundation walls to create a hypostyle hall. Oldest extant mosque. Constructed under al-Walid I. Had four minarets that had elevated platforms at the corners of the site from which summon the faithful to prayer. Over half of the inner space is the sahn containing a domed fountain pavilion for ritual ablutions and an octagonal pavilion originally used for the public treasury. Has a haram.

          

  41. Minaret
    Tower on a mosque. Place for the muezzin to climb up on the top on Friday to call all men to the mosque. Visual marker in the landscape.

          

  42. Four design strategies for ornamentation of mosquesRepetition of an architectural element like an arch, geometric manipulations like rotated and interlocking polygons, organic growth in the form of plantlike foliation, and calligraphy.

          

  43. Madrasa of Sultan, Cairo, Egypt, c. 1356 CE
    Founded by Sultan Hassan. It was a religious and a mosque. Has 4 iwans.

          

  44. MasjidA district or neighborhood mosque.