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61 True/False questions

  1. Peristyle
    A portico of columns on the front of a building.

          

  2. Citadel of Mycenae
    The city is located on high ground, protected from mountains to the north and on the south the city was flanked by two ravines. The city was concerned about defense. The fortification walls were 18-24ft thick and up to 40ft high. Construction of boulders set in position with minimal shaping and no mortar except for the sections adjacent to the gates where the stone was cut into large blocks. Used cyclopean masonry and main entrance was the Lion Gate. Had narrow passageway for defense.

          

  3. Cornice
    The uppermost part of an entablature and overhangs off the wall.

          

  4. Palace of Knossos - 1900 BCE
    Temenos for Athena. Contains the Temple of Athena Nike, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion, and the Parthenon.

          

  5. Temenos
    Sacred site, sanctuary, would have a temple for Greek gods and goddesses. Sacred sites were set apart from towns and villages on mountains and woods. They were neutral sites.

          

  6. Entablature
    The slight outward curve of a column which then tapers to the top of the shaft.

          

  7. Base
    The sanctuary of a Greek temple.

          

  8. Tryglyphs
    A channeled block set between metopes in a Doric frieze.

          

  9. Skene
    Orchestra backdrop structure at a Greek theater.

          

  10. Tholos at Mycenae
    The city is located on high ground, protected from mountains to the north and on the south the city was flanked by two ravines. The city was concerned about defense. The fortification walls were 18-24ft thick and up to 40ft high. Construction of boulders set in position with minimal shaping and no mortar except for the sections adjacent to the gates where the stone was cut into large blocks. Used cyclopean masonry and main entrance was the Lion Gate. Had narrow passageway for defense.

          

  11. Stylobate
    The base, usually having steps, on which a colonnaded temple sits.

          

  12. The Temple of Athena Nike Acropolis, 427-424 BCE
    Had painted frescoes from other buildings stored there with statues such as the wooden statue of Athena. Used Ionic columns. Used as a storage place. Porch of maidens attached to the building later after construction. The Caryatids were Captives of war - feet and arms were bound by rope.

          

  13. In antis columns
    Columns in the plane of the front and rear walls and between anta.

          

  14. Polis
    Order that is the sturdiest and based on proportions of man. This column has no base and has the simplest capital atop the fluted shaft. Its entablature has a plain architrave and alternating metopes and triglyphs in the frieze, which is crowned with a cornice. Made of limestone.

          

  15. Tholos
    Circular.

          

  16. NaosLowest part of a column or pier.

          

  17. The Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, c. 400 BCE
    Temenos for Athena. Contains the Temple of Athena Nike, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion, and the Parthenon.

          

  18. Orchestra
    The bottom portion of an entablature.

          

  19. Aegean Megaron
    A rectangular room having a central hearth and four columns supporting the roof with an atrium opening. Were used in Mycenae and Minoan cultures.

          

  20. Acropolis, Athens, 421-407 BCE
    Temenos for Athena. Contains the Temple of Athena Nike, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion, and the Parthenon.

          

  21. Tholos Temple, 4th century BCE
    Doric order and circular peristyle temple built at Delphi that wasn't dedicated to anyone. Oracle of Delphi (woman who could speak to the gods) lived at this temple at Delphi.

          

  22. Dentils
    Cornice molding composed of rectangular blocks set in a row like teeth.

          

  23. Architrave
    Wall thickenings.

          

  24. Opisthodomos
    Circular.

          

  25. AbacusConvex, roughly semi-circular molding often seen at the base of a classical column.

          

  26. Proskenion
    Was a raised platform for actors directly in front at a Greek Theater.

          

  27. Temple of Hera Olympia (ca. 600-590 BCE)
    Minoan temple or palace, unfortified. Was a labyrinth and had frescoes on the walls. Lower levels of Knossos was built from ashlar masonry while the upper floors were built from walls of rubble with timbers, wooden columns, and large wooden beams. The Minoan column was a downward tapering shaft with a bulbous torus ring and abacus block capitol. The complex had lustral-basins (a pool used for ritual purification) and the complex was made up of Aegean megarons. Single cell houses were common in the Aegean region.

          

  28. The Parthenon, Temple of Athena Polias, Acropolis 448-432 BCE
    Has Ionic style, symbolizing the characteristics of the Nike, a mystical, small, female, fairy with glowing wings. They were a good omen.

          

  29. Ashlar
    Open space used for a market space. A temple was constructed on its side and other government buildings were built there, such as a city hall.

          

  30. The City of Athens
    Before this city, there was a small port village and north of it was a clearing on a mountainous hill. Built a temenos there for the goddess Athena. People would flee to the rock up cropping during warfare. They called it the Acropolis. It was always too dangerous to go home during the archaic period. People started to live on the rock. Farmers found out if they got to the rock first they would sell their crops. Markets cropped up around the acropolis. Eventually everyone moves back out of the temenos and lived outside of it. The Agora was then established at the city. A temple was constructed on its side and other government buildings were built there, such as a city hall. Founded a representative government, early democracy.

          

  31. Classical Orders
    High city or city of the gods.

          

  32. Labyrinth
    Wall thickenings.

          

  33. Stoa
    Wall thickenings.

          

  34. Pediment
    The gable end of a temple, framed by cornices.

          

  35. Frieze
    The horizontal element above the architrave and below the cornice in an entablature. Band of sculpture on the entablature.

          

  36. Cella
    The shrine room in the center of the temple.

          

  37. Prostyle
    A portico of columns on the front of a building.

          

  38. Anta
    Wall thickenings.

          

  39. The Erechtheion, Acropolis, 421-407 BCE.
    Gateway to the Acropolis. Has the Doric order.

          

  40. Peripteral Columns
    Columns in the plane of the front and rear walls and between anta.

          

  41. Pronaos
    The sanctuary of a Greek temple.

          

  42. Spear Bearer (Doryphoros), Polykleitos, c. 440-430 BCE
    Bronze statue that symbolized human proportion and served as a model to sculptors. Showed perfect body in motion and perfect balance. Statue built by Polykleitos. Statue originally had a bronze spear.

          

  43. VestibuleAn antechamber before a major space.

          

  44. Acropolis
    High city or city of the gods.

          

  45. Corinthian
    The uppermost part of an entablature and overhangs off the wall.

          

  46. Fluting
    Grooves carved into the surface of the column with a tip between each flute. The tip will catch the tips leaving the groove dark, so it looks curved from far away.

          

  47. Entasis
    Wall thickenings.

          

  48. Caryatid
    Wall thickenings.

          

  49. TorusConvex, roughly semi-circular molding often seen at the base of a classical column.

          

  50. The Propylaia Acropolis, 437-432 BCE
    Gateway to the Acropolis. Has the Doric order.

          

  51. Mycenaeans
    Named from the largest citadel there, Mycenae. They were warrior kings, who settled on mainland Greece. Settlements were heavily fortified.

          

  52. Doric
    Order that is lighter to reflect women. Column has a base supporting its fluted shaft and a capital with volutes. Its entablature also has an architrave and frieze. Cornice has dentils. Made of marble.

          

  53. Megaron
    Fundamental unit of building and space. Used for ceremonial uses.

          

  54. Echinus
    Sacred site, sanctuary, would have a temple for Greek gods and goddesses. Sacred sites were set apart from towns and villages on mountains and woods. They were neutral sites.

          

  55. VoluteConvex, roughly semi-circular molding often seen at the base of a classical column.

          

  56. Ionic
    Order that is lighter to reflect women. Column has a base supporting its fluted shaft and a capital with volutes. Its entablature also has an architrave and frieze. Cornice has dentils. Made of marble.

          

  57. Settle Refinements to the design of the Parthenon
    The four columns on the corner are wider and moved on the diagonal by just a little bit. The columns on the side leans inwards a little bit. Stylobate and the Entablature curved along the center and back down again. Changes were done to adapt it so that it looked perfect from far away. This was done by entasis. The ornament was organized on the temple. Will only find ornament on the pediment, entablature and frieze within. Interior columns was Ionic order. Statue of Athena sat inside.

          

  58. Agora
    Open space used for a market space. A temple was constructed on its side and other government buildings were built there, such as a city hall.

          

  59. Minoans
    Element of the Doric frieze, set alternately with triglyphs. Panels contain low relief carvings.

          

  60. Metopes
    Named from Minos (was a name of a king or royal title). Lived on Modern day Crete Greece. Largest site is Knossos. Settlements were unfortified. Frescoes presented them as energetic and cheerful people.

          

  61. The Temple of Apollo
    Sacred site, sanctuary, would have a temple for Greek gods and goddesses. Sacred sites were set apart from towns and villages on mountains and woods. They were neutral sites.