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The monastery of St. Martin at Canigou (1001-26)

Patron was the Count of Cerdagne, landlord. Located on the Pyrenees, on a rocky outcrop. One of the earliest completely vaulted Romanesque church. The plan of the church is a basilica without transepts but with semicircular apses terminating the aisles and nave. The barrel vaults of the nave and aisles rest on 8 columns and 2 piers and the exterior walls. The only natural light comes through small windows at the east and west ends, causing a dark interior. A square plan tower sits next to the church and the cloister and the rest of the buildings have an irregular quadrangle. Has semicircular arches over the windows.


Romanesque style - 1000-1250

Buildings tend to be massive and heavy. Employs the Roman arch, semicircular arch. Masonry construction. Because openings could weaken the supporting wall, windows were used sparingly.

Ottonian Architecture

An extension of Carolingian traditions, the German expression of Romanesque.

Speyer Cathedral, ca. 1030-82

Massive construction. Flanked by a pair of square plan towers. The nave is wide, long, and tall, framed by semicircular arches surrounding each wall bay. Uses transverse arches in the interior.

Transverse arch

An arch spanning across a long hall or nave.

S. Miniato al Monte in Florence (1062-90 and later)

A single pair of aisles flanks the transept-less nave, which is replaced with an apse. Roof is supported by a wooden trusses and the faรงade has 5 arches with Corinthian half-columns, with Corinthian pilasters and a gable. There are geometric patterns set in marble veneers on the faรงade.

Pisa Cathedral (1063, 1089-1272)

A cruciform basilica has double aisles and galleries flanking the nave, and single aisles and galleries flanking the transepts. An oval dome is supported by squinches and pendentives on the crossing. The rest of the church has wooden trusses supporting the roof. The exterior is stacked in rows of marble arcades around the sides of the church. Next to the church is the baptistery and a cylindrical campanile, the Tower of Pisa.

S. Ambrogio in Milan (1080-1140)

Has an arcaded atrium that precedes the church proper. The basilica's transept is replaced with a semicircular apse and smaller semicircular chapels at the ends of the groin-vaulted aisles. Has galleries over the aisles. Has rib vaults.

Rib vaults

A vault where ribs ride below and usually support the vault web.

Santiago de Compostela

In northwestern Spain became a pilgrimage site at 900 with the shrine of the apostle, James. This led to a network of roads for the growing numbers of pilgrims that traveled to visit the site. A crusade of armies traveled down to this city, to capture it from Islam as a holy site.


The eastern end of a basilican church, where the divine service was sung.

St. Sernin, Toulouse, ca. 1077-1119

Church with paired aisles on each side of the nave. Four chapels on the east of the large transept, and 5 radiating chapels around the apse. Has barrel vaults, with transverse arches supported by colonnettes, columns conceptually captive in the wall. The church has a triangular cross section. Large city on the pilgrimage route. Has a large crossing tower, several stories tall. East end with the apse, Apse at the same height of the nave, ambulatory lower the apse. Can see the radiating chapels. Has an ambulatory aisle behind the apse. Plan looks like a cross. It is a basilica cross plan. Cannot have windows on the barrel vault.


A tower with windows rising above the roofline or above the oculus of a dome.


The semicircular panel created under the arch of a doorway.


Holy space, depicted blue, where Christ presides as he comes down to earth.

"Christ in Majesty," Santa Maria de Mur (Lerida) Spain, c. 1150

Located in the apse, a painting. Mosaic too expensive, so interiors were painted in brilliant colors. Appreviated form of the second coming of Christ. Shows Christ sitting in a mandorla.

"The Second Coming of Christ" St. Pierre at Moissac France, 1115-1130

After the apocalypse, Christ will return to earth. Last day of Judgement, Christ will determine who will have internal life or internal damnation. Christ seated on throne and in center. Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are 4 of the apostles next to Christ. 24 elders - represent the 24 kings of 24 kingdoms - metaphorical, kingdoms of Earth.



Prophecy that the world will be destroyed.

Apocalypse of Saint-Sever, France, c. 1050-1070

Manuscript, hand written book, illuminated - painted with an image. Made of parchment. Image of the second coming of Christ. Christ is in his Mandorla, with the 4 apostles next to him. Earth is red, and only the 24 kings are left. Angels on each side of the Earth, acting as the witnesses.

Radiating Chapel

Semicircular spaces that would have an altar for a saint that you can leave offerings.

Pilgrimage church plan

Romanesque church that were usually small in size, and had radiating chapels and a ambulatory aisle behind the apse.

St. Foy at Conques, ca. 1050-1130

Plan has a single pair of aisles and galleries flanking the nave. Over the crossing is an octagonal lantern built on a squinch, a series of corbeled arches make the transition from a square bay to an octagon. Located in a valley, the hillside contained the graveside of Foy (a saint). Has a westwerk - two towers between the entry. A tower is placed between the nave and transept at the crossing. Called the crossing tower. Two stories and has clerstory windows, used to light up the church. Little light coming in besides the lantern on the crossing tower. Small church. Nave elevation is two stories with a nave arcade. Upper part is triforium - narrow gallery space above the side aisles. Not meant for people to go up there. Later it was opened up when they needed more space. The nave has a barrel vault, why the nave was narrow. Transverse arches intersects the barrel vault. They need transverse arches at every bay so they could build the barrel vault in pieces. The transverse arch reinforces the barrel vault. It transfers straight across. Pilgrimage church plan - pilgrims would enter side doors and go down the side aisle. Added an ambulatory aisle, it hugs the inside was of the transept and wraps around behind the apse and then connects back to the side aisle. Made it possible to go through the church to leave an offering without disturbing service. Radiating chapels - semicircular spaces that would have an altar for a saint that you can leave offerings.

St. Foy

Foy - translate to faith. Woman who died at age 7, during a Pagan time. She went knocking on everyone's doors to talk about Christianity. Freaked people out and was burned to the stake because people thought she was a witch. She was buried at a remote site. If you brought children to this site, you could ask to heal the children. Statue has the skull of St. Foy in the inside.

Monastery of Cluny III, 11th century

910, Duke William of Aquitaine commissioned a monastery at Cluny. Monastery leader was Abbot Berno. Had independence from religious authorities and had outgrown its villa. This was known as Cluny II. This led to the construction of Cluny III. Monastery church was based on a basilican plan, with a double set of transepts. Had a series of radiating chapels around the apse and eastern walls of the transepts. Towers created a vertical emphasis. Interior had many windows and clerestories. Discovered that vaults constructed of a pointed arch exerts less outward truss then the Roman arch.

Abbey of Fontenay, Burgundy, 1139-47

Best preserved early Cistercian monasteries. Modeled off of St. Gall. The module is also used for the cloister walk, the chapter house, workroom, and forge building.

Church of St. Etienne Caen (Normandy) France, 1068-1120

The church of where William's brother was the bishop of. Three parts of the westwerk were divided by wall buttress which were wall thickenings. The towers has bells, became bell towers. Has a wide nave, due to large population. Originally planned for a wood roof, but they heard of the vaulting system of Durham. Sexpartite vault a six part vault. Has no alternate support system. Has semicircular arches. Has two bays within two transepts. Built one massive four part vault and then throw in a transept arch in the middle. Creates six vault shells. Each shell is an individual unit. The clerestory windows are taller than Durham, creating more light flow. The arches in the vaulting are not semi-circles, but pointed arches in the vaulting system.

Cathedral of St. Cuthbert, Durham 1093-1133

Cathedral that has massive, manly proportions and thick walls. Built in the English style. Has squarish proportions and low buildings. Has long naves. Has a transept in the central of the church. Has a squarish, flat apse. It is a congregational church. Has no radiating chapels. A monastic church because it has a cloister. The westwerk was massive, and could be seen miles away before coming to the castle. Interior has thick columns. Compound piers, Has bundles of shafts carved around it. Has a A, B rhythm and chevron designs. Piers has shafts that goes all the way up and becomes an transept and arch and then goes all the way back down. Gives unity to the space and a orderliness to the space. Columns only go up to the nave arcade. Rib quad partite vault - Has two bays between two transept arches. Has two diagonal ribs that cross the bays. Built the ribs and transept arches first, then the vault shells on top of it. Each shell is separate. Can make them curved and add windows in them. Can have clerestory windows in the vaults. The arches has denteling. The ribs has denteling as well. The vault shells used to have paint.


Zig-zag design.

Norman castle

Fortification that has a bailey. Has round towers easy to move around in and almost has a 360 range for arrows. A moat surrounds the complex for defense. Has one entrance. It has thick walls. There is a keep, a tower inside the bailey, several stories high and a place to hide and call for help.


open space in the interior of the castle for practicing combat.


Deep ditch around the castle. Later filled with water.


A tower inside the bailey, several stories high and a place to hide and call for help. Ground floor was for grain and another was for water.


Shelter in one of the crenelations that was used as a restroom. The waste would fall into the moat. A one was created into an interior building that dropped waste into a cesspit.

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