Origins of Roman Architecture flashcards |

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Tuscan Order

It has a base stone, shaft and capital. However the shafts were of wood on top of a stone base. Has no fluting. The capitol was also made of wood. The capital is spreading its width.

Tumulus

Circular structure.

Tufa

Porous and soft volcanic rock. Used in Etruscan settlements.

Atrium

The central space of a Roman house, open to the sky and serving as a source of light and fresh air.

Impluvium

Basin to collect rain water.

Sarcophagus

A stone coffin, typically adorned with a sculpture or inscription.

Cardo

Main north-south Street.The cardo was the main north-south-oriented street in Roman cities, military camps, and coloniae. The cardo, an integral component of city planning, was lined with shops and vendors, and served as a hub of economic life. The main cardo was called cardo maximus

Decamanus

East-west route.

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Tripartite

Consisting of 3 parts, like a 3 part cella.

Etruscans

They settled and developed their culture in modern day Tuscany. Settlements were organized into autonomous city-states. The economy was based on agriculture and international trade especially in metals. They developed their own city states and had their own rulers. Their city-states were independent of each other and they had a peaceful culture.

Etruscan Temple, 6th century BCE

A temple with Tuscan columns. Roof was wood framed with terracotta clay tiles. Has an eave and portico. Has no pediment. Has a gabled roof. The temple has one set of steps on the central axis. Has a main faรงade. Minimum number of columns. It is very practical. The cella is divided into three rooms (tripartite), each room dedicated to a different god. Temples were located in urban areas. Made of unbaked brick. Has terracotta statues aligned on the roof. The clay statues were painted.

Necropolis, Cerveteri, Italy, 6th-7th century BCE

Old burial site with roads going through it. Two types of buildings, Tumulus and rectangular tombs. Both made of tufa. Has doors on them next to streets. Tumulus has rotunda walls. These buildings were used for tombs and houses. Tumulus was cut into rectangular spaces. Wall divided up spaces for different functions. The room in the back was the triclinium. Benches were carved out of tufa. Rectangular tomb has a gabled roof in the interior. Looks flat from the outside.

Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerverteri, 3rd century BCE

Interior was covered in plaster so they would carve into it. Everything the family might have were carved into the tomb walls, such as tools, robes, and cooking materials.

Triclinium

A dining room.

Atrium House

Has an opening in the roof, the atrium, and a impluvium down below to collect falling rain water.

Rotunda

Walls following a circle plan.

Eave

Part of roof that cantilevers out.

Portico

Porch

Podium

Platform of the Etruscan temple.

Sarcophagus of the Reclining Couple, 520 BCE

Made of clay. The figures were smiling. First time we see emotion in statuary and painting. Was in a Etruscan tomb with corbelled vault.

Pilaster

Flattened column.

"Arch of Augustus", Perugia, 3rd century BCE

Restored by the emperor Augustus in 40 CE.

Aulus Metelus 1st century BCE

Statue of a Etruscan. Orator was a pose Romans used before they were to make a public speech. Senator, represented the Etruscan people.

Voussoir

Describes masonry that has canted sides, rounded bottom and rounded top. Used for a true arch.

True Arch

A perfectly round arch that uses voussoirs.

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City of Rome

Was founded on 7 hills of the Tiber River. The town is formed off of the topography. Cattle market was the first forum of the city.

Forum

Roman market. Roman equivalent of the Agora.

Capitoline Wolf, Rome, Italy 580-420 BCE

Statue found in the Capitoline hill. Made from the Etruscans. Discovered from the Renaissance. Legend was that there were two baby twins. The parents died. The uncle left them by the Tiber River to die. A she-wolf fed them. Shepard eventually found them and took them home. Named Romulus and Remulus. They went down to the Tiber River to pick out a site for a village to honor the wolf. Remulus was killed from Romulus accidentally. Romulus founded Rome.

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Pax Romana

The peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire. Largest extinct of the Roman Empire. Rome piece under Emperor Augustus.

Apollo, c. 500 BCE

Painted Terracotta Statue of Apollo. From a Etruscan temple.

Typical Pompeiian House Plan, 6th century BCE

Has 3 doors on the street side. Vestibule would lead to the atrium. Impluvium - basin that would catch water falling from the roof in the atrium. Tablinum - reception room. Triclinium - dining room. Roman houses were constructed with stone, brick, and timber.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

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