Modern Architecture 2nd Midterm flashcards |

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Historical Eclecticism

First half of the century, monumental representational architecture is dominated by more archaeological versions of revivals. In the second half, period revival styles are in the mode of free progressive eclecticism, less historical accurate or single-source, with the intense rivalry between the classical planning of the ร‰cole des Beaux-Arts, and the structural progressive rationalism of the Gothic revival and the progressive eclectic styles (EX. Butterfield Gothic, Richardsonian Romanesque, English Freestyle, etc.)

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Examples of "History-Free" Engineer's Architecture: Bridges

-Coalbrokedale Bridge, cast/wrought iron, 1779
-Menai Straits Bridge, Thomas Telford, engineer, 1819-25
- York, Brooklyn Bridge, John and Washington Roebling, 1868

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Examples of "History-Free" Engineer's Architecture: Industry

-Cornwall, engine house for a mine
-Huddersfield viaduct, c. 1810 (great construction of British canals, 1750 - c.1815, till arrival of rail)
-Loft factories, masonry bearing wall, cast iron interior frame
-London, St. Katherine's Docks, Thomas Telford, 1826-1828
-Manchester, NH, mills, 1830's

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Examples of "History-Free" Engineer's Architecture: Rails

Rail Stations, Britain: -Liverpool, 1830
-London, Paddington, 1852
-London, King's Cross, by engineer Lewis Cubitt, 1851-52

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Examples of "History-Free" Engineer's Architecture: Exhibition

-London, Crystal Palace, Joseph Paxton, 1850
-Paris, Eiffel Tower, Galรฉrie des Machines, 1889

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Greek Revival

c.1800/20 - c.1848 in Europe (British "Regency") to c.1860 in U.S. Archaeological accuracy in adhering to model, additive composition in simple unitary volumes...Dominant style for public representational buildings, mansions,

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"Victorian" Britain and America, "Second Empire" France, c. 1850-1900

From approximately mid-century, increasingly ornamental styles, and complex compositions. "...non archaeological, 'progressive' eclecticism. Two dominant movements were Beaux-Arts progressive synthetic eclecticism, and Gothic Revival progressive eclecticism. Both argued for the free synthesis of multiple historical sources. Beaux-Arts agreed in favor of communicable languages, and the continuation of Ren-Baroque "concatenated" symmetrical compositions; Gothic revival lead to justifying analytic rationalism as criterion for design decisions, and asymmetrical compositions as the icon of practicality or individuality.

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Urban Planning

Emphasis on freedom of movement, avoidance of "congestion," interjection of picturesque visual values, and the risk of "placelessness."

Coalbrokedale Bridge, 1778-9
cast-iron bridge
Architect: Abraham Darby
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

Menai Bridge, 1819-26
Architect: Thomas Telford
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

Brooklyn Bridge, 1870-1883
Architect: John and Washington Roebling
Longest suspension bridge in the world upon completion, 5989 ft.
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

Belper, West Mill, 1793-95
William Strutt
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

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Albert Dock, 1845
London
Engineer: Jesse Hartley
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

...

Awkwright's Cotton Mills by Night, 1782-83
Joseph Wright of Derby (Painting)
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

Barton Aqueduct, opened in 1761
Conveys the Bridgewater Canal over the River Irwell
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

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St. Catherine's Docks, 1826-28
London
Architect: Thomas Telford and Phillip Hardwick
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

...

Manchester, Hampshire Mills, late 18th - mid 19th century
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

The Railway Office, 1830
Liverpool
First railway station in Britain
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

St. Pancras Station, 1865-68
(With Great Northern Hotel)
Sir George Gilbert Scott
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

King's Cross Station, 1851-52
Engineer: Lewis Cubitt
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

Crystal Palace at Great Exhibition of 1851
London
by Greenhouse designer: Joseph Paxton
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

Gustave Eiffel, Tower, 1889
"History-Free" Engineer's Architecture

Galerie Des Machines
Universal Exhibition of 1889
Paris
Charles Duteret and Victor Contamin
420x115m.

British Museum, 1821
London
Robert Smirke
Greek Revival

Cumberland Terrace, Regent's Street Terraces, 1805
London
John Nash
Greek Revival

Altes Museum, 1825-28
Berlin
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Greek Revival

National Library, 1865-92
Athens
Theophilus Hansen
Greek Revival

Merchants' Exchange, 1832-34
Philadelphia
William Strickland
Greek Revival

Custis-Lee Mansion, 1802-04
Arlington, VA
Center Portico, 1817
Greek Revival

War Ministry, 1826-30
Munich
Leo von Klenze
Rundbogenstil - Styles which seek escape from classical syntax (mainly popular in the German lands, sometimes said to be Romanesque revival, actually more indebted to Florentine Renaissance revival)

Pitti Palace, 15th Century
Florence
Rundbogenstil - Styles which seek escape from classical syntax (mainly popular in the German lands, sometimes said to be Romanesque revival, actually more indebted to Florentine Renaissance revival)

Reform Club, 1837-41
London
Sir Charles Barry
(Left of building is Traveller's Club, 1829-32)
Renaissance Revival

Bibliothรจque Ste. Geneviรจve, (1836-) 1842-50
Henri Labrouste
Structural "Rationalism" and the ร‰cole: use of "modern" materials in representational architecture

The Royal Pavillion, c. 1815-23
Brighton
Architect: John Nash for the Prince of Regent (George IV)
Exotic Style

Sezincote, 1805
Samuel Pepys Cockerell
Exotic Style

Cronkhill, c.1802
John Nash
The Italianate or Gothic Cottage
-The rise of the American suburban house on a lawn
-Asymmetry as a mark of intimate, personal function

Andrew Jackson Downing collaborated with Alexander Jackson Davis
-Cottage Residences, 1842
The Italianate or Gothic Cottage

House of Parliament, 1838-61
London
Sir Charles Barry, decoration probably A.W.N. Pugin
Gothic Revival, Second "Archaeological" Phase
Gothic as "National" or Romantic Style

Cologne Cathedral, 1842-1880
Gothic Revival as German Nationalism
Gothic Revival, Second "Archaeological" Phase
Gothic as "National" or Romantic Style

A.W.N. Pugin's Contrasts, 1836
Gothic as Moral and Cultural Real

The Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1859
John Ruskin, Art Critic
Technical innovations have responded to the "necessities of the day" so rapidly that they overwhelm all other considerations.
"The relationship of technique to idea is organic: practical law are always "exponents of moral ones."

Carson House, 1884-85
Eureka, CA
"Victorian" Britain and America, Victorian "Italianate"

"Victoria Mansion", 1859-63
Portland, MA
Architect: Henry Austin built for Ruggles Morse
"Victorian" Britain and America, Victorian "Italianate"

Scarborough, Grand Hotel, 1862-67
Britain
Cuthbert Broderick
Features Mansard Roof, Dormer Windows, Consoles/Brackets
"Victorian" Britain and America, Victorian "Italianate"

War and Navy Building, 1871-75
Washington State
Alfred B. Mullett
Second Empire or U.S. Grant Style

York City Hall Post Office, 1875
Alfred B. Mullett
Second Empire or U.S. Grant Style

wing of the Louvre, Visconti, and Lefuel
for Napoleon III, 1852-57
U.S. Grant Style (French Renaissance Revival)

Paris Opรฉra, 1861-74
Charles Garnier
ร‰cole Des Beaux-Arts and related styles

Expansion of the U.S. Capitol, c.1854-1863 (-66)
Thomas Ustick Walker
American Beaux-Arts and related styles (Also known as American Renaissance)

Pennsylvania Station, 1902-11
York
McKim, Meade and White
American Beaux-Arts (American Renaissance)

Central Park, 1857-1880
York, NY
Frederick Law Olmsted with Calvert Vaux
Urban Planning

Paris, 1852-70
Rebuilding of street system under Baron Haussman
Prefect of the Seine
Urban Planning

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L'Architecture, The Book
Viollet-le-Duc
"Victorian" Britain and America
Structural Rationalism and "Victorian Gothic"

...

All Saints, Margaret St, 1859
London
Wm. Butterfield
"Victorian" Britain and America
Structural Rationalism and "Victorian Gothic"

St. James-the-Less, 1846-48
Philadelphia
Drawings sent from Camden Society, Cambridge
Ecclesiological Movement, England & America, 1830's...
Revise church design by return to medieval ritual ("High Church Anglicanism"), form in the service of right ritual, use of natural, not artificial, materials, ...simple forms

St. Pancras Station, Midland Grand Hotel, 1868-1877
London
Sir George Gilbert Scott

Harvard College, Memorial Hall, 1868
Ware and Van Brunt
"Victorial" Britain and America
Structural Rationalism and "Victorian Gothic"

Bexley Heath, Red House, 1859
William Morris and Architect Philip Webb
"Victorian" Britain and America, Progressive Styles: The Arts and Crafts Movement, "Queen Anne" Style

Leyswood, Sussex, 1870
Richard Norman Shaw, and so called "Queen Anne" Style
Arts and Crafts Movement

Balloon Frame and the "Stick" and "Shingle Style," America, 1860's-80's

NA Griswold House, 1862-3
port, RI
Architect: RM Hunt
Balloon Frame and the "Stick" and "Shingle Style," America

Watts-Sherman House, 1874
port, RI
Architect: H. Richardson with Stanford White
Balloon Frame and the "Stick" and "Shingle Style," America

Isaac Bell House, 1881-83
port, RI
Architects: McKim, Meade, and White
Balloon Frame and the "Stick" and "Shingle Style," America

Marshall Field Warehouse, 1885-87
Richardsonian Romanesque, America

Harvard, Law School
Richardosonian Romanesque, America, 1870's-80's

Tribune Building, 1873-75
York, NY
Architect: Richard Morris Hunt
Not Steel Framed
Steel Framed Curtain Wall Skyscraper, America & Chicago

Home Insurance Building, 1883-85
William Le Baron Jenney
First, "Curtain Wall"
Steel Framed Curtain Wall Skyscraper, America & Chicago

Reliance Building, 1889-94 and 1894-99
Chicago
Architect: Burnham and Root
Steel Framed Curtain Wall Skyscraper, America & Chicago

St. Louis and the Wainwright Building, 1890-91
"Form Follows Function"
Steel Framed Curtain Wall Skyscraper, America & Chicago

Chicago and the Steel Framed Skyscraper, mid 1880's-1890's
Louis Sullivan, Carson, and Pire Scott
Steel Framed Curtain Wall Skyscraper, America & Chicago

Hotel van Eetvelde, 1897
Brussels
Architect: Victor Hora
Art Nouveau "biomorphic, whiplash line"

Casa Milรก, 1905-07
Barcelona
Architect: A. Gaudรญ
Art Nouveau "biomorphic, whiplash line"

Metro Entrances, 1899-1904
Paris
Architect: Hector Guimard
Art Nouveau "biomorphic, whiplash line"

Glasgow School of Art, 1897-1909
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Art Nouveau, "Orthogonal/graphic"

Palais Stoclet, 1905-11
Brussels
Josef Hoffman
Art Nouveau, "Orthogonal/graphic"

Oak Park, Unity Temple, 1904-06
Chicago
Early Frank Lloyd Wright, Prairie Style

Robie House, 1906-09
Chicago
Early Frank Lloyd Wright, Prairie Style

Piet Mondrian, Composition in Blue, 1917
Influence of the dynamic, open plan and the 1910 Wasmuth publication of his works on the development of later European Synthetic Cubism and Neo-Plasticism

Martin House, 1903
Buffalo, NY
Frank Lloyd Wright
Influence of the dynamic, open plan and the 1910 Wasmuth publication of his works on the development of later European Synthetic Cubism and Neo-Plasticism

Chicago Columbian Exposition, 1893
Architect: Burnham and Root
Master Planners
The Classical Reaction, "American Renaissance"

Boston Public Library, 1887-95
Architect: McKim, Meade and White
The Classical Reaction, "American Renaissance"

Barriรจre de la Villette, 1780's-90's
Claude-Nicholas Ledoux
Visionary Neoclassicism, France

Harvard Yard, c.1750
America: the Colonial Background, 17th, 18th Centuries
Development of the open "campus"

The Gesรน, Vignola 1568-76
Rome
Revised faรงade by G. della Porta

The Royal Crescent, 1767-1774
Bath, England
John Wood

Parson Capon House, c.1683
Topsfield, Mass.
Early English Colonial
Northern Shingle-Clapboard "Saltbox"

Palazzo Caprini, c.1502
Rome
Architect: Bramante
High Renaissance, Italy
Introduction of Basement podium and Piano nobile

Ste. Geneviรจve, 1757-92
Paris
Architect: J. -G. Soufflot
"Gothic" Structural rationalism in classical architecture

Parthenon, and Lysikrates Monument from Antiquities of Athens Book, 1763
Authors: Stuart and Revett

Brandenburg Gate, 1788-1791
Berlin
Architect: Karl Langhans

Cenotaph to ton,
Etienne-Louis Boullรฉe

Blenheim Palace, for the Duke of Marlborough, c.1705-1724
by Sir John Vanbrugh
and garden, by Lancelot "Capability" Brown, c.1758

Twickenham, "Strawberry Hill," c.1750
Architect: Sir Horace Walpole
(Creator of the "Gothick" Novel: Castle of Otranto, 1749)

Chiswick House for Lord Burlington, 1725
William Kent

Vaux-le-Vicomte, 1657-61
Louis le Vau

Essay Sur L'Architecture, 1753
Abbรฉ Marc-Antoine Laugier

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