A scroll containing the laws of God for the religion of Judaism. Considered as the old testament in Christianity.
An oval or circular opening to admit light in a dome or a semicircular panel containing a window, mural, or sculpture. It may be crescent-shaped or semicircular.
In a basilican church, the portion set parallel to the nave, generally separated from it by columns or piers.
A building in which the sides are of equal length and in which the main space is symmetric. May be square, circular, or polygonal. The most important feature of a centrally-planned building is the open space at the center of the building, developed around a vertical axis.
Buildings erected as memorials to commemorate saints or sites of special importance to the Christian faith. When of major importance, they were attached to a tomb or shrine.
The curving passageway behind the choir of a church, often used to connect the radiating chapels.
The Good Shepherd Sarcophagus, Rome, Late 4th Century CE
Stone casket with a engraving. Shows a figure of Christ, enlarged to show his importance.
It depicts the Eucharist. The message is through the crucifixion of Christ, the faithful are promised Salvation.
The Basilica at Trier, Germany, 4th century CE
Church in a basilica. Basilicas were cheap to construct with local materials. Incense cones were used to get rid of evil spirits. Clergy and the priest work at the church. Eucharist (communion) is practiced here. Everything was symbolic.
Old Saint Peter's, Rome, c. 318-322 CE
Begun as a martyrium to mark the tomb of St. Peter. Has a basilican plan with double aisles on each side of the nave and a transverse element or transept projecting beyond the side walls and extending across the nave in front of the apse.
Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, c. 432 CE
Typical conegational church. Dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Columns in marble made of Spolia. No transept, only an apse.
Mausoleum of Constantina Rome, 350 CE
A brick structure. Narthex - waiting area, vestibule, and area to gather before they go inside at the front of the building. Interior contains a ambulatory aisle. Was an annular barrel vault. Has a drum - portion of a building of a rotunda wall that pops up and holds a dome.
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, c. 425 CE
Centrally planned. Uses the Greek cross plan - cross with equal sides. The blue mosaics symbolized night. Alabaster windows - small windows to let in some light. Mosaic: "Christ as the Good Shepherd".
Mosaic: "Christ as the Good Shepherd" Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, c. 425 CE
Mosaic that depicts Christ as Roman, young, and beardless. Also depicted as a shepherd.