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  1. Montgomery Bus Boycott
  2. Brown v. Board of Education
  3. Freedom Journals
  4. Civil Rights Act of 1964
  5. Fannie Lou Hamer (Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party)
  6. Anna Julia Cooper
  7. Harlem Bus Boycott (Adam Clayton Powell)
  8. Scottsboro Case
  9. 16. Jim Crow
  10. Dred Scott v. Sandford
  11. Paul cuffee
  12. SNCC
  13. Malcolm X
  14. Nat turner
  15. Baton Rouge Bus Boycott
  16. 13th, 14th, 15th Amendment of the US Constitution
  17. A. Philip Randolph
  18. 23. W. E. B. Dubois
  19. Frederick Douglass
  20. Voting Rights Act of 1965
  21. Ella Baker
  22. Booker T. Washington
  23. Harriet Tubman
  24. Denmark Vesey
  25. David walker
  26. Maria W. Stewart
  27. Mary Church Terrell
  28. Mary Ann Shadd Cary
  29. Black Panther Party (Huey P. Newton & Bobby Seale)
  30. Pan-Africanism
  31. Gabrielle Proser
  32. Mary McLeod Bethune
  33. Plessy v. Ferguson
  34. Thurgood Marshall
  35. Carter G. Woodson
  36. Sojourner Truth
  37. Ida B. Wells-Barnett
  38. Article I, Section 2
  39. Carl Stokes
  40. Martin Delaney
  41. Henry Highland Garnet
  42. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  43. 34. Emmett Till
  44. Charles Hamilton Houston
  45. Marcus Garvey (UNIA & ACL)
  46. Shirley Chisholm
  1. a • Court decision on whether blacks were considered African American citizens.
    • Courts found that african americans even if they were free were not considered united states citizens
    • lead to the civil rights war after dred scott sued for his freedom
  2. b • one of the first African American to study African history counted as the founder of black history
    • founder of the journal of negro history
    • the founder to the precursor of black history month: Negro History Week
  3. c • first black women publisher in America and first woman publisher in Canada
  4. d • Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person
    • when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle
    o led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional
    • Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ralph Abernathy participated in the boycott
  5. e • an African-American civil rights and human rights activist
    • She worked with some of the most famous civil rights leaders
    o W. E. B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall
    • She also mentored many upcoming activists such as Diane Nash, Stokely Carmichael, Rosa Parks, and Bob Moses
  6. f • 13th-abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except for criminals
    • 14th-made everyone citizens
    • 15th- can't deny right to vote based on race
  7. g • stands for Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
    • It was organized by Ella Baker and held at Shaw University
    • played a major role in the non-violence protesting that occurred during the Civil Rights movement
    • March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, and the Mississippi Freedom Summer all were influenced greatly by SNCC
  8. h • first black male to serve on supreme court judge
    • studied law at Howard University
    • counsel to the NAACP, he utilized the judiciary to champion equality for African Americans
    • he won the Brown v. Board of Education case
  9. i • African-American teenager who was murdered in Mississippi at the age of 14 after reportedly flirting with a white woman
    • was visiting his relatives in Money, Mississippi, when he spoke to 21-year-old Carolyn Bryant
    • Bryant's husband Roy and his half-brother J. W. Milam went to Till's great-uncle's house
    o took Till away to a barn, where they beat him and gouged out one of his eyes,
    o before shooting him through the head and disposing of his body in the Tallahatchie River
  10. j • one who taught himself to read with the help of some of his master
    • very outspoken about his time as a slave
  11. k • Edward Wilmot Blyden and James Africanus Beale Horton are seen as the true fathers of Pan-Africanism
    • an ideology that encourages African americans to stand solidarily
  12. l • abolitionist and a minister who called for a more militant abolitionism
    • supported black immigration to mexico and the west indies
    • failed due to the starting civil rights
  13. m • abolitionist born in new York escaped slavery with her infant daughter
    • most known for her gender inequalities speech Ain't I a Women
  14. n • a former slave turned into a very outspoken journalist abolitionist activist for slavery and women rights
    • the first african american women to publicly speak
    o first women to discuss slavery and women's right publicly
  15. o • American voting rights activist and civil rights leader.
    • She was a key part in organizing Mississippi Freedom Summer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
    • became the Vice-Chair of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party,
    • gained a reputation as an electrifying speaker and constant activist of civil rights
  16. p • one of the first women to earn a college degree
    • .a charter member of the NAACP
    • first president of the National Association of Colored Women (founded)
    • first African-American woman ever appointed to a school board
    • served on a committee that investigated alleged police mistreatment of African Americans.
    • the first African American admitted to the Washington chapter of the American Association of University Women.
  17. q • great grandfather of black nationalism
    • addition to being a black abolitionist writer and physician
    • one of the first three blacks admitted into harvard university
    • major part in recruiting blacks into the union army
  18. r • Baton Rouge city-parish council voted to raise fares on the city's buses
    o angered black bus passengers who made up more than 80 percent of the system's riders
    o They were forced to sit in the back
    • February 25 meeting, the council voted to amend the city's seating code to allow African Americans to sit in the front seats of the buses if they did not occupy the same seat as or sit in front of a white passenger
  19. s • very prolific Muslim minister and activist who originally called for militant dedication
    • later switched to a more non-violent approach.
    • a prominent member of the Nation of Islam
    o he would preach black supremacy and separation between blacks and whites
    • He is known for his riveting speeches such as "The Ballot or the Bullet"
  20. t • dean of howard university law school
    • played a large role in dismantling jim crow laws
    o Known as "The Man Who Killed Jim Crow"
    • helped train future Supreme Court justice Thurgood Marshall
    • played a role in nearly every civil rights case before the Supreme Court between 1930 and Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
    • first African-American to serve as an editor of the Harvard Law Review
  21. u • nine black teenagers accused of rape in Alabama
    • They were riding to find work, fought some white hobos and through them off the train
    • The hobos told the station manager who had the boys arrested
    • The boys were arrested and charged with rape of 2 white girls
    • The girls slept with the white guys and testified to save themselves
    • All the boys except the youngest 9 year old were sentenced to death
    • Supreme Court overturned the decision (Powell v. Alabama)
    o Defendants had not received adequate legal counsel
    • Continually tried to convict the boys
    • Eventually Alabama freed the four youngest defenders and paroled all but Haywood Patterson
  22. v • a militant group in opposition to the current system
    • Originally charged with armed patrols to watch for police brutality.
    • Then, they were involved in community social programs like Free Breakfast for Children
    • The government created COINTELPRO
    o by 1980, the group had pretty much disbanded
  23. w • a quaker businessman sea captain and also an abolitionist helped to colonize sierra leone
    • opened the first racially integrated school in westport Massachusetts
  24. x • court case about state laws that upheld racial segregation under the banner separate but equal
  25. y • 12th congressional district and was
    • the first American woman elected to congress
    • she became the first major-party black candidate for President of the United States
    • the first woman to run for the Democratic presidential nomination
  26. z • a literate slave who attempted a slave rebellion in the summer of 1800
    • failed and he and his followers were hanged
  27. aa • pan africanist editor and author
    • prominent leader and the first to receive a doctorate
    • one of the cofounder of the naacp
  28. ab • three 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches resulted in the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act
    • All three protest marches were attempts to walk the 54-mile highway from Selma to the Alabama state capital of Montgomery
  29. ac • author educator and one of the most prominent African American scholars in America
  30. ad • civil right leaders suffragist journalist and sociologist documenting lynching in America
  31. ae • landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
    • ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools
    o also at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public
  32. af • Montgomery Bus Boycott and Southern Christian Leadership Conference during the civil rights movement.
    • He is most widely known for his famous "I have a Dream" speech
    • received the Nobel Peace Prize
  33. ag • The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded by Marcus Garvey
    o uniting all of Africa and its diaspora into "one grand racial hierarchy."
    o At its height reached around 2 million people
    • On 17 August 1918, he began publishing the Negro World newspaper in New York
    • Very big on the back to Africa Movement
  34. ah • is known for freeing the slaves and taking them across the country utilizing the Underground Railroad
  35. ai • filed against the Topeka, Kansas school board by representative-plaintiff Oliver Brown
    o parent of one of the children denied access to Topeka's white schools
    • overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896
    • As a result, racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution
  36. aj • is an outspoken anti-slavery abolitionist who published an "Appeal to the Colored people of the world"
    • Frequent contributor to the Freedom Journal. Bounty was placed on his head
  37. ak • Article 1 section 2 (3 / 5 ) clause Only free people had a right to vote keyword
    o Black people 3/5 of a free person
    • Article 1 section 9- Importation clause there was a tax on importing people about 10 dollars
    • Article 4 section 2- fugitive slave clause escaped slaves may be sent back into slavery if claimed by the owner
  38. al • Served as the 51st mayor of Cleveland,Ohio.
    • First black mayor of a major cit
  39. am • advisor to presidents of the united states
    • prominent leader in the african american community who spoke out against the jim crow laws
  40. an • first African American owned and published newspaper in the United States
    • founded by Rev Peter Williams jr
    • Editors Josh Russwurm and Samuel Cornish
  41. ao • founded the Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute for Negro Girls in Daytona, Florida
    • Served as president and remained its leader after merging with the Cookman Institute for men
    • he served as the president of the Florida chapter of the National Association of Colored Women
    o became national leader
    • became a special advisor to President Roosevelt on minority affairs
    • started up her own civil rights organization, the National Council of Negro Women
  42. ap • a class leader in the african methodist church and planned a rebellion in Charleston south Carolina
    • won the lottery of 600 dollars and bought his freedom but not his family's
  43. aq • laws that were racial segregation laws
    • kept racial discrimination alive by systematically turning the black people into second class citizens
  44. ar • organized and led the brotherhood of "Sleepy Car Porters"
    • During World War I, Randolph tried to unionize African-American shipyard workers in Virginia and elevator operators in New York City
    • Founded a magazine designed to encourage African-American laborers to demand higher wages
    • he was a principal organizer of the March on Washington
  45. as • led by adam clayton powell
    • forced the Fifth Avenue Coach Company to start hiring black mechanics and bus drivers
    o led to the hiring of 200 black workers by the transit authority
    o bus boycott in 1941
  46. at • a slave who led a rebellion in Southampton county Virginia
    • involved 2 months
    • he was tried and hung on November 11, 1983