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  1. Early Black Education and Churches12. in 1821 JAMES VARICK organized the African Methodist Epis. Zion Church

    13. By 1830 there were black churches of almost every conceivavle description-Ethiopian Church of Jesus Christ in Savannah, GA.
    -and a black Dutch Reformed Church in NY city

    14. Fraternal organizations - Prince Hall along with 15 other blacks were initiated on March 6, 1787 in to a lodge of the British Freemasons. On May 6, 1787 Hall founded African Lodge No. 459

    15. On Oct 17, 1787 Hall and other Boston blacks filed petitions that demanded the Massachusetts legislature provided equal education for blacks

    16. Jean Baptiste Point DuSable -helped to settle in the 1770s area that will become Chicago, he build the first home there and opened the first business, He was pushed to the boundaries of the area as more white settlers arrived in the area

          

  2. Pennsylvania-1720, wheat-based economy had sprung up- luring scots-irish and German immigrants, about 58,000 Germans and 16, 500 scots-iris came to colony between 1727-1754

    -1721, slave pop was 2500-5,000
    by 1751 slave pop was 11,000
    -late 1769s slave pop was 30,000 and free blacks in colony

    -early movement for manumission because more respect given to blacks as human beings

    -blacks and whites had more contact than in other colonies - schools and churches were a part of the lives of blacks. marriage was generally respected, the black family achieved a stability unlike that in most english colonies

          

  3. Pennsylvania (1681)-founded by William Penn (a refuge for English quaker-believed God could love every man and women and everyone could be saved!!!!)

    -slavery grew slowly due to the quakers opposition , however Penn himself felt that African slaves were more satisfactory workers than white servants

    -1729-1758 , Chester county had 104 slaves on 85 farms, with 70% of the slave owners likely Quakers,. By 1693 Africans were so numerous in the the colony capital that the Philadelphia Council complained of "the tumultuous gathers of the Negroes in the town of Philadelphia"

          

  4. Blacks in he War of 1812--slave traders and masters had a curious dilemma-they feared the wholesale importation of raw new Africans, but they were also desperate for laborers to cultivate cotton

    -in the early 19th century antislavery groups petitioned for federal legislation against the slave trade -free blacks in Phily led the way by requesting revision of the slave trade law form congress

    -dec 1805, Senator R. Bradley of Vermont introduced a bill to prohibit the slave trade after jan 1, 1808

    -on march 2, 1807 law prohibiting the African slave trade passed, persons convicted were to be fined and imprisioned. Fines ranged from $800 for knowingly buying illegally imported Africans to $20,000 for equipping a slave ship

    5. england outlawed slave trade in 1807, many anti-slavery interests in the north were optimistic institution would decline- law was early enforced. Responsibility shifted from secretary of treasury to secretary of navy, ad at times the dept of state.

          

  5. why did the constitution change? What did this do for our government?1. Closing of slave trade in 1808 makes domestic trade more profitable and by 1815 it was a major economic activity.

    2 Films like Woolfork, Saunders, and Overly of Maryland and Franklin and Armfield of Virginia helped to develop the business

    3. Baltimore, Washington,, Richmond, Norfolk, and Charleston were the principal trading centers in the older states- Montgomery, Memphis, and new orleans were major markers in newer areas.

    4. Many were moved via the Atlantic Ocean or on flatboats on the Ohio, Tennessee, or Mississippi Rivers -always taken in chains

    5.Between 600,000 and 1 million slaves migrated from the east to the west states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Missouri

    6. In 1831 Thomas R. Dew admitted that Virginia was a "Nego raising state" able to export 6,000 per year. Many girls became mothers at 13-14 by the time the slaves were 20 some slaves were to have given birth to 5 children.

    7 Bounties and prizes offered for bearing children , also practice of dividing families particularly in areas of Alambama (selma) and delta of Ms were average ration was 100 women - 140 men

          

  6. Paul Cuffee1. Born in 1759 (in Massachusetts)
    -VERY SUCCESSFUL IN SHIP BUILDING INDUSTRY
    -father Kofi was African Ashanti and mother Ruth was Nat. American, at early age developed interest in commerce

    2. Worked on whaling vessels, during the Revolutionary War he and his brother refused to pay taxes on grounds blacks could not vote in colony.

    3. in 1780, began to build ships, in 1806 owned on large ship, two brigs and several small vessels along with property in land and houses

    4.in 1811 went to Sierra Leone to investigate possibility of taking blacks to Africa- War of 1812 prevented this

    5. in 1815 took 38 blacks to Africa at 3,000-4,000$, expense too much for other trips

    6. 1816 African Colonization society founded, never sent many blacks back to Africa

          

  7. Forms of Protest1. Day to day acts-breaking tools, burning crops, burning barns and houses, stealing, or destroying animals and food, defending fellow slaves from the punishment, poisoning,faking illness especially women slaves.

    2. Running away- typical runaway was a young male, many ran into and hid in woods or swamps. Escapes occurred by forging passes, posing as master and servant, disguising one's sec, sneaking aboard ships.

          

  8. DEVELOPING SLAVE CULTUREMUSIC:
    africans brought instruments to america, banjar-banjo. African call-and -response is seen in slave music

    DANCE:
    -very important part of slave culture
    -dancing was done many time in a circle-rung Shout type of dance

    RELIGION:
    -many slaves were Moslems
    -some were converted to christianity, most slaves that newly arrived in America believed in multiple gods

    FOLK MAGIC:
    -part of slave culture
    -called conjurers and were suppose to have supernatural powers

          

  9. Slavery and the founding fathers-patrick Henry stated that he realized slavery was wrong (duh), but ut was inconvenient to live without slaves

    -washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe were all presidents with slaves

    -Jefferson was the son of a slave owner, in 1770 as a lawyer he argued that slavery was "wicked: and he defended a slave who went before a Virginia court for his freedom- case was lost

    -Jefferson received 135 slaves and 11,000 acres from his father -in-law , his views concerning slaves became more racist as an older man in the 1820s.

          

  10. George Moses HortonBorn in Northampton County, North Carolina (in 1797)
    -was property if Horton Family
    -in his autobiographical sketch he said that he learned to read from school children

    2. During his late teen, he began visiting the Univ of North Carolina taking produce to students -began peddling love peddling love poems to male students who he charged 25 cents , students then sent peoms to their girlfriends

    3.Aided by Caroline Hertz, who was the wife of a professor, Horton had his first publication when two of his poems were published in 1828 in her hometown newspaper the Lancaster (Mass) Gazette.

    4. Horton was willing to write about anything that touched him, cont. to publish until 1865- last poems dealt with the Civil war and personalities such as Grant, Sherman, and Lincoln

    5.Last records find him in Philadelphia in 1866 and he probs died there in 1883

          

  11. attacks on the slave trade-slave traders and masters had a curious dilemma-they feared the wholesale importation of raw new Africans, but they were also desperate for laborers to cultivate cotton

    -in the early 19th century antislavery groups petitioned for federal legislation against the slave trade -free blacks in Phily led the way by requesting revision of the slave trade law form congress

    -dec 1805, Senator R. Bradley of Vermont introduced a bill to prohibit the slave trade after jan 1, 1808

    -on march 2, 1807 law prohibiting the African slave trade passed, persons convicted were to be fined and imprisioned. Fines ranged from $800 for knowingly buying illegally imported Africans to $20,000 for equipping a slave ship

    5. england outlawed slave trade in 1807, many anti-slavery interests in the north were optimistic institution would decline- law was early enforced. Responsibility shifted from secretary of treasury to secretary of navy, ad at times the dept of state.

          

  12. Haitian Revolution1. French Revolution began in 1798- blacks in various French controlled areas looked toward the prospect of freedom

    2. in 1791, slave uprising in St. Dominque led by Toussaint L'Quveture- gained freedom for slaves here and in Haiti, by 1801 built roads, repaired buildings made every citizen a soldier

    3. Napoleon lured him to France where he was captured and placed in a cell where he died in 1803

    4. Jean-Jacques Dessalines continued war, France surrendered on Nov 28, 1803- slaves granted freedom and land

    5. Napoleon sells Louisiana Territory to Jefferson for four cents an acre 830,000 sq miles for $8,831,250
    which nearly doubled the size of America- this made it possible to extend production of cotton and sugar- slavery became more entrenched in region

          

  13. Black Christianity1.For slaveholders religion often represented a form of social preachers who played prominent roles in administering baptisms, weddings, and funerals, white masters sought to control religion to their own ends.

    2.Black religious gatherings were usually forbidden unless white observers were present or white preachers led them.

          

  14. American revolution (cont)1. French Revolution began in 1798- blacks in various French controlled areas looked toward the prospect of freedom

    2. in 1791, slave uprising in St. Dominque led by Toussaint L'Quveture- gained freedom for slaves here and in Haiti, by 1801 built roads, repaired buildings made every citizen a soldier

    3. Napoleon lured him to France where he was captured and placed in a cell where he died in 1803

    4. Jean-Jacques Dessalines continued war, France surrendered on Nov 28, 1803- slaves granted freedom and land

    5. Napoleon sells Louisiana Territory to Jefferson for four cents an acre 830,000 sq miles for $8,831,250
    which nearly doubled the size of America- this made it possible to extend production of cotton and sugar- slavery became more entrenched in region

          

  15. Massachusetts (1632)-1st slave holding colony in New England, Boston merchants made first attempt at direct import of slaves from west Africa to the west indies in 1644

    -Primary interest was trading africans to colonies in the south , also traded rum, fish, and dairy products - BOSTER, SALEM, PROVIDENCE, and NEW LONDON were major areas of trading (what what)

    -from fewer that 200 slaves in 1676
    -550slaves in 1708
    -2000 slaves in 1715

    it reached its largest percentage of the total population between 1755-1764, when it stood at around 2.2 percent.
    -slaves concentrated in the industrial and seaside towns- Boston was about 10 % black in 1752

    -a Mass. law of 1641: specifically linked slavery to Biblical authority, and established for slaves the set of rules "which the law of God, est. in Israel concerning such people, doth morally require"

          

  16. Early Black Ed and Churches (con3)12. in 1821 JAMES VARICK organized the African Methodist Epis. Zion Church

    13. By 1830 there were black churches of almost every conceivavle description-Ethiopian Church of Jesus Christ in Savannah, GA.
    -and a black Dutch Reformed Church in NY city

    14. Fraternal organizations - Prince Hall along with 15 other blacks were initiated on March 6, 1787 in to a lodge of the British Freemasons. On May 6, 1787 Hall founded African Lodge No. 459

    15. On Oct 17, 1787 Hall and other Boston blacks filed petitions that demanded the Massachusetts legislature provided equal education for blacks

    16. Jean Baptiste Point DuSable -helped to settle in the 1770s area that will become Chicago, he build the first home there and opened the first business, He was pushed to the boundaries of the area as more white settlers arrived in the area

          

  17. Crispus AttucksEnd of French Indian War in 1763- caused england to pass various Acts -Sugar, Stamp, Tea, which led to discord among colonist

    -Boston Massacre -
    March 5, 1770, Attucks first to die along with Samuel Gray and James Caldwell

    This former slave was probs born in 1723, he was mixed african and native american heritage- he was a sailor who worked on whaling vessels

    Attucks and other colonists threw snowballs and debris and British soldiers , he took two bullets in the chest and was the first to die.

    He and the other victims were buried together in the same grace site in Boston's Granary Burying Ground

          

  18. Rhode Island (1636)slaves brought in colony in 1652, after overtaking Boston by 1750, Newport and Bristol were the major slave markets in the American colonies

    -small white population-blacks made up a higher percentage of the total pop than elsewhere in New England, from 5.9% in 1755
    -3,761 slaves in 1774
    THE 3rd HIGHEST TOTAL in NEW ENGLAND

    - 1709-1807 Rhode Island merchants sponsored at least 934 slaving voyages to the coast of Africa ad carried an est. 106,544 slaves to the New World. From 1732-64 Rhode Islanders sent annually 18 ships, bearing 1800 hogsheads of run to Africa to trade for slaves
    -earring 40,000 annually.
    -Newport,, the colony's leading slave port, took an est. 59,070 slaves to america before the revolution

          

  19. Benjamin Banneker1. Born in 1731 in Baltimore Country, Maryland, the grandson of an indentured Englishwoman and African
    -mother a free black also married an African from Guinea who had been freed.
    -He attended a local school with black and white children

    2. Was highly proficient in mathematics and astronomy, was named to the commission which made the original survey of Washington, D.C.
    Beginning in 1792, he issued an annual almanac which has been compared to Benjamin Franklins Poor Richard's Almanac

    3. A bachelor Banneker lived most of his life on his family 100 acre farm about ten miles outside of Baltimore-stuided all night , slept in the mornings and worked in the afternoons. Spent many nights laying under a pear tree looking at the sky

    4.Spoke out against slavery- in famous letter written in 1791 he told Thomas Jefferson that "words were one thing and slavery is another."

          

  20. Early black pioneers of the westin 1803 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark had excedition to Louisiana Territory, Clarks slave York helped to befriend Native Americans, he helped provide food by hunting and fishing- only member of expedition who did to receive money or land for their services

    2. in 1820, Edward Rose served as guide,hunter, and interpreter for the Missouri Fur Company

    3. Pierre Bonga was a prominent trapper and interpreter in the Minnesota Territory helped neogtiate with the Chippewas for his fur company.

    4. Born in 1798 of mixed parents James P Beckwourth worked for Rocky Mountain Fur Company-skilled in use of gun, bowie knife and tomahawk. in 1824 adopted by Crow Native Americans and led them on several raids.

          

  21. Music1. Crucial form of expression on both sexual and religious occasions.

    2. Spirituals composed for many purposes, had one basic Christian theme: a chosen people , he children of God, held captive in bondage but would be delivered.

    3. Songs often expressed sadness of broken fans, burdens at work, but also joy and deliverance.

    4. Slaves gathered to simply play drums, fiddles and other instruments

    5. Music played at weddings, funerals, holidays, and successful harvests, also from news of external events-outcome of battle during Civil War.

          

  22. The American Revolution 1775-17811. Initally George Washington;s continental army excluded blacks, but this policy was reverse after Lord Dunmore the former governor of Virginia issues a proclamation of freedom to slaves who joined the british army- between 10,000-50,000 slaves ran away and joined British

    2. In the summer of 1775 a slave conspiracy was discovered on the coast of S. Carolina led by slaves who were boat pilots, they were given 80 lashes and a portion of their ears were cut off

    3.1776, a new york law permitted the substation of blacks for white who had been drafted

    4. on July 2, 1776, Thomas Jefferson submitted draft of Declaration of Independence, this condemned the King's involvement in the slave trade - jeffereson was asked to remove -final version july 4 1776

    5. In 1778 Massachusetts and Rhode Island formed separate regiments for blacks and whites. New York offered freedom to all slaves who served in the army for 3 years- owners given land bounty for their slaves

          

  23. King Cotton (cont)1793,Eli Whitney (a yankee schoolteacher) was born in the West Borough, Massachusetts in 1765 visiting the south created the cotton gin- box containing a roller, equipped with wire teeth, designed to pull the fibers from seeds

    -laborer could clean up to 50 lbs of short staple cotton per day

    -1790, 3,135 bales produced, by 1800 -73145 bales, 1820-334,378; 1805 cotton announced for 30% of Amercas exports, by 1820 it exceeded half most of England

    -Invention breathed new life into slavery imported into Georgia and South Carolina

          

  24. Manumission Movement5. in 1777, Vermont became first state to abolish slavery; in 1783 Maryland prohibited the traffic of blacks

    6. South Carolina prohibited the importation of slaves for sveral years and Act that was renewed periodically until 1803, when it was repealed on the grounds that it was unenforceable

    7. in 1784, Connecticut and Rhode is;and passed Acts. that abolished slavery gradually; in 1799 NY freed women slaves aged 25, and males 28

    8 . 1787, congress added to the northwest ordinance the provision that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude should exist in the territory covered by it

          

  25. DEVELOPING slave culture (cont)MUSIC:
    africans brought instruments to america, banjar-banjo. African call-and -response is seen in slave music

    DANCE:
    -very important part of slave culture
    -dancing was done many time in a circle-rung Shout type of dance

    RELIGION:
    -many slaves were Moslems
    -some were converted to christianity, most slaves that newly arrived in America believed in multiple gods

    FOLK MAGIC:
    -part of slave culture
    -called conjurers and were suppose to have supernatural powers

          

  26. Harriet Tubman-during the early 1780s the Chesapeake region experienced a severe depression-tobacco plantations were plagued by soil exhaustion and a glutted market.

    -southern planters had experienced with wheat and other grainsto bolster the sagging economy, regional recovery only began when they turned cotton

    -long staple cotton (grows in sea island, has long silky fibers, doesn't have good density) was already highly valued because its silky fibers could be easily separated from the seeds- only grew in climates on the sea islands off the coast of Georgia and S. carolina

    -Short staple could be cultivated across large areas in the south, but it was difficult to separate fibers from seeds- a slave could clean no more than a pound of cotton a day

          

  27. Peter Salem1. Continental Congress passes agreement not to import any slaves after December 1, 1775

    2. April of 1775 British marched and had skirmishes with colonist at Lexington and Concord

    3. June 17, 1775- Battle of Bunker Hill or Breed's hill took place, Salem was born around 1750 and was a former slave

    4. Joined the Continental army in exchange for his freedom, he fired the shot that killed British major John Pitcairn - Salem poor another formers slave fought in battle as well

    5. He was honorably discharged from the Continental Army on Dec 13, 1779 with 4 years and 8 months serivce

          

  28. Phillis Wheatley1.born in Africa 1753, came to America in 1761 when she was brought by john wheatley a rich boston merchant, his wife Susannah taught her to read and write

    2.Wrote first poem at 14, in 1776 wrote prom titled "to his excellency general washington" thanked by Washington in a letter dated feb 28, 1776

    3. Wheatley wrote as a 18th century Bostonian not a black american

    4.died at age 32, on dec 5, 1784, left 46 known poems , six of which were inspired by public acts-repeal of stamp act and washington's appointment as Commander -in -chief

          

  29. Manumission
    Movement
    5. in 1777, Vermont became first state to abolish slavery; in 1783 Maryland prohibited the traffic of blacks

    6. South Carolina prohibited the importation of slaves for sveral years and Act that was renewed periodically until 1803, when it was repealed on the grounds that it was unenforceable

    7. in 1784, Connecticut and Rhode is;and passed Acts. that abolished slavery gradually; in 1799 NY freed women slaves aged 25, and males 28

    8 . 1787, congress added to the northwest ordinance the provision that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude should exist in the territory covered by it

          

  30. Free blacks1. Continental Congress passes agreement not to import any slaves after December 1, 1775

    2. April of 1775 British marched and had skirmishes with colonist at Lexington and Concord

    3. June 17, 1775- Battle of Bunker Hill or Breed's hill took place, Salem was born around 1750 and was a former slave

    4. Joined the Continental army in exchange for his freedom, he fired the shot that killed British major John Pitcairn - Salem poor another formers slave fought in battle as well

    5. He was honorably discharged from the Continental Army on Dec 13, 1779 with 4 years and 8 months serivce

          

  31. Black Christianity3. Preachers often delivered sermons, "Servants obey your masters," which emphasized the importance of work, obedience, honesty, and respect for the master's property.

    4. Although some slaves accommodated themselves to the master's brand of Christianity and patiently waited for heavenly deliverance, others rebelled and sought earthly liberty.

    5.Relgious ceremonies helped to

          

  32. Early Black Education and Churches1. Blacks benefited from the general trent to establish and improve schools in the new public

    2. in 1798, a separate school for black children was established by white teacher in the home of Primus Hall of Boston

    3. in 1800 blacks asked the citizens of Boston for a separate school but were denied,
    they est. a school for their own and employed two Harvard men as instructors. in 1820 the city of Boston finally opened as elementary school for black children

    4. The N.Y. African free School best in 1787 by the Manumission Society was one of the best known in this period, when it began it had 40 students and by 1820 it was accommodating 500 black children

    5. New Jersey began education black children in 1777, by 1801 there had been short lived schools in Burlington, Salem, and Trenton.

    6. As early as 1774 the Quakers in Phily best school for black children, by 1797 with the help of philanthropist there were no less than seven schools for blacks in Phily.

          

  33. Gabriel Prosser's PlotBorn in Northampton County, North Carolina (in 1797)
    -was property if Horton Family
    -in his autobiographical sketch he said that he learned to read from school children

    2. During his late teen, he began visiting the Univ of North Carolina taking produce to students -began peddling love peddling love poems to male students who he charged 25 cents , students then sent peoms to their girlfriends

    3.Aided by Caroline Hertz, who was the wife of a professor, Horton had his first publication when two of his poems were published in 1828 in her hometown newspaper the Lancaster (Mass) Gazette.

    4. Horton was willing to write about anything that touched him, cont. to publish until 1865- last poems dealt with the Civil war and personalities such as Grant, Sherman, and Lincoln

    5.Last records find him in Philadelphia in 1866 and he probs died there in 1883

          

  34. Sally HemmingsLOST OF CONTROVERSY

    -born 1773, mother was african, father was british sea captain, martha wales inherited Hemmings who went to Jefferson after she died

    -in 1787 Hemmings went to Paris with Jefferson's daughter Mary when she was 14, she had 6 children born into slavery - 4 survived

    -Hemmings remained a domestic servant n Jefferson's house until his death-in 1988 DNA matched Jeffersons male line with Hemmings last son Eston Hemmings

    -in 1980, tunnel archeologist discovered tunnel from Monticello (Jeffersons planation) to slave quarters-had china and eating utensils from house

          

  35. New SWEDEN- delaware (1703)-slavery existed as early as 1636 (in colony that broke from Pennsylvania)

    -1st known slave was named: Anthony (he came from West Indies in 1636)

    -Dutch took over in 1655 and began to bring large # of slaves to grow tobacco and corn

    -slave pop increased @ higher rate than in PA---> this caused colony to identify less with Quaker values and more with neighboring colonies to the south

    - slavery never became basis of society in Middle Colonies- DUTCH, SWEDES, and GERMANS who settled in these areas had morals against slavery

          

  36. New Jersey (cont.)-southern area of new york (major export of grain) (quaker settlement)

    -Free blacks were barred by law from owning land in colonial New Jersey

    -from 1713-1768 the colony operated a separate court system to deal with slave crimes

    -1745-census showed that 74% of the slaves in the colony lived in 5 eastern counties -2,581 in 1727, to nearly 4,000 in 1738. Slaves accounted for about 12% of the colony's pop. up to the revolution

          

  37. Domestic Slave trade and slave breeding1. Closing of slave trade in 1808 makes domestic trade more profitable and by 1815 it was a major economic activity.

    2 Films like Woolfork, Saunders, and Overly of Maryland and Franklin and Armfield of Virginia helped to develop the business

    3. Baltimore, Washington,, Richmond, Norfolk, and Charleston were the principal trading centers in the older states- Montgomery, Memphis, and new orleans were major markers in newer areas.

    4. Many were moved via the Atlantic Ocean or on flatboats on the Ohio, Tennessee, or Mississippi Rivers -always taken in chains

    5.Between 600,000 and 1 million slaves migrated from the east to the west states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Missouri

    6. In 1831 Thomas R. Dew admitted that Virginia was a "Nego raising state" able to export 6,000 per year. Many girls became mothers at 13-14 by the time the slaves were 20 some slaves were to have given birth to 5 children.

    7 Bounties and prizes offered for bearing children , also practice of dividing families particularly in areas of Alambama (selma) and delta of Ms were average ration was 100 women - 140 men

          

  38. Developing Slave cultureSEX ROLES:
    women- often played major roles , most slaves had relationships with other slaves had relationships with other slaves on the same plantation
    -often it was acceptable for slaves to have sex before they were "married" and most slaves women married in their teens and men in their early 20s

    WORK:
    mothers took babies to fields, children went to work at age 5
    -at 1o they worked in fields
    -prime ages of slaves were 20-40years old

    SELLING:
    teen boy were at prime age to be sold, not teen girls those were a child
    -women encouraged to have children married or not
    -women sold at about 75% of value of male slaves -1750 s male slaves cost app. 50 pounds

          

  39. Slavery and the ConstitutionAfter Daniel Shays rebellion, it was clear Articles of Confed. were too weak.

    -Summer of 1787, we need an entirely new document, the delegates met in Phily to amend article but created new doc.

    -Georgia and S. Carolina wanted slaves counted equally as white for US House of reps, 3/5 compromise written into doc.

    -3 provisions that protect slavery- 3/5 clause, fugitive slave act, and outlawing of slave trade in 1808

          

  40. Rhode Island (cont)-the BROWNS, one of the great mercantile families of colonial America, were Rhode Island slave traders,
    -at least six of them-James and his bro Obadiah, and Jame's four sons, Nicholas, John, Joseph, and Moses, ran one of the BIGGEST SLAVE-TRADING businesses in New England, and for more than half a century the family reaped huge profits from the slave trade

    -their donations to Rhode island college were so generous that the named was changed to Brown University

    -the runaway law of 1714 penalized ferryman who carried any slave of the colony without a certificate from their masters

    -the law against thefts by slaves in Rhode Island was the severest in New England, carrying a sentence that could be 15 lashes or even banishment from the colony-- a particularly dreaded punishment, as it usually meant deportation and sale to the merciless sugar plantations of the West Indies

          

  41. Slave Family4. Slaves usually chose their own mates based on mutual attraction, like poor white premarital intercourse was frequent but promiscuous behavior was rare. Most couples maintained affectionate lasting relationships.

    5. Women slaves had more responsibility- bearing children, work, and family. Expected to work in fields in addition to cooking, sewing , child care and traditional female jobs in slave quarters.

    6.Women developed networks of mutual support-cared for each others children, sewing, quilting, cooking, laundry, attending births,caring for the sick and dying and praying together.

    7. Slave family provided love, protecting, education, moral guidance transmitted culture, status , role models and basic support

    8. Parents passed on to their children

          

  42. King Cotton-during the early 1780s the Chesapeake region experienced a severe depression-tobacco plantations were plagued by soil exhaustion and a glutted market.

    -southern planters had experienced with wheat and other grainsto bolster the sagging economy, regional recovery only began when they turned cotton

    -long staple cotton (grows in sea island, has long silky fibers, doesn't have good density) was already highly valued because its silky fibers could be easily separated from the seeds- only grew in climates on the sea islands off the coast of Georgia and S. carolina

    -Short staple could be cultivated across large areas in the south, but it was difficult to separate fibers from seeds- a slave could clean no more than a pound of cotton a day

          

  43. Gustavus Vassa4. Slaves usually chose their own mates based on mutual attraction, like poor white premarital intercourse was frequent but promiscuous behavior was rare. Most couples maintained affectionate lasting relationships.

    5. Women slaves had more responsibility- bearing children, work, and family. Expected to work in fields in addition to cooking, sewing , child care and traditional female jobs in slave quarters.

    6.Women developed networks of mutual support-cared for each others children, sewing, quilting, cooking, laundry, attending births,caring for the sick and dying and praying together.

    7. Slave family provided love, protecting, education, moral guidance transmitted culture, status , role models and basic support

    8. Parents passed on to their children

          

  44. Missouri Compromise (1820)-1st slave holding colony in New England, Boston merchants made first attempt at direct import of slaves from west Africa to the west indies in 1644

    -Primary interest was trading africans to colonies in the south , also traded rum, fish, and dairy products - BOSTER, SALEM, PROVIDENCE, and NEW LONDON were major areas of trading (what what)

    -from fewer that 200 slaves in 1676
    -550slaves in 1708
    -2000 slaves in 1715

    it reached its largest percentage of the total population between 1755-1764, when it stood at around 2.2 percent.
    -slaves concentrated in the industrial and seaside towns- Boston was about 10 % black in 1752

    -a Mass. law of 1641: specifically linked slavery to Biblical authority, and established for slaves the set of rules "which the law of God, est. in Israel concerning such people, doth morally require"

          

  45. Connecticut (1636)-slaves in Hartford in 1639 and New Haven in 1644, relatively few until 1700, in 1730 there were 700 slaves/total pop 38000

    -all the principal fams of Norwich , Hartford and New Haven were said to have one or two slaves, by 1774, half of all the ministries, lawyers, and public officials owned slaves and 3rd of all the doctors

    -new london was both an industrial center and the site of large slave-workers farms; with 2,036 skaves, it accounted for almost one-third of all the blacks in conn.
    -new london town itself, with 522 blacks and white pop of 5,366 led the state in number of slaves and percentage of black inhabitants

    -connecticut slavery lacked the "paternalism" the characterized southern slavery, so that even from the early days, the colony had a problem with masters who simply turned....

          

  46. New Jerseyin 1738, 3,981 slaves and 4,606slaves in 1745 / out of 61,000 TOTAL POP.

    -slaves were forbidden to carry firearms, when not in the company of their masters, and anyone who gave or lent a gun to a slave faced a fine of 20 shillings (GUN)

    -slaves couldn't assemble on their own or be on the streets at night ,
    -any slave found more than 5 miles away from home without pass was to be flogged (beat or whipped) , and the master was required to pay a reward to the person who had reported infraction

    -slaves guilty of arson were subject to punishments, many were burned at the stake when caught

    -in 1743, plot uncovered in Burlington County, slaves agreed to revolt slit the throats of their masters and masters' sons,
    -capture the women (to be ravished later) plunder the farms, and escape to the French and indains. A slave let word of the plot slip during an argument with a white man, the authorities were alerted, and after an investigation 30 ringleaders were arrested. Bc split had not actually gone into effect, only one man was hanged; the rest were sentenced to be flogged or had their ears cut off.