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  1. Refers to a network of educational institutions, leaders, and newspapers that perpetuated the philosophy of Booker T. Washington.
  2. A sociological study composed by DuBois and published in 1899 about blacks in Philadelphia.
  3. Born in 1863, became a leading southern industrialist who was interested in maintaining a low-wage black labor force. He was a "railroad magnet," and was president of the General Education Board. He worked very close with Washington, and believed that the success of the southern economy was inextricably linked to cheap black labor.
  4. Established in 1865 to train black theologians and social scientists.
  5. Term coined by Langston Hughes to refer to blacks attempting to assimilate to societal standards.
  6. Town in Massachusetts where DuBois was born. DuBois didn't have enough money to attend college, so the black residents of Great Barrington who realized his potential all pooled money in order to pay his tuition.
  7. Paired the Negro spiritual with European verse, which was an unprecedented comparison of intellectual capacity for blacks and whites alike. This idea served to attempt to change the tradition of black subordination.
  8. The protagonist of The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, Wetmore is of mixed race and "passes" often for white. The story concerns his true racial identity through a variety of instances and scenarios.
  9. Created in 1902 to fund many historically white and black schools in the south. It focused on the advancement of agriculture.
  10. A pamphlet published in 1892 by Ida B. Wells speaking out against the injustice and cruelty of the institution of lynching.
  11. Editor of the Christian Reporter, he was vehemently opposed to Armstrong's ideals.
  12. Autobiography of James Weldon Johnson published in 1933, the book outlines Johnson's life as a man of mixed race, his internal identity crisis and his professional endeavors.
  13. A social, public and cultural event that saw 3745 blacks killed between 1889-1932.
  14. Born in Jacksonville in 1871 of mixed race, he played a major role in black politics and arts, namely the Harlem Renaissance. He co-wrote the black national anthem, and said "my responsibility is not only to save black bodies but white souls."
  15. Founded in 1914, it had over 1 million American followers, which was probably the biggest movement in American history.
  16. Given in 1895 by Booker T. Washington. In his speech, he issued a public call for reconciliation based on black people adjusting to the southern status quo. He also called for whites to respect black people's endeavors for economic advancement.
  17. Born in St. Anne's, Jamaica in 1887, Garvey arrived in the US in 1910. He emphasized "race first" and Pan-Africanism, encouraged African Americans to return to Africa to establish economic self-reliance.
  18. Influential activist and writer who was an unapologetic critic of Jim Crow legislation, lynching, racial injustice, and people who accepted second class citizenship.
  19. Founded in 1915 by Carter G. Woodson to document and archive a concrete history for African Americans.
  20. The system following the Civil War where former slaves worked land owned by white people and "paid" for the use of tools, seeds, and fertilizers. They then shared the crop with the landowner, but "furnishing" and interest were deducted from the income of the sharecropper. This created a vicious cycle where sharecroppers worked tirelessly but made no net income.
  21. Passed in 1865 and 1866 by Southern states in order to severely limit the rights and economic potential for blacks. The Black Codes allowed blacks to get married or own property, but they couldn't vote and had economic barriers that prevented them from societal advancement.
  22. Gave freed slaves and naturalized people citizenship (1868)
  23. Founder of Hampton University, said education and intellect were dangerous for blacks, and said blacks were meant to work based on their past as slaves.
  24. Born in 1889, was a noted poet and writer during the Harlem Renaissance.
  25. A monthly periodical written by Samuel Armstrong to relate the ideas of Hampton to the public.
  26. Characters in Souls of Black Folk, Josie had a moral heroism that served to make life stronger and deeper, and she was very focused on education and progress. John was also focused on education, so he went away to college but was lost when he came home.
  27. During WWI, economic opportunities opened up for blacks in industrial northern cities such as NYC, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Pittsburgh. It fundamentally altered political, social and economic landscape of African Americans.
  28. Born in 1902, was an influential poet and writer during the Harlem Renaissance. He was a part of the New Negro Renaissance, and was concerned with the issue of blacks fitting into the mainstream.
  29. Historically black university in Atlanta where DuBois taught history and sociology starting in 1897.
  30. Written in 1912 by James Weldon Johnson about a colored man who faces internal crises about race identification.
  31. Written by Vincent Harding in 1974.
  32. 1903 book written by W.E.B. DuBois, described as an event rather than a book. It is also referred to as the nadir in African-American history, and it gave voice to the collective consciousness of millions of blacks in the north and south alike.
  33. Founded in 1866 as an all black college in Mississippi. Alma Mater of Ida B. Wells.
  34. Started in 1867 as a terrorist organization in the south. The KKK undermined black political power, terrorized Reconstruction governments, and acted as a guerrilla force in service of democrats and white planter class.
  35. Born in 1875, received a Ph.D from Harvard, wrote numerous books and trained a ton of black historians, worked as a historian at Howard.
  36. Three young black men who owned a supermarket that was beating their white competitors, so they were lynched. Sparked a huge outburst from Ida B. Wells, who was friends with the three gentlemen.
  37. Booker T. Washington's autobiography, published in 1901 about his rise from slavery to international household name.
  38. Refers to the legislative process in the South where several states passed constitutional provisions designed to prevent blacks from voting, such as literacy tests or poll taxes.
  39. Writer who advocated for black education and argued that universal schooling was a necessary function of a free society.
  40. Columbia scholar who argued that the Black Intellectual is imperative to Africa American studies.
  41. School founded in 1868 that taught people not to challenge authority and advocated for political disenfranchisement and economic subordination of blacks.
  42. Born in Barrington, MA in 1868, believed that literature could effectively challenge white supremacy. He famously wrote The Souls of Black Folk, and was a founding member of the NAACP.
  43. Gave African Americans the right to vote (1870)
  44. Written in 1937 by Zora Neale Hurston.
  45. Historically black college founded in 1881 in Alabama. It was led by Booker T. Washington until his death in 1915.
  46. The process by which a person who identifies as one race is also accepted as a member of a different race.
  47. Born a slave in 1856, attended Hampton Institute to learn about politics and educational theory under Samuel Armstrong. He advocated for blacks to engage in industrialism and cheap labor, sparking a massive debate with DuBois.
  48. Published by Carter G. Woodson in 1916 as an open journal for anyone who wanted to document African American history.
  49. Primarily used by Ida B. Wells, who cited all of her sources and used many of them. She typically cited white newspapers and writings in order to gain credibility from the white and black communities alike.
  50. A notion that African Americans were destructive, was staunchly opposed by Ida B. Wells.
  51. Written by James Weldon Johnson and his brother in 1900, it is the black national anthem.
  52. Songs used by slaves or within the black community not to denote resignation, but resistance. DuBois emphasized that the songs were worthy of intellectual and critical inquiry.
  53. Refers to the generations of African-Americans who had not been raised in slavery. White people lynched and complained about "New Negroes" because they feared their intellectual propensity.
  54. Written by W.E.B. DuBois about the ideologies of his contemporaries. He said that the ascension of Washington coincided with the decline of the black race.
  55. Born in 1885, Locke was a leader of the Harlem Renaissance and the idea of the New Negro.
  56. Term coined by Manning Marable in regards to black intellectual tradition, including descriptive, corrective, and proscriptive.
  57. A system by which an employer requires someone to pay off their debt by working. Like sharecropping, peonage was a way for white landowners to solicit cheap/free labor from blacks after the 13th Amendment.
  58. Writer of the Vocation of the Black Scholar in 1974, emphasized the importance of speaking the truth.
  59. People who promoted southern industrialization and a transition away from economic reliance on agriculture.
  60. Hayes vs. Tilden election got screwed up, so when Hayes was elected he agreed to pursue a policy of non-intervention in southern affairs, and agreed to help the south with internal improvements.
  61. Ida B. Wells was kicked off of the "ladies" railroad car because black women were not viewed as "ladies." So, she sued the Chesapeake-Ohio Railroad Company and won at the local level, but eventually lost at a state level.
  62. Term championed during the Harlem Renaissance by Alain Locke. He did so to emphasize black intellectual identity and to discredit the notion of black intellectual inferiority.
  63. Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude (1865)
  64. Weekly newspaper created in 1925 by Robert Abbott. He implored blacks to migrate to Chicago and spoke out against Jim Crow legislation and discrimination.
  65. The triple paradox of Booker T. Washington's view of black people is the subject of critique by W.E.B. DuBois. The triple paradox is as follows:
    1: DuBois states that black men cannot be successful businessmen or property owners without suffrage.
    2: DuBois states that blacks should not accept or be satisfied with second-class citizenship.
    3: DuBois states that higher education is absolutely necessary for blacks, and black institutions such as Tuskegee would not exist without black higher education.
  66. Over 100 blacks were murdered in the largest single day killing of blacks in Colfax, Louisiana in 1873.
  67. Where W.E.B. DuBois attended, was founded in 1866 in Nashville as a historically black university.
  68. Writer who denounced lynching and the federal government in the Reconstruction period.