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  1. Philadelphia Negro
  2. Lift Every Voice and Sing
  3. Tuskegee Machine
  4. Ku Klux Klan
  5. Double Consciousness
  6. Fisk University
  7. Rust College
  8. Up From Slavery
  9. Journal of Negro History
  10. W.E.B. DuBois
  11. Hampton Institute
  12. Tuskegee Institute
  13. Southern Horrors
  14. Peonage
  15. Along This Way
  16. James Anderson
  17. The New Negro
  18. Triple Paradox
  19. 14th Amendment
  20. Lynching
  21. Thomas Moss, Calvin McDowell and Henry Stewart
  22. The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man
  23. Their Eyes Were Watching God
  24. Passing
  25. Vincent Harding
  26. Henry M. Turner
  27. Booker T. Washington
  28. Atlanta Exposition Speech
  29. Of Booker T. Washington and Others
  30. Colfax Massacre
  31. Claude McKay
  32. Black Intellectual
  33. Leon Litwack
  34. Association for the Study of Negro Life and History
  35. Carter G. Woodson
  36. William Baldwin
  37. Virginia Union University
  38. New Negro
  39. Black Intellectual Tradition
  40. Black Codes
  41. 13th Amendment
  42. Sorrow Songs
  43. J. Douglas Wetmore
  44. Disfranchisement
  45. Marcus Garvey
  46. Racial Mountain
  47. General Education Board
  48. Langston Hughes
  49. Southern Workman
  50. Great Migration
  51. Chicago Defender
  52. New South Boosters
  53. Vocation of the Black Scholar
  54. Manning Marable
  55. James Weldon Johnson
  56. Compromise of 1877
  57. Ida B. Wells
  58. Myth of the Negro Beast
  59. 15th Amendment
  60. Alain Locke
  61. Atlanta University
  62. Great Barrington
  63. Souls of Black Folk
  64. Sharecropping
  65. Samuel Armstrong
  66. John + Josie
  67. Universal Negro Improvement Association
  68. 1884 Lawsuit
  1. a Songs used by slaves or within the black community not to denote resignation, but resistance. DuBois emphasized that the songs were worthy of intellectual and critical inquiry.
  2. b Established in 1865 to train black theologians and social scientists.
  3. c Born a slave in 1856, attended Hampton Institute to learn about politics and educational theory under Samuel Armstrong. He advocated for blacks to engage in industrialism and cheap labor, sparking a massive debate with DuBois.
  4. d Autobiography of James Weldon Johnson published in 1933, the book outlines Johnson's life as a man of mixed race, his internal identity crisis and his professional endeavors.
  5. e Primarily used by Ida B. Wells, who cited all of her sources and used many of them. She typically cited white newspapers and writings in order to gain credibility from the white and black communities alike.
  6. f The process by which a person who identifies as one race is also accepted as a member of a different race.
  7. g Born in Jacksonville in 1871 of mixed race, he played a major role in black politics and arts, namely the Harlem Renaissance. He co-wrote the black national anthem, and said "my responsibility is not only to save black bodies but white souls."
  8. h School founded in 1868 that taught people not to challenge authority and advocated for political disenfranchisement and economic subordination of blacks.
  9. i Term coined by Manning Marable in regards to black intellectual tradition, including descriptive, corrective, and proscriptive.
  10. j Born in 1889, was a noted poet and writer during the Harlem Renaissance.
  11. k Three young black men who owned a supermarket that was beating their white competitors, so they were lynched. Sparked a huge outburst from Ida B. Wells, who was friends with the three gentlemen.
  12. l Written by James Weldon Johnson and his brother in 1900, it is the black national anthem.
  13. m Characters in Souls of Black Folk, Josie had a moral heroism that served to make life stronger and deeper, and she was very focused on education and progress. John was also focused on education, so he went away to college but was lost when he came home.
  14. n 1903 book written by W.E.B. DuBois, described as an event rather than a book. It is also referred to as the nadir in African-American history, and it gave voice to the collective consciousness of millions of blacks in the north and south alike.
  15. o Ida B. Wells was kicked off of the "ladies" railroad car because black women were not viewed as "ladies." So, she sued the Chesapeake-Ohio Railroad Company and won at the local level, but eventually lost at a state level.
  16. p Born in 1885, Locke was a leader of the Harlem Renaissance and the idea of the New Negro.
  17. q Columbia scholar who argued that the Black Intellectual is imperative to Africa American studies.
  18. r Born in 1902, was an influential poet and writer during the Harlem Renaissance. He was a part of the New Negro Renaissance, and was concerned with the issue of blacks fitting into the mainstream.
  19. s Written by Vincent Harding in 1974.
  20. t Historically black university in Atlanta where DuBois taught history and sociology starting in 1897.
  21. u A pamphlet published in 1892 by Ida B. Wells speaking out against the injustice and cruelty of the institution of lynching.
  22. v Born in 1863, became a leading southern industrialist who was interested in maintaining a low-wage black labor force. He was a "railroad magnet," and was president of the General Education Board. He worked very close with Washington, and believed that the success of the southern economy was inextricably linked to cheap black labor.
  23. w A monthly periodical written by Samuel Armstrong to relate the ideas of Hampton to the public.
  24. x Founded in 1866 as an all black college in Mississippi. Alma Mater of Ida B. Wells.
  25. y Given in 1895 by Booker T. Washington. In his speech, he issued a public call for reconciliation based on black people adjusting to the southern status quo. He also called for whites to respect black people's endeavors for economic advancement.
  26. z Started in 1867 as a terrorist organization in the south. The KKK undermined black political power, terrorized Reconstruction governments, and acted as a guerrilla force in service of democrats and white planter class.
  27. aa Written in 1912 by James Weldon Johnson about a colored man who faces internal crises about race identification.
  28. ab Published by Carter G. Woodson in 1916 as an open journal for anyone who wanted to document African American history.
  29. ac The protagonist of The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, Wetmore is of mixed race and "passes" often for white. The story concerns his true racial identity through a variety of instances and scenarios.
  30. ad Founder of Hampton University, said education and intellect were dangerous for blacks, and said blacks were meant to work based on their past as slaves.
  31. ae During WWI, economic opportunities opened up for blacks in industrial northern cities such as NYC, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Pittsburgh. It fundamentally altered political, social and economic landscape of African Americans.
  32. af Booker T. Washington's autobiography, published in 1901 about his rise from slavery to international household name.
  33. ag Founded in 1914, it had over 1 million American followers, which was probably the biggest movement in American history.
  34. ah Gave African Americans the right to vote (1870)
  35. ai A notion that African Americans were destructive, was staunchly opposed by Ida B. Wells.
  36. aj A sociological study composed by DuBois and published in 1899 about blacks in Philadelphia.
  37. ak Born in 1875, received a Ph.D from Harvard, wrote numerous books and trained a ton of black historians, worked as a historian at Howard.
  38. al A social, public and cultural event that saw 3745 blacks killed between 1889-1932.
  39. am The system following the Civil War where former slaves worked land owned by white people and "paid" for the use of tools, seeds, and fertilizers. They then shared the crop with the landowner, but "furnishing" and interest were deducted from the income of the sharecropper. This created a vicious cycle where sharecroppers worked tirelessly but made no net income.
  40. an Refers to the generations of African-Americans who had not been raised in slavery. White people lynched and complained about "New Negroes" because they feared their intellectual propensity.
  41. ao Writer who denounced lynching and the federal government in the Reconstruction period.
  42. ap Written in 1937 by Zora Neale Hurston.
  43. aq Gave freed slaves and naturalized people citizenship (1868)
  44. ar Born in St. Anne's, Jamaica in 1887, Garvey arrived in the US in 1910. He emphasized "race first" and Pan-Africanism, encouraged African Americans to return to Africa to establish economic self-reliance.
  45. as Paired the Negro spiritual with European verse, which was an unprecedented comparison of intellectual capacity for blacks and whites alike. This idea served to attempt to change the tradition of black subordination.
  46. at Written by W.E.B. DuBois about the ideologies of his contemporaries. He said that the ascension of Washington coincided with the decline of the black race.
  47. au Born in Barrington, MA in 1868, believed that literature could effectively challenge white supremacy. He famously wrote The Souls of Black Folk, and was a founding member of the NAACP.
  48. av The triple paradox of Booker T. Washington's view of black people is the subject of critique by W.E.B. DuBois. The triple paradox is as follows:
    1: DuBois states that black men cannot be successful businessmen or property owners without suffrage.
    2: DuBois states that blacks should not accept or be satisfied with second-class citizenship.
    3: DuBois states that higher education is absolutely necessary for blacks, and black institutions such as Tuskegee would not exist without black higher education.
  49. aw Writer who advocated for black education and argued that universal schooling was a necessary function of a free society.
  50. ax Hayes vs. Tilden election got screwed up, so when Hayes was elected he agreed to pursue a policy of non-intervention in southern affairs, and agreed to help the south with internal improvements.
  51. ay Founded in 1915 by Carter G. Woodson to document and archive a concrete history for African Americans.
  52. az Created in 1902 to fund many historically white and black schools in the south. It focused on the advancement of agriculture.
  53. ba Town in Massachusetts where DuBois was born. DuBois didn't have enough money to attend college, so the black residents of Great Barrington who realized his potential all pooled money in order to pay his tuition.
  54. bb Weekly newspaper created in 1925 by Robert Abbott. He implored blacks to migrate to Chicago and spoke out against Jim Crow legislation and discrimination.
  55. bc Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude (1865)
  56. bd A system by which an employer requires someone to pay off their debt by working. Like sharecropping, peonage was a way for white landowners to solicit cheap/free labor from blacks after the 13th Amendment.
  57. be Term championed during the Harlem Renaissance by Alain Locke. He did so to emphasize black intellectual identity and to discredit the notion of black intellectual inferiority.
  58. bf Refers to the legislative process in the South where several states passed constitutional provisions designed to prevent blacks from voting, such as literacy tests or poll taxes.
  59. bg Historically black college founded in 1881 in Alabama. It was led by Booker T. Washington until his death in 1915.
  60. bh Over 100 blacks were murdered in the largest single day killing of blacks in Colfax, Louisiana in 1873.
  61. bi Writer of the Vocation of the Black Scholar in 1974, emphasized the importance of speaking the truth.
  62. bj Editor of the Christian Reporter, he was vehemently opposed to Armstrong's ideals.
  63. bk People who promoted southern industrialization and a transition away from economic reliance on agriculture.
  64. bl Where W.E.B. DuBois attended, was founded in 1866 in Nashville as a historically black university.
  65. bm Refers to a network of educational institutions, leaders, and newspapers that perpetuated the philosophy of Booker T. Washington.
  66. bn Influential activist and writer who was an unapologetic critic of Jim Crow legislation, lynching, racial injustice, and people who accepted second class citizenship.
  67. bo Passed in 1865 and 1866 by Southern states in order to severely limit the rights and economic potential for blacks. The Black Codes allowed blacks to get married or own property, but they couldn't vote and had economic barriers that prevented them from societal advancement.
  68. bp Term coined by Langston Hughes to refer to blacks attempting to assimilate to societal standards.