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  1. gave back lot of land that Union had seized during the war; wanted the Union to come back together; gave the power of ownership back to oppressors, so that didn't help anything; Land was promised to African-Americans, but he gave the land back to Oppressors.
  2. BTW established
  3. -Chicago Defender→ black men who worked on trains which went to South carried these newspapers to the South, so they could learn about the job opportunities
  4. all slaves will be free on January 1, 1863
  5. a victory that inflicts such a devastating impact on the victor that makes it just like losing (used to describe Antietam). After Antietam, Lincoln realized the Union needed more bodies for the effort
  6. black Greek letter organizations (protection, socializing, and scholarship);
  7. African American men in the US Army in the 9 and 10th Cavalries and 24th and 25th infantries
  8. 1898
  9. committee of intellectual black people that guided FDR's decision making processes (Mary McLeod Bethune was on it)
  10. creation of a black nation
  11. Rutherford B. Hayes (R) and Samuel Tilden (D)
    Tilden wins popular vote but Hayes wins electoral college vote
  12. Republican people from North coming down to South to run
  13. Virginia finally desegregated
  14. involves an overhaul of the social, economic, and political underpinings of a particular country; Civil War brought 4 million newly free people
  15. assassination of Franz Ferdinand in 1914
    Allies: France, Britain, Russia
    Enemies: Germany, Italy, Austria, Hungary
    European immigrants couldn't come into the U.S. during this time (they worked in factories) → Polish, Czechs, Russians, etc. to Ellis Island
    Problem: labor shortage
    Solution: African-Americans from the South
  16. cut down trees, dig ditches, make roads (segregated)
  17. Martial Law freaked them out because they didn't have freedom
  18. (1856-1928): dean of black journalism and believed in Marxism; black sharecroppers should alie themselves with white ethnic immigrants and white landless owners and vote along the same lines to defeat the majority; idea: keep class alliances at the bottom; rich white people talked to poor white people and told them to choose: be white or black. Irish eventually chose to conform to white ideals and got right to vote and civil office
  19. (1891-1960)- anthropologist and 1st black woman to graduate from Barnard
  20. A Love Supreme 1964
  21. let black men serve in the war
  22. started as the result of 1)Does anybody know the extent of racial violence in the US? 2) Can anyone do anything about it?
  23. Bureau of Refugees and abandoned lands original purpose: distribute land to the newly freed people; couldn't give 40 acres and a mule bc the white people got their land back; new purpose: oversee labor contracts for the newly freed people (for fairness and to make sure black people got good contracts bc sharecropping)
    W.E.B. Dubois thought it was the best thing ever
  24. Southern white people who supported Republicans
  25. started in 1906 at Cornell University (black and gold); first one (DuBois, MLK, Paul Robeson, Thurgood Marshall);
  26. (1902-1967): went on to Columbia University in New York and spent more time in Harlem than in school; Dream Deferred + Crystal Stair
  27. A Change Is Gonna Come 1963
  28. the stock market crashes, unemployment rate was 25%; black rate was 48%
  29. (1877-1920): the lowest point; for a brief second, Af. Ams experienced freedom, but now, it got taken away; some say it's worse than slavery.
  30. owners of baseball teams made an agreement not to hire black ball players;
  31. desegregates military industry
  32. created relaxer; opened bunch of shops all around including Harlem; first black female millionaire
    Madame CJ Walker's invention created separation between middle and lower African American class
  33. Free vs. Freed. Black Elite and New Freed People (poor and uneducated). Beginnings of Class Stratifications: Free people wouldn't let daughters marry Freed people.
  34. : MLK led bus boycotts to bankrupt the city economically (381 days); people would walk to work; black maids and washer women were most significant during this time because they actually suffered; MLK had a car; a lot of white women helped because their black maids were not showing up and coming late
  35. certain groups are more inclined to do crime
  36. you would have to see the world and the world would have to see you through this
  37. lynching, racism/segregation, sharecropping isn't financially viable occupation ($.50-$2), lack of money circulation, no ability to vote, weather was messing up farming (droughts and floods), boll weevil and cotton worm
  38. in 1960 in Nashville, young people participated in sit-in; we are going to treat racism as if it doesn't exist (started in Greensboro, NC); sit ins start Feb. 1, 1960, within 6 months 50,000 students sat in at lunch counters throughout the South (desegregated them bc Woolworths and others realized they were losing money)
  39. Howard was first; named after Oliver Howard; Hampton Institute: BTW went here); matters bc he continued the legacy of education, black people still weren't being admitted to colleges
  40. displacing residents out of their areas of town (black residents) and making the architecture more palatable by knocking down homeless shelters to make parks, for example. This happens when the wealthy go into poorer neighborhoods.
  41. Union troops must leave and railroad lines from South to North and West in exchange for Hayes being president
    Removing troops ended Reconstruction bc black people no longer had protection
    Tilden got popular vote because voting was restricted for men of color
  42. Black Churches, black-owned businesses (Binga Bank in Chicago)
  43. Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal) 1896 (octaroon-1/8th black) first class ticket in New Orleans, but got moved bc one-drop rule
  44. dealt with writers and artists and had them paint murals (interview people who were slaves)
  45. read the constitution; asks super specific question
    Jar of jelly beans have to guess how many there are and then you can vote; bubbles in bar of soap
  46. 4700 people and 3400 of them were black
  47. 1834-1915): bishop in AME church and was a Union chaplain; he became disillusioned (angry bc there are all these rights we are guaranteed, but never got them) with America; "the flag to the Negro is a dirty and contemptible rag;" blow the rechets into a thousand pieces (self-defense); go back to Africa because the US sucks
  48. Sociologist and member of black Greek letter organization and Harvard person;
  49. it's time for black people to fight for themselves
  50. all deliberate speed
  51. black people came to the city, so they peaced out and went to the suburbs
    KKK moved to the city after black people did.
  52. punish those states that thought they could leave; make military permanent in South; 50% of the voting population of a state to apologize; Thaddeus Stevens was one of them
  53. 67th colored infantry regiment used the 9,000 dollars they got to establish a school for black people
  54. Agricultural Adjustment Act: payed farmers not to farm
  55. 230 deaths
  56. Shelley v. Kraemer white people sign a contract that they will never sell their home to a black person, Jewish person, etc. People moved to the closest Northern city: Florida→ New York, etc.
  57. He believed that Garvey was dangerous to black people. A. Philip Randolph thought he should be the person. WEB should be the black leader to take over the vacuum. Garvey would wear Ph.D. garb in the streets and it pissed DuBois off. Garvey went to prison in 1924, and a million letters went in to the Atlanta jail to let him go.
    He got deported so he wouldn't die in prison of Ashthma.
  58. leader of 54th regiment. Wasn't an abolitionist but fought with black people bc he was a career soldier who did what he was told
  59. 180,000
  60. 1906
  61. desegregated America's leisure time; had negative effect: got rid of the special culture created in the Negro Leagues; by 1960, Negro Leagues were done for
  62. shutdown public schools rather than let black kids go to school with white schools (privatized schooling)
  63. students rode through the South to get the rule enforced; When they got to Mississippi, they were not touched, but led straight to police station where they were sentenced to 6 months in penitentiary for hard labor
  64. spike in prison rates after reconstruction; prisoners were rented out to work the fields all day long for free
  65. 1866-1877 period after Civil War; America's attempt to get back together again
  66. (Nation of Islam) → no miscegenation
  67. KKK + legislation
  68. hospital where African Americans could be born there
  69. doll test → Linda Brown (black child) says white doll is smarter, more beautiful, and behaves better; she says these things are true because she's white
  70. the idea that Lincoln freed the slaves
  71. 1946: black woman was told to go to back of the bus once they got to stateline; said you cannot segregate interstate transportation
  72. all men between 10-16 had to be apprenticed to man of standing in community (journeymen make money and then become masters)
  73. BTW advocated for this: accommodate Jim Crow; matters of mutual progress (making money) work together, but socially stay separate; wanted white people to depend on black labor to rebuild South; wanted black people to stay in South and give white people a chance
  74. Black Negro Leagues
  75. 1870 right to vote regardless of color, race, or previous condition of servitude (citizens→ voters)
  76. born in Jamaica; as a kid, he had a white gal-friend until 12 when her father told her that proper ladies don't play with black people; he read Up From Slavery and wanted to build a Tuskegee in Jamaica, so he started the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which would become the NAACP. The most poorly treated workers in Latin America were the darkest skinned people. Wanted a united colored people. Wanted everyone to unite in Africa. Established the UNIA in Harlem.
  77. thousands of UNIA delegates from 25 countries gathered at Madison Square in 1921
  78. Af Am organizations that paralleled white organizations that wouldn't let black people participate
  79. some 600 African Americans held office during Reconstruction; the vast majority were enslaved at some point
  80. 10 dollars to vote
  81. control Africa again and take over the world; generation after slavery expected all the constitutional rights + were military about it; said you owe me something
  82. 1 million moved from rural South to the industrial North
    Moved because established black communities in North
  83. if you steal an animal, spend 1-5 years in jail
  84. intimidated black voters by pumping shotgun at voters to change their vote to the Democratic party
  85. 1856-1931; performed one of the first successful open heart surgeries; Province Hospital (black doctors and nurses); started National Medical Association because the American Medical Association wouldn't allow black people to join
  86. famous essayist
  87. 1862 battle lasted 2 days; Union forces won; however, there were 10,000 Union casualties; needed people to replace troops that died/were injured
  88. black businesses and black unity
  89. Ida Wells, DuBois, grandson of William Llyod Garrison, Henry Moskovitz
  90. working off debt constantly
  91. (code of behavior): look down, miss and mister, don't touch, black people = boy, step off the sidewalk into the street, take off hat, call by first name, etc.)
  92. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (sympathy)
  93. asked Mayor West if he felt discrimination based on race was wrong; said he couldn't agree refusing service and merchandise was wrong; 3 weeks later black people were served at lunch counters in Nashville; Martin King took stance of moral suasion as well; appealed to since of religion
  94. (1868-1963): born in Massachusetts integrated schools; went to Fisk University in Nashville; went to Harvard; first African American to receive Ph.D. from Harvard College; studied social sciences in Germany in 1898; sometimes called Father of Social Sciences;
  95. had own Constitution, president, etc. They weren't recognized officially, but that didn't really matter
  96. 1862 and 1890 land is given to be used for education in all states (flagship universities like KU, OU, Mizzou) and paved the way for HBCUs
  97. African and American, but neither (weren't seen as American bc no rights and not African because wouldn't fit in
  98. Dec. 1865 no slavery (property into people)
  99. extralegal (outside of the law) mob violence perpetuated on a person; if hanged correctly, the person's neck should be snapped; instead, people were strangled to death
    people showed up to watch these events, like a coliseum
    eyes would bleed and they would live for 15-20 minutes
    lynching happens when you violate racial etiquette (white men have to protect white women in order to preserve their own honor)
  100. aka Golden Brigade; used shovels at first but eventually became a super important section of the Army. Douglass said stop fighting with a soft white hand and unleash an angry black fist. Were paid 10 dollars to white soldiers' 13, so they refused to fight until Lincoln rectified it
  101. 600,000
  102. husband accused and mob came to gather him; she protected husband; got lynched and got her fetus cut out and stomped on
  103. First African American Supreme Court Justice
  104. 1917
  105. was started bc the ABA wouldn't allow black people to be there (ethics, etc.)
  106. (1903): talked about BTW and problem of the 20th century will be color line
  107. hoped to stop desegregation in schools
  108. desegregates military Truman 1948
  109. fight racism with the laws white people wrote. Won cause against grandfather clause
  110. 83
  111. Orval Faubus brought National Guard to keep black kids out of Central High School (federal govt vs. state govt); highest ranking military official in WW II; 101st Airborne Division (led invasion of Europe) was sent in (was way of saying come at me bro because they will mess you up);
  112. asks to desegregate the army and has march on washington
  113. 10% of the voting population in a state should pledge loyalty to the Union and ratify the 13th amendment; he died in 1865, so sorry
  114. newspaper; had the largest black subscription list, than any other periodical
  115. established the Negro National League with the KC Monarchs
  116. were nearly decimated; After Shaw died, they rushed the Confederates (who had high ground and trenches), but eventually lost. Lincoln praised their contributions. After this, the war was about freedom for African Americans
  117. Brown v. Board of Education: class action suit that the NAACP won
  118. all people born or naturalized are citizens + due process + equal protection clause + federal power = greater than state power (people → citizens)
  119. Robert E. Lee surrendered his sword, firearm, and horses; escorting him were black troops on horseback
  120. Enslaved people: legal independence, felt temporary legal, culture shock, working for themselves, CONTROL (travel, education, work) [in June 1865, Texas founded out freedom—JUBILEE
  121. no need to accommodate white people for anything (constitutional rights, sorry);
  122. (1948): restrictive covenants are not okay; STL case
  123. student in Virginia, who led a student strike at her segregated black high school; walls were made of tar paper, and the accommodations of the black school were much less than the white school she soon found out (black school didn't have running water). They got the principal to leave and got the teachers to leave by tricking them into an assembly. She told all the kids that we aren't going to attend this school because they need an actual school to attend. She was eventually sent away to Montgomery, Alabama to her uncle to Dexter Avenue Church (Vernon Johns). They eventually fired Vernon to hire MLK, Jr.
  124. decision partially because of Cold War; way of telling Russians they are savage and backwards; segregation is psychologically injurious to children
  125. 1906: Buffalo Soldiers went into a bar in uniforms and a fight broke out and a white man was killed and the local police arrested the entire company; Bill Clinton pardoned them and gave them medals
  126. we will make White people make equal accommodations for black people. You can't do it, so you will have to integrate
  127. violence within the school, black kids weren't getting the same care they received in black schools, black administrators and teachers lost jobs, bias from teachers
  128. called upon Europe and America to respect the rights of black people around the world
  129. started by Confederate Veteran General Nathan Bedford Forrest in 1866 in Tennessee; He didn't like the military being around and thought white freedom was being impeded upon. Ku Klux comes from Greek for circle or brotherhood; Hoods: for intimidation and protection of identity; thought black people were scared of ghosts or haunts; Wanted to run against Republican party (present day Democrats) because that was the party of Lincoln
  130. character created in minstrel show (black face); it was created during Nadir; official and unofficial rules that dictate the lives of black people
  131. feel inferior because there are no longer enslaved people; psychologically damaged now because they are seen as subhuman; entrenchment of white supremacy continues today.
  132. every man above the age of 16 must have a job
  133. factory worker jobs made $2-$5 a day, easier opportunity to vote/franchise, less racial violence, family members enticed them with letters, education opportunities, running toilets, South-side of Chicago (cleaners and stuff), Detroit (automobile), Milwaukee (brewed beer)
  134. wife of John Rockefeller established
  135. can't vote if your grandfather didn't vote; they can't vote so their grandkids can't vote; and since their grandkids can't vote, then their grandkids can't vote
  136. in 1908 at Howard University (pink and green)
  137. (1903-1946): essayist out of Harlem, where he wrote and married DuBois' daughter; Cullen was actually gay.
  138. got land seized by Union. They got super pissed about that. Rich became destitute
  139. land ownership for African-Americans!! + get yo education mane!
  140. majority population will create opportunities for minorities when it benefits white people (Cold War and Brown v. Board decision; amendments bc they want votes) (quid pro quid)
  141. Baptists established