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  1. Philadelphia Convention 1830
  2. what were free blacks considers
  3. Support against slavery
  4. First Black female editor
  5. Sojuner Truth (Isabelle Van Wagner)
  6. Thomas Paul
  7. Men literary societies
  8. First black newspaper
  9. Exception to Housing: Francis Saint Marks
  10. Henry Highland Garnett
  11. Bethel AME Church
  12. Sarah Forten
  13. Richard Allen views
  14. 13th amendment
  15. quasi -free black
  16. New England Anti-slavery Society
  17. David Walker
  18. Beneficial Mutual aid society
  19. medium occupational achievement category
  20. William Wells Brown
  21. Dynamic of names
  22. women Literary societies
  23. Black Churches
  24. why wasn't slavery in the north
  25. William Lloyd Garrison
  26. 15th amendment
  27. Argument for slavery
  28. Christopher McPherson
  29. High Occupational Achievement: William Higgins
  30. Wealthy Blacks: James Forten
  31. Reading Room
  32. colonization
  33. George Moses Horton
  34. Entrepreneurial Schools
  35. Langston Hughes
  36. African Dorcas Society
  37. African American Female Intelligence Society
  38. Plessey vs. Ferguson 1897
  39. 14th amendant
  40. Rochester, New York 1853
  41. Crater Woodson
  42. New York association
  43. Literary society
  44. John Charvis
  45. What resulted as blacks gained the right to vote
  46. Harlem renaissance
  47. Francis Ellen Watkins Harper
  48. Potter Field
  49. Harriett Jacobs
  50. Literary organization were important because
  51. Gradual emancipation
  52. When did the black press begin
  53. Wallace Thurman
  54. 1805
  55. Philip A. Randolph
  56. What did black newspapers provide
  57. Lynchings
  58. Slavery in Brazil ended
  59. Movement to the north
  60. Wilmington Riots of 1898
  61. Dred Scott decision confirmed
  62. Martin R Delaney views
  63. John Franklin
  64. When did the abolitionist movement gained momentum
  65. John Chavis
  66. Benevolent Mutual aid society
  67. Martin R Delaney wrote a book
  68. Other than people who else helped educate free blacks
  69. Rise of the KKK
  70. Labor Unions
  71. Philanthropic Schools
  72. Zore Neale Herston
  73. Wealthy Blacks: Thomas Day
  74. Frederick Douglass
  75. High Occupational achievement: Richard Allen
  76. Wealthy Blacks: Paul Cuffe
  77. Charles Chestnutt
  78. American Colonization
  79. New York Convention 1847
  80. Boston Schools
  81. Free black men housing
  82. Freedman's saving and trust company
  83. Freedom Journal
  84. John Russworm and Edward Jones
  85. Events leading to the Civil War
  86. High occupational achievement: David Scott
  87. High Occupational Achievement: Henry Glee
  88. Revolutionary war
  89. Free blacks favored what policy
  90. what was the typical Women occupational category
  91. Joseph Roberts
  92. Mutual Aid Societies
  93. Women Lynching
  94. Slavery was ended in US
  95. Dred Scott Decision 1857
  96. Society of friends
  97. Lincoln University
  98. John Brown
  99. Female anti -slavery society
  100. High Occupational achievement category
  101. Reconstruction 1865-1872
  102. Clark Clegg
  103. Columbus, Ohio 1850
  104. Low occupational achievement category
  105. perseverance Benevolence and mutual aid association
  106. Aid societies reflected the divisions in the black community
  107. Sharecropping
  108. Leonard Curry
  109. Conventions
  110. Paul Laurence
  111. Freedman's bureau
  112. Haiti Emancipation
  113. Exception to Housing: William Johnson
  114. Free blacks migrated to
  115. Free African Society
  116. Leo M
  117. Who also helped to educate free blacks
  118. Institutional Schools
  119. Claude Mckay
  120. Martin R. Delaney
  121. Name changing
  122. Free blacks had to carry papers
  123. Lusford Lane
  124. Harriett Wilson
  125. Prudence Crandall
  1. a -Ideology was an abolitionist and supported women suffrage
    -Free blacks had obligation to help those enslaved
    -worked with Garrison to create the Liberator
    -Started star 1847 changed to Douglass paper
    -Refused to accept segregation and discrimination where ever it existed
    -conducted a boycott
    -opposed colonization and capital punishment and lynching
    -he said that there was a need for blacks to support each other
    -lloyd Garrison gave Douglass a lifeline
    -parted ways because white abolitionist were taking over
    -became free 1838 Anna murray married again to a white women thought he was a cop out
  2. b born a slave in 1787 in upstate New York
    -Ten or twelve sister and brothers
    -owned by a dutch man
    -sibling sold and she was sold to an abusive master
    -she was resold and married Thomas who would become free they had five children
    -most of her children fathered by slave owner
    -she ran away leaving her family behind
    1840s moved to NY worked for a quaker family as a servant
    -religious awakening, preached, walked town town preaching
    -was popular, she settled in north Hampton Massachusetts
    -first black feminist
    -became an anti-slave speaker
    -people thought she was a man
    1852 she was prevented from speaking at a women convention they thought she would overshadow everyone
    -1850 biography
    -union nurse
  3. c -He was involved in the murder of several people
    -1859 Organized 21 men to invade Harpers Ferry in Virginia
    -Captured the town seized the US arsenal and freed 50 slaves
    -he was captured and jailed for his actions
    -He was known as a person who fought to get AA things they couldn't get for themselves
    -born 1800s religious went to school is Massachusetts had to drop out because of sight
    -organized schools, church, and post office
    -known for housing fugitive slaves
    -he had an anti slavery center was attacked and his son died
    -contacted black leaders, but they backed out because of violence
  4. d Created by churches and organizations and separate schools for women education
  5. e "The Price of Liberty of African Americans and making of Liberia" colonization was traced back to NC
  6. f -most slaves returned to plantation that they worked on
    -they worked as sharecroppers
    -sharecropping was like slavery, almost always did sharecroppers accumulate debt that could never be repaid
  7. g medical Doctor and barber
  8. h -Born in Wilmington NC 1785
    -encouraged slaves to be violent
    -raised by free mother moved to Boston and worked and study
    -he opened a second hand clothing store
    -served as a correspondent for the freedom journal
    had a pamphlet called "Walker Appeal"
    -advocated for teaching black history and black self determination
  9. i Bethel AME minister, operated a school and boot store
  10. j 1831 Frederick Douglass was president of this society
  11. k Thomas Jefferson in 1777 wanted scree slaves to be gradual set free and then deported to another country
  12. l was a lawyer who became a writer his work received worldwide acclaim Mirror of tradition based on Wilmington riots
  13. m particular profession, teachers, preachers, tailors, blacksmith
  14. n 1775 british convinced slaves to fight for them for freedom america did the same but they didn't
  15. o -Helped advanced free black community
    -started a school to educate free black
    -church is the center activism
    -Started Mutual Aid societies in Philly
    -circulated petition for new methods for attacking discrimination
    -created a series of letter in black newspaper
    -ideology strongly opposed colonization
    -free blacks had an obligation to go back and help others get freedom
  16. p 1854
    -The united States first degree-granting historical university. In Philly
    a lot of free black schools were named after Lincoln
  17. q similar to insurance companies
    asked people to pay money and when disaster occurred they dispersed funds
  18. r 1850 accepted into Harvard Medical School
    people protested him and he was asked to withdraw
  19. s provided readers with common reading materials that could be shared by a large audience and encourage reading and emphasize literacy
  20. t -Charleston, SC
    -owned slaves
  21. u first black newspaper started by reverend Peter William's and edited by senior and junior chiefs Samuel Carnish and John Russworm. Purpose was to oppose newspapers that encouraged slavery
  22. v slaves in the north were freed some slave owners wanted compensation
  23. w Started its own school
  24. x weren't free but lived as if they were free
  25. y wrote books on free blacks of NC
  26. z Slavery opposed the teaching of Christianity and all men are created equal in the image of God so therefore slavery was inconsistent
    -waste of human resources
    menace to safety and peace
  27. aa one of the first black playwrights wrote a play called ciotel or the presidents daughter, about Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemming
  28. ab 1805
  29. ac was a slave and later freed and published "the life of a slave girl" in 1861
  30. ad Favored emigration and not colonization
  31. ae Mutual Aid cemetery for people who were society outcast
  32. af was a baptist minister and worked as a laborer
    high occupational people had two jobs to have enough money
  33. ag organized a union for blacks in the railroad business
  34. ah 1930's
    sparked by Dubois idea of the new negro
    -new generation of black intelligence
    -effort to recreate themselves
    -literary figures emerged
  35. ai the first Liberian President
  36. aj ran a school for women
    -allowed black women to attend
    -didnt respond to threats and changed the schools name to High School for colored women and misses
    -When she changed the name the town council prohibited the teaching of AA women not from the state
    -Crandall was arrested and fled from Connecticut and fled to Illinois
    -worked under William Lloyd Garrison
  37. ak -Natchez Mississippi
    -freedom in 1820
    - learned law to be a barber and became successful
    -money lender and acquired wealth owned the best home in the city
  38. al Massachusetts, Quaker gave him his freedom. He worked as a sailor at the age of 16 to learn more about sailing. He was captured in the American Revolution and released. Brother helped to deliver supplies to Nantucket transported free blacks, transported 38 blacks to Africa
  39. am bought his freedom after earning money by making smoking tobacco/ pipes
  40. an abolishment of slavery
  41. ao -Harriet Bestous Stow Published Uncle Tom's Cabin, powerful because it had sympathy to slaves
    -Dread Scott Decision
    -1859 Harper's Ferry Attack
    -1860 Southern don't vote for Lincoln
  42. ap 1865
  43. aq the National consul of colored people which became the forerunner to the NAACP, started by blacks and whites
  44. ar -Charleston, SC 1790
    Brown Society limited to membership to light skins
    -Charleston SC, 1792
    Free Dark Men of Color
    for darker people only
  45. as wrote Free Blacks in Urban America, there were major cities to which blacks migrated and there are striking parallels to where blacks congregated now and those cities
    -organized blacks into three different categories in his book
  46. at 1825
  47. au -Marie Scott 1914 in Oklahoma was raped and her brother killed the white man and they were both lynched
    Mary Turner Lynched 1918 Georgia
    -Mary Tuener 1918 in Georgia her husband was lynched and she proceeded to try to get justice and she was lynched too
  48. av wrote their eyes were watching God
  49. aw AA abolitionist, born in Baltimore, Member of the Women's Christian Temperance Union published multiple poems
  50. ax 1/2 of free blacks were in this category
    unskilled or semi-skilled jobs
  51. ay private schools parents paid for students to attend
  52. az 1828 Philly
  53. ba -1888-1931 3700 lynching occurred
    -not all people who were lynched were black, jews and women
    -lynching was a spectacle and people saved the rope
    -Ida Wells Barnett started an anti lynching campaign
    -used the newspaper freedom speech and headlight as a platform to talk about lynching
    -condemned lynching and criticized white minister for not speaking out
  54. bb churches
  55. bc -helped new slaves adjust to new lives
    -aided white refugees
    -provided medical services
    created schools
    -managed abandoned land
    -General Oliver Otis Howard was head of the Freeman's Bureau
    -1867 freedman's Bureau owned 36 hospitals
  56. bd -1826
    -first black college graduate Edward Jones
    -some were involved in the abolitionist movement
    -Graduated from Amherst College
    -John Russworm graduates from Bowdoin College
  57. be Argue blacks should resist all forms of oppression and all free blacks need education
    blacks should pursue mechanical, agricultural, and professional pursuits
  58. bf blacks attempted to create labor unions
  59. bg From Pittsburgh learned to read and write worked for a white professor at UNC
    -he created poem for students so they could write home to lovers mothers and girlfriends
    1829 he published the hope for liberty
  60. bh Thomas's Paul African Baptist Church to educate blacks because they were denied access to school in 1806
  61. bi Educated at Princeton in 1792 attempted to educate free blacks and whites
  62. bj 1888
  63. bk secured money from more affluent and dispersed the money to less privileged
  64. bl -There was a black newspaper editor Alex Manley
    -He wrote about interracial relationship
    -white people burned the office to the ground
    -murdered 12 people
    -black leaders were forced to resign
    -blacks were ran out of Wilmington
  65. bm slaves without masters
  66. bn -method newly free blacks employed to reverse the process of slavery
  67. bo wrote blacker the berry
    recruited to write plays for hollywood
  68. bp Richard Allen and Absalom Jones created this society in the late 1700s
    created for the mutual protection and support of those in need
  69. bq no black person could be a citizen or become a citizen congress could not interfere with slavery because they were private property
  70. br helped blacks adjust to society
  71. bs wrote a poem called we wear the mask about black people having to cover who they are
  72. bt considered the first female african american novelist Published the African American novel "our nig" 1859 in Boston
  73. bu James McCrumble was the president
  74. bv -free blacks had a hard time finding housing
    -Blacks were crowded in blind alleys and courts
    -poor neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city
    -durham neighborhoods were called hayti after Haiti
  75. bw Dentist and a barber
  76. bx larger membership sponsored lectures and debates
  77. by Mary Ann Shadd
    provincial freeman
  78. bz James Forten daughter used a pin name Ada
  79. ca seen as a sectional institution
  80. cb -they allowed blacks to make accomplishments collectively that they couldn't individually
    -protected the free black community
    -provided experience in managements of institutions
    -sense of belonging and heightened sense of awareness
    organization provided opportunities of social intercourse
    -created a sense of community for all blacks
  81. cc -Named themselves to mark freedom. ex. Robert Freeman
    -slaves took names after their trade. ex. James Cook
    -altered name spelling to make themselves distinct
    -some retained slave owners names as a way to exploit the power and authority their owner had
  82. cd smaller and held in homes
    encouraged women to publish in newspapers they had to take on pin names to disguise identities
  83. ce -determined the legal status of free blacks had undetermined status,
    -John Emerson purchased by an army surgeon he went to a free state Illinois he went back to Missouri and was re enslaved
    -Scott took the case to court, but slaves couldn't not take cases court
    -The case went to the supreme court, Chief Justice was Roger B Taney from Texas
    -Slaves were not part of citizenship because the constitution was not created for blacks
  84. cf 1817 U.S. government funds to help create the colony of Liberia in Africa to be the place where blacks were to be sent back to Africa
    Black people wanted to leave on their own accord
    1830 over 1500 blacks were transported to Liberia the nation was undeveloped, living conditions were high and African americans had a hard time adjusting to the climate
  85. cg emerged because white americans did not know what to do with free black population the free blacks caused issues with slavery
  86. ch -Reading groups to elevate education and literacy
    -Remained focused on people who remained enslaved
    -segregation based on gender
  87. ci -Black codes which were similar to the codes imposed on free blacks
    -restricted what blacks could and could not do
    -Blacks had to work, could testify only against other blacks
    -regulated firearms
    -had curfews
  88. cj talk about life as free slaves, delegates came from various regions
  89. ck organized limited resources for the poor
  90. cl expressed opposition of slavery in 1688 organized by Quakers, opposed because of morals
    societies were all white and didn't admit blacks, opposed the idea of owning other human being
  91. cm new orleans 1783
  92. cn was the father of negro history
  93. co wrote a work called if we must die
  94. cp met for the bettering of ways and means for bettering out conditions
    richard allen was the president
    talked about emigration
    black colleges
    William Lloyd Garrison attended
  95. cq transport and food service
  96. cr Partially Funded by groups outside of the community
    ex. Rosen Wall Schools
  97. cs -black who were living difficult lives moved to the north
    -1910-1970 1.7 million moved north or urban ares where there was jobs
    -black newspaper encouraged people to move to Chicago
  98. ct -He dedicated himself to the struggle for black rights
    -some people believe he was black b/c of his hard work
    -1805 born son of a seaman who was a drinker
    -grew up poor became a printer and writer
    -1866 editor of a newspaper that failed
    -became associated with genius of universal education, dedicated to a policy of immediate and total emancipation
    -influenced by David Walker and the created of first black newspaper
    -1831 published the liberator
    -James forten and other were financial supporters
    -popularity increased with David Walker appeal 1838 and Nat turner 1831
    -Garrison paper was seen as a threat Boston mayor disapproved
    -Georgia issued 4,000 dollars reward for capturing Garrison and anyone distributing
    -Found New England anti-slavery society
    -passive resistance, startled, disturb, shame
  99. cu 1830s society for poor children
  100. cv -was freedom journal
    -John Russworm, Samuel Cornish
    -1827 only lasted two years many felt that the mainstream press degraded African Americans
    Cornish was born in 1885 in Philly attended free African Schools became a minister
  101. cw New york, Boston, Philly, Baltimore, Washington D.C., pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Missouri, Charleston, New Orleans, Louisville
  102. cx famous poet, playwright, and novelist
  103. cy Condition Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of the Colored people of the U.S. Political Considered
  104. cz -free black from Philly
    -educated abolitionist
    -made boats and was offered the opportunity to buy the company
    -at death he was worth $300,000
    -Supported William Lloyd Garrison
  105. da Several delegates urged black to apply to white colleges, demonstrated competition and challenges to win white race respect
  106. db 1800's
  107. dc -many AA gained political office
    -reconstruction was characterized as a phase when blacks dominated political office
    -SC had to Lieutenant governors that were black
    -Francis Cardozo was secretary of state
    -Ak Davis had a Political position
  108. dd voting right
  109. de -became an important abolitionist
    -Harvard med school, but was kicked out.
    -migrationist, black nationalist, elitist
    -Argued that the most talented 10% should come together and set the schedule for the masses
    -Dubois would later build on that idea
    -Born in Charlestown West Virginia, Father Angolian prince, mom was free, dad was enslaved
    -Sibling were smart and because of threats moved to Penn and the feather purchased freedom and joined them
    -Named children after black leaders
    -1831 Delaney attended Rev Louis School for Negros later took part medicine
    -involved in anti-slavery moment 1843 started newspaper
    -his book meant more than elevation and material success, improving speech, being morally, correct, education engage in intellectual discourse.
    -opposed blacks being dependent on whites
    -left us returned in 1870s
    opposed colonization
  110. df -Made Furniture
    -Born in Virginia and moved to NC
    -opened wood working shop parents moved to warren county or Hillsborough
    -married a women from another county when they married he was fearful that he couldn't get her into NC
    -opened stock in State bank
    -open real estate
    -son continued the business
  111. dg -Whites who felt disempowered because of the freeing of slaves
    -used fear and violence
    -believed in race cleansing
    -KKK kept people from voting
  112. dh 1828 NY black women who distributed clothing to the poor
  113. di -Mixed born in 1763 in VA and served in the revolutionary war.
    -Established a night school to educate black men 1811
    -hired a white teacher who was forced to leave
  114. dj certified freedom at all times and register with the town clerk every year of three wanted to keep up with the black population
  115. dk 1832 included both white and black
  116. dl free black Baptist minister who started school in Boston because free blacks were denied access 1806 and he was a part of education society for the People of Color
  117. dm low occupational achievement
  118. dn white people also helped
  119. do -educated at Princeton in 1792
    -Attempted to educate free blacks and whites
    -minister and teacher who educated both blacks and whites in Raleigh NC
  120. dp -He was a descendant of an -African Ruler of the Mandingo Tribe
    -Born Maryland
    -Family escaped slavery they were granted permission to attend a funeral on another slave plantation
    -they escaped to New York
    -worked on a ship returned to find out slave catchers took his sister away
    -worked in long island had an accident and his leg was amputated
    -Noise academy of New Hampshire people opposed black people
    -Onnetta Theology Institute New York he graduated top of the class became a Presbyterian preacher
    -1843 Address to the slaves of the United States of America this address encouraged
    -white and black abolitionist afraid of Garnett
    -Soon the pamphlets circulated
    -Lectured on slavery throughout Europe
    -1865 another address called the Memorial Discourse spoken before congress and is the first to speak before congress
  121. dq 1865 this was a bank that was designed to cater to blacks and failed, but Douglass was the president
  122. dr -was not overturned until Brown vs Board in 1950's
    -sanctioned separate, but equal
    -Plessey purchased a ticket in the white section, but was arrested because he was 1/8th black
    -the decision was made 8 to 1 that allowed separate, but equal practices in Louisiana
  123. ds white jew who was lynched for the udder of a factory worker taken jail but was removed from his cell to be lynched
  124. dt -slavery labor needed for the economy and especially in the south
    -blacks were inferior and subordinate and shouldn't be entertained to be any other way but slaves
    -church sanctioned slavery
  125. du black citizenship