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  1. History recalls that the first African slaves landed where?
  2. List the other academic terms used for African American studies.
  3. Describe Black's involvement in the Revolutionary War.
  4. What is the most common language in Africa?
  5. Prince Hall
  6. What was the three-fifths doctrine?
  7. Immigration Model
  8. What was the antislavery movement?
  9. Carter Woodson
  10. What was the first HBCU to have a Black Studies Program?
  11. What are the 3 types of slavery?
  12. Origin of the Species
  13. Henry M. Stanley
  14. Why were Africans preferred over the white indentured servants as a source of labor?
  15. What were some of the negativity AA studies took on?
  16. How many African languages are there? What is the most common language spoken by most Africans?
  17. What is chattel slavery?
  18. Who began Negro History/Black History Week?
  19. David Livingstone
  20. What was the University of Sankore & where was it located?
  21. Assimilation
  22. Dr. Nathan Hare
  23. Frederick Douglass
  24. How did the 13 colonies respond to the antislavery sentiments?
  25. What was the Kingdom of Benin?
  26. How did African slavery differ from European slavery?
  27. Accomodation
  28. Sojourner Truth
  29. What are the three groups most likely to be taken into African slavery?
  30. What is the Pan-African Movement? Whose writings laid the foundation for the Movement?
  31. Avoidance
  32. What are the five social institutions that are largely focused on in AA studies?
  33. How did the end of the revolutionary war and America's victory affect the institution of slavery?
  34. Charles Darwin
  35. What is eugenics?
  36. What was the most resource used in West Africa?
  37. What are the various interdisciplinary fields in AA studies?
  38. What were slave raids?
  39. How were slaves important to the economy?
  40. What predominately-white university was the first to implement a Black Studies Program?
  41. African American studies is an empirical field of study. What does that mean?
  42. Colonial Model
  43. 2. What was the Middle Passage? Describe the conditions for the Africans being transported to the New World.
  44. What is the oldest of the West African great empires?
  45. Africa was known as The Dark Continent. Why?
  46. Endogamus and Exogamus
  47. Describe the social and political climate that promoted the rise of Black Studies Programs at predominately-white universities.
  48. Crispus Attucks
  49. What were slaves?
  50. What state did the black studies program get established?
  51. Franz Boas
  52. Who is the Father of the Liberation Movement?
  53. What is an indentured servant?
  54. W.E.B Dubois
  55. David Walker
  56. Benjamin Banneker
  57. How was the three -fifths doctrine applied in the Dred Scott Decision?
  58. Black scholars in traditional disciplines and Black Nationalist groups differed regarding a separate Black Studies Program. Explain the difference in philosophies.
  59. What was Nat Turner's Revolt? How was it used to justify slavery?
  60. What were slave codes?
  61. Why did the colonies legalize slavery?
  62. What is Maroons?
  63. Mali
  64. What was scientific racism? How did these scholars view African Americans?
  65. Alexander Lucius Twlight
  66. Acceptance
  67. What were slaves allowed to do?
  68. Why do African American scholars reject the use of minority to describe African Americans as a group?
  69. What is AA studies?
  70. Songhay
  71. Which Empire was known for resurrecting Black learning and education?
  72. Be able to identify and describe the (3) Great African Empires:
    Ghana
  73. Gunnar Myrdal
  74. Aggression
  75. Journal of Negro History
  76. What are the five contributions of the discipline?
  77. What did historian John Hope Franklin mean when he talked about the "quasi-free Negro"?
  78. David Walker's Appeal: To the Couloured Citizens of the World
  79. What is Manumission?
  80. About how many African languages are there?
  81. African American Studies is interdisciplinary. What does that mean?
  82. Cornel West
  83. Why is the term "minority" inappropriate to use?
  84. What is the Pan-African movement?
  1. a The constitution of the United states would count blacks as three-fifths of a person. It would be used to determine a state's total population for legislative representation and taxing purposes.
  2. b The process by which a person or persons acquire the social and psychological characteristics of a group
  3. c Endogamus ( marrying within the group)
    Exogamus ( marrying outside the group)
  4. d Immigration: Immigrants voluntarily came to this country seeking prosperity, at first they experienced harassment by law enforcement, they worked together and gained economic and political power, and assimilated into the dominant culture.
  5. e 1. It did not end slavery
    2. Antislavery movement
    3. In the North, there was a move to abolish slavery
    a. Vermont was the first state to abolish slavery
    b. Massachusetts declared that slavery was unconstitutional
    c. Northern states had moved to abolish slavery creating the "quasi-free" negro
    4. The south did not abolish slavery but rejected antislavery ideas and pursued it with passion
  6. f It offered courses in literature, law, astronomy, medicine, & math. It was located in Timbuktu.
  7. g Copper
  8. h It derives from the word "minor" meaning less than
    Has a negative psychological effect
  9. i "Race matters" Got his undergraduate from Harvard Univ and his Ph. D. from Princeton. Was the first AA to get a Ph. D.D from Princeton. An advocate about race, gender, and class.
  10. j It is a scientific study
  11. k A field of study that examines the history, culture, past and present experiences, achievements, issues and challenges of Blacks
  12. l A social philosophy that advocates genetic engineering. Keep the good genes and take out the bad.
  13. m Songhay
  14. n Ghana
  15. o Howard University
  16. p The first person to die in the American Revolution
  17. q Servants that had a specific period of time they were to work and after their time was served, they were free.
  18. r May respond by challenging prejudice and discrimination . Also referred to as defiance that may be violent or nonviolent.
  19. s Fisk University
  20. t 1. Introduced the idea of AA studies in academics
    2. Organized Atlanta University Conferences to study black life
  21. u 1. Emerged as a dominant power under Sonni Ali
    2. The most advanced society on the African continent
    3. Known for it intellectual climate
    4. Major contribution-Education
    a. establishment of schools, colleges, and universites
    b. Timbuktu was an intellectual center where many West African scholars were concentrated
    *Africans were the 1st to develop the idea of "university"
    5. Civil wars and invasions weakened the empire
  22. v San Francisco State in 1968 and Dr. Nathan Hare was the chairman of the first black studies program
  23. w The use of military tactics to go into an area and kidnap to make slaves
  24. x An interdisciplinary academic field of study that examines the history and challenges of Blacks who are of African descent living in North America, the diaspora, and Africa.
  25. y Franz Boas delivered the graduation message at Atlanta University in which he dispelled many of those myths about Africa. Described Africa as an expansive continent with great empires such as Mali & Ghana.
  26. z 1. Played a limited role as soldiers in the war
    2. George Washingoton ordered to reject free and enslaved blacks elistment for military service
    3. Lord Dunmore invited blacks to join the British military with the promise of freedom.
    a. "Ethiopian regiment"
    b. Washington partially reversed the rejection order-free blacks could enlist
    4. About 5000 blacks fought with the American and British armies with the hope that they would gain freedom
  27. aa Quasi-free Negro meant that slaves were free but they still had barriers in front of them
  28. ab To perform labor duties
  29. ac Pennsylvania Abolition Society
  30. ad Was a missionary and believed that he was taking the gospel to a ignorant and backward people
  31. ae Prisoners of war, enslaved for payment of a debt, punishment for a crime
  32. af Wrote "In Darkest Africa" an account of his experiences
  33. ag Created by David Walker. It was a belief that all people of African descent should unite and go back to Africa
  34. ah Black Studies, Afro-American Studies, African American Studies
  35. ai Slaves were the property of the slave owner.
  36. aj 1. About 2,000 languages
    2. Swahili is the most common language spoken
  37. ak 1. Prisoners of war
    2. People enslaved for payment of a debt
    3. People enslaved for punishment of a crime
  38. al They believed that a separate African American Studies Program could not survive as a scholarly and academic discipline without the control of a traditional department
  39. am A group was brought to this country involuntarily or lived here and had its land taken. The group was subsequently dominated by the dominant group. Example: African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans
  40. an Was a former slave who had lived free and sued to earn his freedom. The case went all the way to the supreme court and they ruled that all people of African ancestry could not become citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue. He remained a slave.
  41. ao 1. Continuing labor shortage
    2. Growing slave population
    3. Slaves becoming more disorderly and difficult to control
  42. ap minority group avoids contact with the dominant group to escape prejudice
  43. aq 1. Father of black liberation ideology
    2. His book: David Walker's Appeal: To the Coloured Citizens of the World
  44. ar First AA to receive a bachelor's degree. Graduated from Middlebury College in 1823.
  45. as David Walker
  46. at Jamestown, Virginia in 1619
  47. au Slave owning set the stage for the commercial network linking Europeans and Africans in the slave trade
  48. av Swhailli
  49. aw The minority/dominated group responds to minority groups status by rationalizing and accepting prejudice.
  50. ax History, Arts, Literature, Psychology, and Sociology
  51. ay Black scholars opposed the development of a separate field of study
    White universities withdrew commitment and support from these academic black studies programs
    Some believed the program wouldn't survive as an academic discipline
  52. az 1. Had a white mother and black father
    2. Educated at white schools
    3. Became a mathematician, astronomer, and inventor
    4. Drafted by Thomas Jefferson to serve with surveying commission to identify street lines in DC
  53. ba Wrote the book, "An American Dilemma"
    A Swedish economist
    studied southern AA and whites in the 1940's
    Said if AA are to avoid prejudice, discrimination, they must assimilate
  54. bb A preacher who established the first African Lodge. Founder of Black Freemasonry. He supported emigration to Africa movements and advocated schools for black children in Boston
  55. bc 1. A dominant kingdom during the 16th and 18th century
    2. Known for bronze and copper artistry
    3. Great military strength
    4. Broken in the 18th
  56. bd 1.Wrote Origin of the Species & The Descent of Man.
    2. Darwin believed that Blacks were inferior to civilized races
    3. Process of elimination was a way to purify society of those who were unfit
  57. be 1. Written to Black in the U.S
    2. Condemned white Christianity for supporting slavery
    3. Encouraged Blacks to resist slavery/ bondage
  58. bf 1. Organized the Association for the study of Negro life and history
    2. Encouraged academic research and publishing books on Black history and life
    3. Founded and served as editor of the Journal of Negro History and started Negro History Week which expanded to a month
  59. bg Written by Charles Darwin
  60. bh 1. African slavery existed before European slavery, and when the Europeans came they took advantage of a system that was already in place.
    2. In Europe, they had chattel slavery which meant that slaves were property with no rights and no freedom. They were slaves for life.
  61. bi Education, Economics,Politics, Family, and Religion
  62. bj An empirical study.
  63. bk A name for slaves that escaped
  64. bl 1. Were previously under the Ghanaian empire, emerged as a power after the decline and destruction of Ghana, King embraced Muslim religion and formed alliances with Muslim nations
    2. Economy-agricultural, presence of other crafts
    3. King Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca. It was the first time a king traveled from West Africa to Mecca
    4. Mali got raided by other nations which weakened it and led to its decline
  65. bm Carter Woodson
  66. bn Assimilation, Acceptance, Avoidance, Aggression, Accomodation
  67. bo the process of adapting or adjusting to someone or something
  68. bp Freedom
  69. bq 2,000 and 4 linguistic goups
    Most native languages belong to the Niger Congo
  70. br 1. 75 black slaves murdered 60 whites
    2. state militia and armed whites outnumbered black slaves and suppressed the rebellion
    3. supporters of slavery used this incident to show that black slaves were inherently inferior barbarians; slavery was needed to control and discipline them
  71. bs 1. The phase of the slave trade where slaves would be packed into ships for the voyage to the New World.
    2. The transport of African slaves across Atlantic
    3. About 12 million slaves were transported from Africa
    4. Mortality rates were high: about 2 million slaves died during the voyage
    causes of death:
    fever and disease due to unsanitary conditions, suicuide, starvation, mass murders by the ship's crew
  72. bt There has been much ignorance about Africa. Early American opinions about Africa were influenced by explorers and missionaries who went to Africa to "Christianize the heather."
  73. bu Women's rights activist and abolitionist, famous lecture, "Ain't I a woman." Fought segregation and worked with freed slaves.
  74. bv The chairman of the 1st black studies program
  75. bw Slaves were property with no rights and no freedom. Slaves were slaves for life as were their children and grandchildren
  76. bx Marry, have families, and income, could buy their freedom, most slaves were women, the Atlantic slave trade favored male slaves
  77. by Codes enacted by the state to discipline and control the slave and define the relationship between African slaves and whites
  78. bz former slave who escaped
    was a speaker who used the technique moral-suasion ( intentions used to influence or change behavior)
    advocated assimilation and integration
  79. ca 1. Ghana is one of the oldest African empires
    2. Had large army (iron works) and productive trade
    3. Gold provided most of the wealth, iron mining and manufacturing, variety of skilled craftsmen, sold agricultural products, ivory, gold, and slaves.
    4. They were invaded by Muslims and forced to convert to Islam
    5. Invasion and droughts sent the economy into decline
  80. cb Belief that all people of African descent worldwide should unite in solidarity. David Walker laid the foundation for the movement.
  81. cc Woodson founded and served as editor
  82. cd 1. Minority derives from the word minor, meaning less than
    2. It has negative psychological effects
    3. It implies that a group is always in a subordinate position.
  83. ce Political: Increased admission of Black students and hiring Black faculty at predominantly white universities; didn't think the study would prepare students for graduate school
    Social: Frustration that many students experienced in and outside of the classroom. Increased awareness of Black power and black consciousness movements in the black community
  84. cf They passed laws to endorse slavery such as: slaves had no rights except those given by slave masters, children and all descendants were sold into slavery with no rights as humans