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  1. Suppression of Communism Act
  2. Romeo Dallaire
  3. The Great Trek
  4. Ujamaa
  5. Meadowlands
  6. Franz Fanon
  7. Operation Anvil
  8. The Year of Africa
  9. Orange Free State
  10. Divestment
  11. The Frontline States
  12. Native Lands Act (1913)
  13. African National Congress (ANC)
  14. "The Poor White Problem"
  15. Zombie
  16. Jan Van Riebeeck
  17. Mangosuthu Buthelezi/Inkatha Freedom Party (IPF)
  18. Rivonia Trial
  19. British Concentration Camps
  20. The Defiance Campaign
  21. Hector Pieterson
  22. Population Registration Act
  23. Coffin for Head of State
  24. FW de Klerk
  25. Ungovernability
  26. Hendrik Verwoerd
  27. The Freedom Charter
  28. Chris Hani
  29. Church Street Bombing
  30. Dedan Kimathi
  31. Organization of African Unity (OAU)
  32. Paul Kagame
  33. Jomo Kenyatta
  34. First Congo War
  35. National Party
  36. Shaka Zulu
  37. Informal Economy
  38. PW Botha
  39. Jan Smuts
  40. United Democratic Front
  41. Daniel Malan
  42. Interahamwe
  43. Julius Nyere
  44. De Beers Corporation
  45. Mau Mau Rebellion
  46. Utilanders
  47. Nelson Mandela
  48. Gregoire Kayibanda
  49. Odumegwu Ojukwu
  50. Conflict Minerals
  51. The Oran Massacre
  52. Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs)
  53. Boipatong Massacre
  54. The Biafran War
  55. Steve Biko
  56. Theoneste Bagosora
  57. Beware Verwoerd
  58. Joseph Mobutu
  59. Soweto Uprising
  60. Kalakuta Republic
  61. The Mali Federation
  62. Sharpeville Massacre
  63. Total National Strategy
  64. Broederbond
  65. Second Congo War
  66. Toyi-Toyi
  67. Fela Kuti
  68. Pan-African Congress (PAC)
  69. Bantustans
  70. Hostel War
  71. Bantu Education Act
  72. Group Areas Act
  73. Afrobeat
  74. Mfecane
  75. Cecil Rhodes
  76. The South African War
  77. Olusegun Obasanjo
  78. Thomas Sankara
  79. Laurent Kabila
  80. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  81. Joseph Kabila
  82. Banyamulenge
  83. Robert Subukwe
  84. The Black Consciousness Movement
  85. The Hamitic Hypothesis
  86. Pied Noirs
  87. Transvaal republic
  88. Umkhonto We Sizwe (MK)
  89. Democratic Forcesfor the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR)
  90. Piet Retief
  91. Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)
  92. Juvenal Habyarimana
  93. Necklacing
  94. Kwame Nkrumah
  95. Ossewa Brandwag
  96. Truth And Reconciliation Commission
  97. National Liberation Front (FLN)
  98. Kenneth Kaunda
  99. The Positive Action Campaign
  100. Patrice Lumumba
  101. Gacaca Courts
  102. Battle of Blood River
  1. a • Who: Verwoerd
    • What: Defined living areas
    • When: 1950
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Still some black landowners outside of reservations, mixed race neighborhoods, etc. Ex: Sophiatown
    • How: 3.5 million people forcibly moved
  2. b • What: Surprise raid on Nairobi, went into every African section and put people into categories, whites, browns, blacks,
    o Blacks were hardcore, Mau Mau, browns slightly effected, put into camps to cure disease
    • When: April 24, 1954
    • Where: Nairobi
    • Why: Emergency with Mau Mau for British, Nairobi is where it began
    • How: Forced 10s of thousands of browns and blacks into Colonial Gulag (1954-1960), many died due to bad conditions, torture and execution, beaten, raped, castrated, water boarded, anything to defeat rebellion, most casualties come from camps
  3. c • Who: Cecil Rhodes, British
    • What: Mining company
    • When: 1880s-1896
    • Where: South African mines, Afrikaner republics
    • Why: Vision as Africa as a machine to make money for British, needed utilanders to have rights for this to happen, starts coup in order to over throw Afrikaners in 1896
    • How: Afrikaners were fly in ointment, British would declare war on Afrikaners if utilanders not given right to vote
  4. d • Who: Leader of KCA and former of KAU
    • What: KCA believed in advocating for negotiation, began to resist control of whites over farming and control over circumcision, KCA banned in 1940, returns in 1946 and forms Kenyan African Union (KAU), KAU had more nationalist movement, believed in moderate politics and hated Mau Mau, wanted to negotiate
    • When: 1940s-1950s
    • Where: Kenya, British settler colony
    • Why: War 1952-1960, by then most independent and realize Kenyatta could be negotiated with, Kenya gets freedom in 1963 and Kenyatta is president,
    • How: Keep interests of British and allies to Kukuyu get favorable treatment (1963), one party state until 1991: Luo cut out
  5. e • Who: Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa
    • What: Nigerian civil War between 1967-1970, 1 million people killed, dispute between North (Hausa, Muslim) and Southwest (Yoruba, Christian) and Igbo (Southeast, Christian)- was pagan but allowed for Christian missionaries
    • When: 1967-1970
    • Where: Nigeria
    • Why: Gain independence in 1960, Nnambi and Balewa make agreement that Igbo and Hausa share power, 1965 backroom deal between Hausa and Yoruba cut out Igbo and elections are marred by violence and corruption, multiple coups insue, first Igbo move against government and Balewa killed, Johnson Aguiyi Ironsi dictator ybut Ironsi killed by Hausa elements of Nigerian military and Yakubu Gowon Christian representative of Hausa gains control, multiple coups and counter coups ensue
    • How: Biafran War characterized by succession of Biafra from Nigeria by Ojukwu, leader of Igbo after Igbo being killed by anti-Igbo programs
  6. f • Who: G-8 countries
    • What: international bank that gave loans from wealthiest countries
    • When: 1944 established after WWII
    • Where: Zambia, many other of smaller countries
    • Why: Decision makers to decide what loans were given out, loans were not typically given to poorer countries, claim to represent all countries but run by wealthiest
    • How: Poor countries were able to obtain these loans through structural adjustment programs
  7. g • Who: Extreme militant
    • What: Leader of interahamwe paramilitary organizations
    • When: 1990s
    • Where: Rwanda
    • Why: Leader of genocide, wanted Tutsi to perish
    • How: Broadcasted movements of Tutsi on radio station, made blockades to check ID cards, taught militias to kill with machete
  8. h • Who: South African leader during WWII
    • What: close Churchill advisor, British
    • When: 1940s
    • Where: South Africa, Europe
    • Why: Important to showing how Purified National Party, opposing united party , also saw squatters in camps, mobilizing a black working class and it looked like segregation was failing, United party saw post segregation South Africa
    • How: 218,000 people fought in WII from South Africa
  9. i • Who: Zaire dictator
    • What: Leader of military of Congo, on payroll of CIA
    • When: 1960
    • Where: Congo (Zaire)
    • Why: Important to US gaining allies in Congo, Mobutu seizes power in 1960 and Lumumba is assassinated on Jan 17, 1961 after being placed under house arrest, causes civil war from 1961-1965, Mobutu rules from 1965-1997 as dictator, descend from cloud on TV, killed political opponents, person wealth, stole, huge home, rest of Congo suffered
    • How: Mobutu uses Kantanga crisis supported by Belgium to gain control, Lumumba asks US for help, denied, gains help from Soviets to regain control of country but is overthrown by Mobutu, ruled through Kleptocracy: theft, US allies because opposed soviet Union
  10. j • Who: Afrikaners and Zulu
    • What: Battle between Afrikaners in Zulu
    • When: September 16,1836
    • Where: Zulu kingdom south Africa
    • Why: Piet Retief killed by Zulu, Zulu want to remove Afrikaners
    • How: 500 Afrikaners kill 3000 Zulu, by forming defensive lager with oxwagons, blood in river, Zulu exist for another 40 years but not as dominant and colonized by British in 1870s
  11. k • Who: Organization of Secret Army (OAS) Pied Noirs, Algerian natives
    • What: paramilitary OAS blow up infrastructure of country and attack political leadership they believed had betrayed them (De Gaulle)
    • When: July 5, 1962
    • Where: Oran sector
    • Why: In response to paramilitary OAS, Algerians attack Pied Noirs and several are killed forcing 1 million Pied Noirs to return to French
    • How: How does the colony with independence cap off violence
  12. l • Who: Socialist leader
    • What: Socialist who did not believe in loans, wants to develop through agriculture and self reliance
    • When: Late 60s- Early 70s
    • Where: Tanzania
    • Why: Important developing idea of Ujamaa villages and that African socialism was not predicated on Marxism but drew on traditional African values to create village cooperatives
    • How: Believed in voluntary villages but eventually forced movement and between 1973-1974 5 million were forced off of land and it did not end up changing mechanics of economy or increased agriculture, some benefits though
  13. m • Who: Laurent and Joseph Kabila, Banyamulenge
    • What: Kibila faced a legitimacy issue, despied by many people, Laurent thought of as a puppet to other powers, Banyamulenge were minority, Hutu resisting
    • When: 1998-2003
    • Where: Congo/Africa
    • Why: Due to legitimacy issues, Kabila makes deal with Hutu against Tutsi, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda reenter country to remove Kibila but Kibila able to save himself by using Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe, Western mining companies wanted Kibila because interests
    • How: Stalemate, Kibila dies in January 2001, betrayed, replaced by son Joseph Kabila who able to negotiate and end war in 2003
  14. n • Who: farmers (Afrikaners) and British
    • What: Afrikaners attack British in 1899, invade Cape colony, multiple phases
    • When: 1899-1902
    • Where: South Africa, cape
    • Why: Boer wanted to regain control of South Africa
    o First Phase Oct 1899-Feb 1900
    • Surround cape, short term success, 450000 British soldiers defeat 80000 total Afrikaners and force back to republics
    o Second Phase: Jan-Feb 1900
    • British overrun territories, frustrate soldiers with Guerrilla warfare, attack when celebrating
    o Third Phase: June 1900-1902
    • Chritian de Wet organizes commando units, use knowledge of land, 20,000 British soldiers killed, leads to Scorched Earth Campaign and British concentration camps
  15. o • Who: activist
    • What: Forms Pan-African Congress
    • When: late 1950s
    • Where: South AFrica
    • Why: Believed South Africa belonged only to Africans, wanted to see black unity
    • How: Wanted to achieve black liberation by 1963, set up key turning point at Sharpeville massacre
  16. p • Who: Sobukwe, Africans
    • What: activist group, not ANC
    • When: 1950s-1960s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Believed South Africa belonged to blacks, black unity
    • How: Achieve black liberation by 1963, Sharpeville massacre
  17. q • Who: Son of Laurent Kabila
    • What: Takes power after Laurent dies in 2001
    • When: 2001-Present
    • Where: Congo
    • Why: Important to ending Second Congo War, negotiates peace after no experience
    • How: First elections held in 2006, Kabila wins and in 2010 and is president of Congo
  18. r • Who: British, Afrikaners, Africans
    • What: Concentration camps set up after Scorched Earth Campaign
    • When: 1900-1902
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Sites of malnutrition and disease in order to end war with Afrikaners, Afrikaners more united by these camps
    • How: Many were not fed properly, held in these camps, many Africans were part of scorched Earth and concentration camps, 16000 died
  19. s • Who: nationalist party member, Prime Minister succeeding Votha
    • What: supporter of apartheid, realized not sustainable, significant support argues should begin to negotiate with ANC
    • When: Feb 1990
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: non sustainable, begin negotiations
    • How: releases Mandela and unbans ANC: dramatic TV moment, negotiate focus on armed struggle, 1990-1994 most violent part, worse before it got better
  20. t • Who: Fela Kuti, Kalakuta Republic, Africa 70 band
    • What: combination of highlife, jazz, funk, traditional Yoruba music
    • When: 1970s
    • Where: Kalakuta Republic in Lagos, Nigeria
    • Why: Emergence of political movement of Fela Kuti,
    • How: sax, keyboard, trumpets, organs, congo, vocals, guitars
  21. u • Who: MK
    • What: reemergence of MK
    • When: May 20, 1983
    • Where: Church Street, south African military area
    • Why: many wanted to fight who had been trained in neighboring countries
    • How: 19 people killed in bombing of South African air force, 200 injured, more attacks and bombings of police stations ensue, fear
  22. v • Who: Courts held in local villages, and operated at village level
    • What: Courts to find those guilty against genocide crime
    • When: After genocide up until few years ago
    • Where: Rwanda
    • Why: Wanted to find out what had happened, ordinary farmers carried out genocide, too many to take into account,, tens of thousands tried in these courts, no death penalty just can issue terms of imprisonment
    • How: Leaders of local communities would hear allegations of other of committing acts of genocide, held outside anyone can witness
  23. w • Who: idea by Julius Nyerere
    • What: Village cooperative: organize peasants to maximize agricultural output, socialist villages
    • When: Late 1960s- Early 1970s
    • Where: Tanzania villages
    • Why: Important to idea of African socialism predicated on African values not Marxism, work as village cooperative and create classless society, but voluntary participation did not work, some achievements at increasing clean water and health and school but did not benefit economy or increase agricultural output
    • How: Forced villagization by the 1970s and 5 million moved between 1973-1974 off of ancestors land
  24. x • Who: President of Zambia
    • What: Modernization of copper selling, mineral wealth invested government money and took 51% stake in copper mining companies
    • When: Late 60s, Early 70s
    • Where: Zambia
    • Why: Important to monoculture economies, raised tariffs to decrease competition of foreign powers, Zambia grew but boom and bust occurs, value of copper decreases and collapse in early 1970s, Zambia with fractions of revenue, fall back on IMF
    • How: Dispute between middle east and US, restriction of oil to US, oil prices rose rapidly, global inflation and prices of copper diminished
  25. y • Who: Minister of Native affairs
    • What: After 1948 elections, lower percentage in election but national party gets other seats by making alliances with other smaller parties
    • When: 1950-1958
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Important to beginning of architecture of apartheid
    • How: Uses laws to construct apartheid, studied in Germany, psychology, defined apartheid as good neighborliness, Many acts, population registration, group areas, suppression of communism, separate representation of voters, abolition of passes and coordination of documents act, Bantu education act, amendment to industrial conciliation act, extension of university education act, promotion of Bantu self government act (1950-1959) - all were for separation
  26. z • Who: Afrikaners, JM Hertzog
    • What: party of Afrikaners
    • When: 1922, power in 1924, 1948 true power and apartheid movement
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: believed in non mixing of races, elevation of Afrikaners in society,
    • How: Apartheid regime
  27. aa • Who: Fela Kuti and followers
    • What: independent nation without laws, counter culture movement attractive to young Nigerians who had little opportunity
    • When: 1970s
    • Where: Lagos, Nigeria
    • Why: Kalakuta important to Fela Kuti's movement to politically defy Nigerian government, Fela was arrested a bunch, many wives, had a shrine where he made offerings then performed his Afrobeat music
    • How: Allowed to exist because Osabanjo feared Kuti but after Zombie, Nigerian military attacks Kalakuta republic, mutilating, raping women, burned Kalakuta and 78 year old mother of Fela killed
  28. ab • Who: 12 year old student
    • What: killed in Soweto uprising
    • When: April 30, 1976
    • Where: Soweto suburb of Johannesburg
    • Why: Important political death, picture broadcast, defining image of brutality of apartheid
    • How: Aparthied would kill children, decline from here
  29. ac • Who: Zulu and Africans "Scattering"
    • What: Migration of people fleeing, encountering others, due to Zulu spread
    • When: 1815-1840
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Important because Africans encounter others, some make cheap labor supply in Cape colony, reach central and east Africa, Black population today even still divided because Zulu
    • How: Rise of Zulu Kingdom spreading
  30. ad • Who: militant organizations
    • What: Hutu paramilitary groups trained by Bagosora and genocide leaders
    • When: 1994
    • Where: Streets of Rwanda
    • Why: Young people carried out malicious acts, beginning of genocide went into action
    • How: machete, would go to where hiding and kill, churches, anywhere, used radio and blockades
  31. ae • Who: Mau Mau leader
    • What: Mau Mau leader and was heroic in eyes of Kenyan nationalist but a terrorist to the British
    • When: 1952-1956
    • Where: Kenya
    • Why: British wanted him captured because was big proponent to Mau Mau, stayed in forests and pillaged settlers, important to the end of the Mau Mau because the leadership is lost, many Luo fought for British, no Unity
    • How: British capture him in 1956 and he is hung in 1957
  32. af • Who: Mangosuthu Buthelezi, former ANC member
    • What: Zulu nationalists
    • When: 1980s
    • Where: black townships
    • Why: believed Zulu should have their own state, ANC believed in one society, opposed ANC, elements within government attempt to support Zulu nationalists, create violence in towns
    • How: Supported violence, shared common enemy with apartheid
  33. ag • Who: activist
    • What: forms SASO: South African Student Organization
    • When: Late 60s Early 70s strongest apartheid, leads to this
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Wanted to spark blacks, begins black consciousness movement
    • How: Banned in South Africa but black consciousness movement not about leader
  34. ah • Who: Africans, Verwoerd
    • What: Government approved curriculum for each class
    • When: 1953
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: government educated blacks to prepare for work as unskilled laborers, white education was free but black education cost money, 1$ on whites for every 10 cents spent on black education
    • How: Said no space for native community above certain forms of labor, government curriculum
  35. ai • Who: Colonies of Africa
    • What: Colonies have chance to gain independence via vote, 14 vote and receive independence, Djibouti only one that doesn't opt for independence
    • When: 1960
    • Where: Many colonies including Nigeria, Somalia and Congo also gain independence: 17 total
    • Why: British and French believed that the colonies would still need their help and interests would stay in tact
    • How: nationalist movements
  36. aj • Who: Botha, Afrikaners
    • What: Total militarization of South African society
    • When: 1980s
    • Where: black townships, Mozambique, Agnola
    • Why: White south Africans did not want to give up rule and power, feared Africans, said it was militarization against terrorists and communists, waged war against Angola and Mozambique,
    • How: Needed a draft, draft whites, did not sit well
  37. ak • Who: Muslims radicals, Fanon is one of leaders
    • What: Muslims looking for resistance to Pied Noirs, combined Algerian People's party which was split of beliefs into 3 principles: Belief in nationalism, socialism and Islamic law
    • When: formed in 1954
    • Where: Algeria
    • Why: Form armed resistance against French who were leading nation
    • How: Guerilla warfare attacking French outposts and police outposts, attempt at instilling fear
  38. al • Who: French settlers, black boots
    • What: French settlers who found Mediterranean nice place to live, stark division of space
    • When: 1830-1962
    • Where: Algeria
    • Why: French wanted this place to live, to become French citizens had to renounce Muslim religion, large minority of French ruling over large majority of Muslims that were denied rights
    • How: Stark division of space between Cabash (ghetto)- cheap labor and the European quarter which had nice hotels, clubs, eateries,
  39. am • Who: Dutch settler, malaria not prevalent in south Africa
    • What: Dutch East India Trading company
    • When: 1652
    • Where: South African Cape
    • Why: South African cape important trade route, hundreds of former DEIC workers moved here, first white settlers were power, lower class, dumping grounds for unwanted,
    • How: Dutch settlers traded with Khoikhoi but eventually rebellion ecause saw Dutch using them, 1660 snuffed out and destroyed society
  40. an • Who: countries facing economic crisis
    • What: IMF handed out loans with strings attached
    • When: Post WWII
    • Where: Many African nations facing economic crisis
    • Why: Loans provided by IMF but had strings attached, foster permanent state of dependency, wanted return on investment, neocolonialism: economic liberalism, free trade, many countries still under neoliberalism
    • How: Privatization of major industries: sell back copper companies
    o Devaluation of Currency: encourage foreign investment, import/export cheaper
    o Encourage Foreign Investment: Privatization of major industries, shed regulations, no minimum wage
    o Cutting Expenditures: programs for education and health care cut
    o Natural Resources: expectation to continue monoculture
    o Remove price controls and state subsidies: import tariffs that could protect against domestic producers
  41. ao • Who: Coltan
    • What: Minerals from Eastern mines of Congo
    • When: Current
    • Where: Congo
    • Why: Dull black mineral hold high electrical charge, all cell phones and laptops, Eastern Congo one of only places with significant amount
    • How: Milita groups control and force local villagers as slaves to sell it to coast as middle man, hard to trace, Kony one of these militia groups, child soldiers, 7000 child soldiers, mass rape occurs by militias or Congo army, rips families apart so easier to control,
    o North Kivu Conflict example
  42. ap • Who: Indian and Colored groups
    • What: Boycotted TriCameral Parliament
    • When: 1984
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Boycotted because opposed to apartheid, Tri-cameral parliament constitution was meant to divide anti-apartheid movement
    • How: boycotting of tri-cameral parliament performed by this group, brought all anti-apartheid under one belt
  43. aq • Who: Steve Biko
    • What: black men you are on your own
    • When: Mid 1960s-1970s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Do not look to sympathetic whites, cannot wait for help, cannot wait for Mandela to be free, free yourself, generation of society without knowing non apartheid, profound impact on black South Africans, movements in art literature, common identity
    • How: aimed at dehumanization: waves of protest that will not end when leaders killed or jailed, Christ was liberator, blacks had to demand freedom, spread through townships and gradeschoools
  44. ar • Who: Africans, blacks
    • What: Reservations
    • When: Late 50s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Whites as majority of South Africa because blacks were part of independent Bantustans
    • How: Defined blacks as citizens of their Bantustans
  45. as • Who: Verwoerd
    • What: Banned communism, communist books censored
    • When: 1950
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Cold war was becoming increasingly important and wanted to get on good side of West, said they were anticommunism
    • How: Defined communism as any scheme which aimed about bringing on any change or create hostility between Europe and non Europe
  46. at • Who: Afrikaner leader
    • What: Leads great trek
    • When: 1836
    • Where: South Africa and Zulu Kingdom
    • Why: Saw British as going against beliefs, move onto Zulu territory, battle of blood river
    • How: Zulu set trap after Dutch ask for portion of land, Dingane leader of Zulu has Piet Retief beaten to death (1836) not good for Zulu
  47. au • Who: Anton Lembede, Mandela, Tambo, Sisulu
    • What: Nationalist organization
    • When: 1940s able to create movement in masses
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Wanted to take non violent approach, doesn't work leads to sabotage
    • How: Mandela: university trained lawyer, Sisulu: colored, non educated, working class mobilization, 3 together reform ANC to make more mass based
  48. av • Who: Political musician in Nigeria
    • What: Yoruba nationalist, rebellious who left university of London to become musician, founder of Afrobeat
    • When: 1970s
    • Where: Nigeria, Kalakuta republic
    • Why: During Biafran war goes to US and is exposed to Malcom X, political outlook becomes more rebellious and forms Africa 70 in Nigeria which combines highlife, jazz, funk and traditional Yoruba music to make Afrobeat
    • How: Opposed to religion, music was simplified and made Kalakuta republic, 27 wives, arrested 200 times, but was popular and Nigeria could not afford uprising, Osabanjo was dictator, Zombie and Coffin for Head of State- attacked and 78 year old mother killed, coffin sent to Osabanjo's house
  49. aw • Who: Afrikaners
    • What: ox-wagon sentinel that supported Nazi cause, ox-wagon fascists
    • When: During WWII
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Shows how Afrikaners supported Nazis, were not taken out of power either, came to more power after WWII
    • How: Small Scale attacks on police stations, telephone lines, power plants, was military wing of national party, BJ Vorster south African equivalent to Nazism
  50. ax • Who: Leader of Igbo succession
    • What: After 30,000 Igbo killed by mobs, began fleeing South who wanted protection
    • When: 1966-1970
    • Where: Nigeria
    • Why: Nigeria would not allow succession due to oil in South East Nigeria, lots of money hear, Biafran got support from Red Cross and other organizations through propaganda because they did nto have a lot to defend themselves with, also were blocked via Naval, religious war to help Christians does not work
    • How: Ojukwu drew line in South east Nigeria and said Igbo would have protection if they got here, Biafran established after succession
  51. ay • Who: Number 2 in ANC
    • What: gunned down in own drive way
    • When: April 10, 1993
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Critical turning point, caused organized riots and protests as news of deaths spread
    • How: killed by white supremacist acting on own, After death decide on first free and fair elections April 1994, violence continued
  52. az • Who: Most important figure of African Nationalism
    • What: Nationalist leader, after WWII begins protests and in 1950 launches Positive Action Campaign, believed Africa had to be third world, not western or Marxist, own thing
    • When: 1950-1957
    • Where: Ghana
    • Why: Important to belief in uniting Africa as one force, led educated Africans, and wanted to mobilize masses across all barriers, elected in 1951 to represent Africans and negotiates independence in 1957
    • How: Through positive action campaign able to show political reforms were necessary, and elected after being jailed in 1947 for organizing protests
  53. ba • Who: Zulu leader
    • What: tall, dark, seen as ugly, leader of Zulu kingdom , renounced by Zulu king as illegitimate son, went to Dingiswayo ruler of Mthethwa, grew up and joined army of 20, military leader that gained control of throne in 1816 when father dies, betrayed by brothers later on
    • When: in early 1800s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Important to Mfecane
    • How: Short spear (Iklwa) and larger shield, buffalo horns
  54. bb • Who: Military leader
    • What: Over throws Burkina Faso in military coup
    • When: 1983-1987
    • Where: Burkina Faso
    • Why: Established economic independence, Ivory Coast using Burkina Faso for cheap labor, said they would not pay loans, self reliance- made infrastructure projects, killed in 1987 by coup that was backed by France and Ivory coast bringing to power Blaise Companore
    • How: Marxist who was committed to it, stopped allowing for dumping of shirts off into area, programs increase literacy, more political rights
  55. bc • Who: Zulu, Apartheid, blacks
    • What: most famous attack during hostel war
    • When: June 17, 1992
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Show that blacks were not ready to govern themselves
    • How: 46 ANC supporters killed at night by Zulu, and government officers helping them, ANC leaders convinced it was government manipulated and continue negotiating
  56. bd • Who: Leaders of French colonies
    • What: Goal to have West African nations join together
    • When: June 1960
    • Where: Former French colonies of west Africa (Mali, Senegal, etc.)
    • Why: Bring together West African nations, did not last because of political differences, only lasted till August 20, 1960
    • How: Split apart due to differences between Leopold Senghor of Senegal and socialist Mali leaders
  57. be • Who: Afrikaners
    • What: poor whites as result of great depression
    • When: 1930s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Hertzog had to form alliance with South African party, Reduced whites to where blacks had been, Carnegie report in 1932 said South Africa would have to create sanctuaries of employments for whites, blacks given equal opportunity would strip whites of power, led to the formation of the purified national party
    • How: Celebrate Afrikaner people, reenact great Trek
  58. bf • Who: Tutsi leader
    • What: Leads group of Tutsi refugees
    • When: 1990-1994
    • Where: Rwanda
    • Why: After Hutu came into control, Rwanda became one party state in 1962, many fleeing violence done onto Tutsi
    • How: Civil war launched by RPF, Hutu in majority so many backed Rwanda government, Hutu gained military assistance from outside
  59. bg • Who: Afrikaners
    • What: Boer Republic
    • When: 1837
    • Where: Between orange and vaal rivers in South Africa
    • Why: Established via bloody process , divine right of Boer
    • How: Many African states put up fierce resistance
  60. bh • Who: key figure in response to MK
    • What: Prime minister of South Africa at time
    • When: 1980s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Complete and total opposition to South Africa's enemies
    • How: Total National strategy, involved in Total war, everyone involved and has a role to play
  61. bi • Who: Nelson Mandela, MK
    • What: Trial against mandela
    • When: 1962
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Evidence of conspiracy to find guilty, speech keeps from death, life without parole
    • How: Mandela returned in 1962, tipped off by CIA, picked up by police, police raid 11 more ANC leaders arrested at Rivonia farm, Sisulu arrested, Tambo in England
  62. bj • Who: Nelson Mandela and ANC
    • What: Wide group of people argue against apartheid: white, black, colored
    • When: June 1955
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Demand everyone have right to equal vote, land divided, mineral resources divided, national minimum wage, maternity leave, 40 hour work weak, Mandela not communist
    • How: Made case for change, taken to trial but Mandela and others found not guilty in early 1960 (Trial went four about 4 years)
  63. bk • Who: Alexandria Township
    • What: dousing in gasoline and place tire around head and light fire
    • When: 1985
    • Where: Alexandria Township
    • Why: kill those who were supporting apartheid regime
    • How: necklaced, South Africa declares state of emergency, sends tanks, machine guns, etc.
  64. bl • Who: Congalese independence leader
    • What: leader for Congo in cold war, feared by Americans as socialist in Cold War
    • When: 1960
    • Where: Congo
    • Why: Important to Congo history, elections held in may 1960 and independence gained in June 1960: large country pushed to independence very rapidly- Belgium wanted to maintain allies
    • How: On celebration of independence in 1960 (June 30), Belgium monarch gives speech saying not to forget those who had helped, Lumumba says nation struggled to gain independence, they will develop strong government and will not need help of outside powers, angered Americans
  65. bm • Who: Afrikaners
    • What: Boer Republic
    • When: 1856
    • Where: Transvaal South Africa
    • Why: Afrikaners wanted their own space, divine right of Boer
    • How: Bloody process and many African nations put up a fierce resistance
  66. bn • Who: Leaders of African nations, Nkrumah and Selassie
    • What: Meeting between African nation leaders
    • When: 1963
    • Where: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    • Why: Important to bring African nations under one collective body for a unified voice
    • How: Ineffective because no standing army, no soldiers, could not intervene in conflicts and was ineffective in many places (civil war, Rwandan genocides)
  67. bo • Who: black townships
    • What: new form of resistance in black townships like Alexandria
    • When: 1985
    • Where: Black townships
    • Why: black townships ungovernable by apartheid state, seal Alexandria from people coming in or out,
    • How: street by street organize community for self defense, citizen tribunals to establish or enact justice against offenders, targeted black collaborators that enforce apartheid
  68. bp • Who: Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Bostwana, Zimbabwe
    • What: Refuge to South African fighters, trained for MK operation, return in 1980s and begin resistance again
    • When: 1970s,1980s
    • Where:
    • Why: Economic boycott of South Africa
    • How: Help lead South Africa to freedom from apartheid, communist parties most helpful Angola and Mozambique
  69. bq • Who: Leader of purified national party
    • What: Vortrekker monument ground lay, equates battle of blood river, urban areas of South Africa: economic necessetties of whites and blacks would live closer together, need to be confronted in aggressive way by Afrikaners,
    • When: 1940s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Opposes fighting in WWII and hopes Nazis will allow Afrikaners to run nation once they win
    • How: Needed more segregation in Malan's eyes
  70. br • Who: Africans, Afrikaners, British
    • What: Africans can only live on designated lands
    • When: 1913
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: 13% of land given to 70-80 percent of population
    • How: Important as first movement of apartheid, overcrowding occurred, bad soil and no nutrients
  71. bs • Who: Mandela, ANC , Spear of Nation
    • What: military wing of ANC
    • When: 1960s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: non violent protests not working
    • How: Beginning of armed struggle, sabotage, least harm to individuals, focused on transportation, power plants, military outposts, weaken economy and instill fear, detonate bombs at power plants and gov't offices, become terrorist: Mandela looks for help from other African nations in 1962
  72. bt • Who: blacks of South Africa
    • What: South African music during apartheid
    • When: late 1980s early 90s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: intimidated south African troops
    • How: stamp and jump like running, instill fear into enemy, scare with song, up and down movements of hundreds of thousands of people
  73. bu • Who: Hutu, Tutsi, John Hanning Speke
    • What: Old testament story: Ham descendants are Hutu and Tutsi are long lost Christian tribe
    • When: formulated in 19th century by explorer Speke
    • Where: Rwanda
    • Why: Allowed Belgium to rule through Tutsi through biblical justification of power
    • How: Identification cards by Belgium, followed father, classification which was fluid, no longer was now
  74. bv • Who: Muslim FLN leader
    • What: born in Martinique, fights for French in WWII, psychiatrist at mental hospital in Algeria, sees patients suffering from being colonized
    • When: 1950s
    • Where: Algeria
    • Why: Saw colonized suffering, criticized it and joined FLN, inspires revolutionaries such as black panther party
    • How: Believed in violence and Marxism was key to bringing independence: Proletariat and Lumpenproletariat were necessary to overthrow the Bourgeoisie, Manichaeism: no grey area between colonized and colonizer
  75. bw • Who: US Students
    • What: pulling out investments in South Africa
    • When: 1980s
    • Where: US, Columbia, Princeton, Harvard
    • Why: South Africa will lose money and not be able to wage war in townships, etc.
    • How: Pressure colleges to divest in companies doing business with South Africa, GM, IBM, Ford all divested in South Africa, closed plants in South Africa, lost billions of dollars, Ronald Regan and Thatcher opposed, sanctions overturned veto in congress, no goods sold or bought from SA, no travel, etc.
  76. bx • Who: Ghanaians
    • What: Nkrumah launches this to orient strikes and demonstration, conscious movement, series of political reforms that allowed for greater African representation in government
    • When: 1950
    • Where: Ghana Gold Coat
    • Why: Important to showing how Nkrumah's party is elected to represent under colonial rule and leads to negotiation, important as symbol of unity
    • How: Negotiates for new round of elections and constitutional reform, obtain independence in 1957 Nkrumah president and Ghana first sub-Saharan freedom
  77. by • Who: Mobutu, Kabila, Tutsi, Hutu
    • What: War between Banyamulenge/Kabila and Mobutu's Congo
    • When: 1996-1997
    • Where: Zaire/Congo
    • Why: Tutsi living in Congo were told to leave by Mobutu, Banyamulege Tutsi gain support form Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kabila takes over countries and takes capital in 1996
    • How: Mobutu flees in 1997 allowing Kabila to take over, Mobutu dies in cancer in Morocco, Changes to Democratic republic of the Congo
  78. bz • Who: Africans
    • What: National uprising planned, occurs best at Sharpeville
    • When: March 21, 1960
    • Where: Sharpeville, outside Johannesburg
    • Why: burn passes, congregate, crowds burning passes, only 75 police for many
    • How: police fire, protesters flee and 69 killed, many shot in back, key turning point to influence world opinion, UN calls on south Africa to make changes, winds of change coming, stock market plummets,
  79. ca • Who: Nigerian dictator
    • What: Dictator with blindly following soldiers
    • When: 1977
    • Where: Lagos, Nigeria
    • Why: important to Kuti's movement, could not hurt Kuti because many people followed him but had to arrest him, eventually after Zombie was made, Osabanjo had enough and orders Nigerian soldiers to attack Kalakuta republic
    • How: Soldiers drag Fela out of building, sexually mutilate, rape and burned Kalakuta to ground, has Fela's mothers coffin mailed to his front door
  80. cb • Who: Tutsi
    • What: Tutsi soldiers led by Kagame
    • When: 1990-1994
    • Where: Rwanda
    • Why: Launch attack on Hutu government after 30 years of tense society, Tutsi had been attacked multiple times by Hutu, RPF stationed in surrounding countries
    • How: Guerilla attacks
  81. cc • Who: UN peacekeeper
    • What: Attempted to stop genocide
    • When: 1993-1994
    • Where: Rwanda
    • Why: Only had African soldiers after Belgium pulled out after 10 members murdered, short staffed, but able to save 32,000
    • How: Eventually helped Kagame regain control in Operation Turquoise
  82. cd • Who: Afrikaners
    • What: Movement from British land (Cape)
    • When: 1836
    • Where: South African Cape and north
    • Why: 1830s British strict laws on slavery and eventual abolishment in 1834 led to Afrikaners angered, saw this as it went against their rights
    • How: Dutch migrate so they could rule how they wanted
  83. ce • Who: Afrikaners
    • What: Brotherhood
    • When: 1920
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Fascist organization with Afrikaans as official language, intended to advance powers of Afrikaners
    • How: Journalists, lawyers, etc. plotted to get Afrikaners into key positions to solve issues
  84. cf • Who: British
    • What: Leader of De Beers corporation
    • When: 1880s-1896
    • Where: South African mines, Afrikaner republics
    • Why: Vision as Africa as a machine to make money for British, needed utilanders to have rights for this to happen, starts coup in order to over throw Afrikaners in 1896
    • How: Afrikaners were fly in ointment, British would declare war on Afrikaners if utilanders not given right to vote
  85. cg • Who: Kenyan former soldiers and squatters
    • What: Kikuyu demand land back, younger radicals swear oath and in 1952 begin setting fire to white owned farms and businesses, assassinate chief Wukungu in Nairobi, Penga- machete families, machete was symbol of movement, violence was personal
    • When: 1952
    • Where: Kenya, British settler colony, decolonization in settler colonies bloody
    • Why: White farmers could only grow coffee, assembly run by whites, radicals infiltrating KAU returning from WWII with no jobs and no help, Kikuyu forced off farming lands where they had been squatting into Nairobi, Mau Mau emerges
    • How: Machete, 1000 Kikuyu were executed because expected of Mau Mau, oath- kill those betraying cause, British loyal tried to help but they too were burnt
  86. ch • Who: ANC
    • What: peaceful methods to violate laws in massive numbers
    • When: 1952
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Too many people that it would throw off system, violate pass laws, 8000 arrested, protesters had suspended jail time because not enough room
    • How: Responded by corporal punishment (Afrikaners), Mandela wanted nonviolence as long as it was effective
  87. ci • Who: Hutu Leader
    • What: New colonial powers after WWII outraged by Tutsi leading through minority over Hutu
    • When: 1957-
    • Where: Rwanda
    • Why: Hutu would pay back trouble given by Tutsi, democracy of Hutu, Tutsi flee to Uganda and others, including chief, in 1950s, use Hamatic hypothesis to say Hutu were true rulers and Tutsi were invaders
    • How: Parmehutu wind of destruction: politician attacked by group of Tustsi unleashed violence that kills 20,000 Tutsi
  88. cj • Who: blacks and Zulu
    • What: single sex hostels were used to house many Zulu employees within black townships
    • When: 1990-1994
    • Where: black townships
    • Why: mistrusted Mandela, Zulu did not have family and were seen as outcasts by community, weapons of Zulu supplied by apartheid, black on black crime shown by apartheid reason for not letting govern themselves
  89. ck • Who: black students, SASO
    • What: protest of law that said Africans to be instructed in Afrikaans, Afrikaans was language of oppressor
    • When: April 30, 1976
    • Where: Soweto suburb of Johannesburg
    • Why: Important political death: Hector Pieterson, picture broadcast around world
    • How: Students, teenagers take to streets, joyous movement, someone tipped off police to route, police barricade, students throw stones and police fire shots, 23 people killed
  90. cl • Who: Verwoerd
    • What: Register with government to be classified as one of four racial groups
    • When: 1950
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Allow for classification to be separated by
    • How: Register as white, black, colored, Indian, would stick pencil in hair, language, color, friends, work, food, drink all taken into account, sometimes family members were put in different classes but were split up because determined where you could live, school, employment, etc.
  91. cm • Who: Mobutu opponent
    • What: Leader of uprising against Mobutu
    • When: 1996-2001
    • Where: Zaire/Congo
    • Why: South Kivu creating own source of power, many mineral resources, tons of refugees coming into Eastern Zaire who had participated and planned genocide, feared Tutsi and Tutsi already living in North and South Kivu
    • How: Used Tutsi (Banyamulenge) to start war against Mobutu- First war of Congo
  92. cn • Who: Apartheid components
    • What: Resorative justice to account for crimes of apartheid state
    • When: 1996-1998
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: South Africa wanted answers, model for other countries
    • How: purpose not to punish, granted amnesty applicants had to tell whole truth and convince commission had committed crime for political reasons, problem was it was voluntary: 58% black, 39%, only 850 of about 7000 granted amnesty
  93. co • Who: Economic depleted countries
    • What: those living on 2$ a day
    • When: Present
    • Where: Africa
    • Why: Wealth generated through informal economy, street sellers without license, criminal activity, prostitution
  94. cp • Who: Fela Kuti
    • What: Afrobeat song
    • When: Late 1970s
    • Where: Lagos, Nigeria
    • Why: Mother killed in 1977 after attack by Osabanjo
    • How: Kuti thrown in prison thought it would shut him up but music became more angry, had her coffin mailed to OSabajo's house
  95. cq • Who: Foreigners
    • What: Foreigners coming from other places to make fortunes from gold
    • When: 1880s
    • Where: South African mines in Afrikaner republics
    • Why: Important because did not want utlianders to gain political control, stop allowing them to vote, growing tension between them and British empire
    • How: Afrikaners losing vision they had of small scale after industrial revolution, Witwatersrand around Johannesburg had large amounts of gold
  96. cr Africans perceived the forced removals as a cleaning up of the country, erasing 'black spots' to make 'the picture look white.' Sophiatown was rebuilt as white suburb called Triomf, the Afrikaans word for triumph. The removals sparked the creation of a song called "Meadowlands", in reference to the Meadowlands township to which many Sophiatown residents were forced relocate. The lyrics express the devastation of the evacuation: "we will move all night and day/to go stay in meadowlands/you'll hear the white people saying/let's go to meadowlands." Recordings by Nancy Jacobs and Sisters, as well as famed singer Miriam Makeba popularized the song, which was composed originally by Strike Vilakezi. The international performances of the song allowed international audiences a window into South Africa, and expose the injustices suffered by oppressed racial groups. 1950s
  97. cs • Who: Fela Kuti
    • What: Afrobeat song
    • When: 1977
    • Where: Kalakuta, Lagos, Nigeria
    • Why: Zombies blindly followed Osabanjo, Kuti writes song about how they blindly followed him and could not think for themselves, only did what they were told
    • How: Led to Osabanjo attacking Kalakuta, burning it and Kuti's mother killed
  98. ct • Who: University trained lawyer
    • What: Came from wealthy family in east cape, descendent of Thembu, runs away from family when they try to organize marriage, goes to Johannesburg and begins black law firm to represent black South Africans
    • When: 1950-2000s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: Important as leader of ANC, organizes defiance campaign, and many other ways to go against government
    • How: Gradually became involved in politics, arrested and sent to Robben island for 27 years, eventually prime minister
  99. cu • Who: blacks of South Africa, Miriam Makeba
    • What: South African music during apartheid
    • When: 1960s
    • Where: South Africa
    • Why: sung in protest to Hendrik Verwoerd prime minister of SA at time Considered architecture of apartheid
  100. cv • Who: President of Rwanda, Hutu leader
    • What: Facing 1993 international pressure to end in peaceful, power sharing government developed in pipeline
    • When: 1993, April 6 1994
    • Where: Rwanda
    • Why: Angered many by negotiating with Tutsi, plane blown up on April 6 and genocide ensues
    • How: Arusha records: Hutu and Tutsi coalition government
  101. cw • Who: Hutu radicals
    • What: Radicals fighting in Eastern Congo over mines
    • When: 1990-2009
    • Where: Eastern Congo
    • Why: Reclaim power in Rwanda for Hutus
    • How: Base for launching attacks against Rwanda, has some of original interahamwe members
  102. cx • Who: Tutsi
    • What: Tusi living in North and South Kivu in Zaire
    • When: 1996-2003
    • Where: Kivu, Congo
    • Why: Important to Kabila in taking power of the Congo
    • How: Kabila used Tutsi's fear of Hutu and Mobutu trying to force them out to gain control of Congo using the Banyamuulenge