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  • What is vernacular dance?

    Dance of the people where you find them.

    What are the 10 elements of culture / society

    1. Belief / values / religion, 2. Language / Literature, 3. Traditions , 4. Art , 5. History, 6. Education, 7. Government (police society), 8. Economy (goods and services are exchanged), 9. Family (whatever is happening in family is reflection of larger society at hand), 10. Agriculture (providing for food)

    What is the Great Triangular Trade?

    It was a slave trade and the Portuguese thought of this and they would take savages to New World and sell them.

    What is the Middle Passage?

    Passage between New World and Africa

    In the Middle Passage, what was there a lot of?

    Agony, hardship, and was a very long journey

    In the Middle Passage, were there several different languages being spoken?


    In the Middle Passage, were slaves allowed to practice their own religion or were they forced to practice the religion that their master was practicing?

    Forced to practice the religion that their master was practicing

    What was falling away or disappearing in the Middle Passage? Why did this happen?

    Different languages were falling away because slaves were forced to communicate in language of the master

    Who were the first slaves of America and they could easily what?

    Native Americans were first slaves and they could easily get away

    What kind of temperatures did Europe have?

    Wet and cold

    Because of the temperatures/conditions that Europe had, Europeans spreaded what to Native Americans and resulted in what?

    Disease which resulted to death

    Because of the Middle Passage, families were being what?


    What kind of crops did the slaves grow during the Middle Passage?

    Cash crops

    What was easy to thrive for the slaves? And why is this?

    Art and traditions were easy to thrive because they both weren't seen as a threat.

    Through art, slaves were able to find what?

    History, education, and etc.

    Drums were used to what and how did they do this?

    Were used to communicate because of certain rhythms. Drum was used like a telephone at night to communicate with others. Rhythms would be taught to other generations to communicate.

    What is a big part of African Culture

    Oral tradition

    Through oral tradition, what was being passed down?

    language, literature, beliefs

    What was a ring shout?

    A type of vernacular dance in which slaves would gather in a circle and would reenact what would happen in history and culture of society.

    What kinds of people were doing the ring shout?

    Black people

    What is the cake walk and describe it?

    Slaves would join together and dress up and imitate and make fun of the master. Whoever did the cake walk dance the best would win a cake. It was done in 2:4 time signature and was done in a fast march or slow durge.

    The master was doing what to the slaves?


    Describe the skin color of the slaves that worked in doors compared to those that worked outdoors?

    Slaves that worked indoors were light skinned and slaves that worked outside were dark skinned

    What was prohibition?

    When alcohol is illegal

    What was the Juke Joint in the South?

    It was a remote dwelling where illegal alcohol was sold and jazz music and dance was taking place.

    Jazz is a euphemism for what?


    What kind of dancing was going on in the Juke Joint?

    Hoochy goouchy belly dancing

    Jazz is also known as what?

    African American Vernacular Dance

    How did Jazz evolve?

    When slaves used European classical music and used instruments passed down from the master.

    What kind of rhythms were used in Jazz and describe it?

    African polyrhythms were used. They were rhythms that were within a rhythm or where the rhythm would best fit into the bigger rhythm.

    Jazz is known as what kind of art form and why is this?

    It's known as an American art form because of immigrants like Europeans bring European classical music, Africans brought their history and things that they had to America and would become jazz

    What is the Sister to the Juke Joint?

    The Speak Easy

    Where was the Speak Easy and what kind of people were here?

    Downtown and uptown (Harlem). Wealthy black people were here.

    What would African American Vernacular Dance later become?

    Jazz dance

    Who influenced the fathers of Jazz Dance?


    What are the 10 components of Jazz Dance?

    1. African American Tradition, 2. Grounded Movement, 3. Parallel Legs, 4. Poly rhythmic, 5. Syncopation, 6. Pageantry, 7. Entertainment, 8. Tap, 9. Isolations, 10. Afro Caribbean

    Describe the component of African American Tradition?

    Africans were brought to America through slave trade and brought culture and history to America

    Describe the component of grounded movement?

    Floorwork was used and dancing on downbeat

    Describe the component of parallel legs?

    Natural state of rotation

    Describe the component of poly rhythmic

    Multiple rhythms. Drum.

    Describe the component of syncopation

    beats between the beats

    Describe the component of Entertainment

    Movie, broadway, Las Vegas, Flowing costumes / Musical Theatre

    Describe the component of Tap

    Came from Irish step dance

    Describe the component of isolations

    Moving 1 part of body independent of other parts of body. It came from Afro Caribbean movement.

    ***Describe the component of Afro Caribbean?


    What is the difference between African American Tradition and Afro Caribbean (be sure to know this difference)?

    African American tradition has classical music and the tradition came about as African people were experiencing living in America. Africans created culture in America. There were plantations and slavery in the Caribbean and that's how Africans were brought (by slave ships). Africans created culture in the Caribbean. Caribbean is a group of islands (things developed differently because there's no outside influence).

    What choreographer brought the chorus girls in the 1920s in film?

    Busby Berkeley

    In the 1920s, what two events were occurring?

    Prohibition and the Great Depression

    What did people turn to as an escape (because of Prohibition and Great Depression)?


    Were there colored girls in the chorus girls and what were the requirements to be a part of the chorus girls?

    Yes there were colored girls but they had to look fair skinned. Requirements included that you couldn't be too dark, had to be pretty, and talented to be in chorus girls.

    How did tap dance get created?

    Irish slave owners punished the slaves and slaves would learn tap dance. Also, tap dance got created because downtown was the stock market and slaves were being sold here and cultural things like tap dancing were being exchanged here.

    Give one example of a club in Harlem

    Cotton Club

    In New York City, what arose in the 1920s?


    What was vaudeville?

    Vaudeville was a free entertainment show of random things.

    What did vaudeville evolve to become?


    What was located around broadway?


    What is the home of musical theatre?


    What is musical theatre?

    It's a combination of music, acting, and dancing that come together to tell a story.

    What does musical theatre use?

    Uses jazz music, tap, and acting

    Musical theatre evolved into many different what and give an example?

    Genres. An example is Tap Dance and the Nicholas Brothers in The Stormy Weather

    What is the most famous chorus line?

    The Rochets at Radio City Music Hall

    What is the purpose of a Dream Ballad and give an example?

    It would explain the story. An example is The Stormy Weather with Katherine Dunham

    Describe Katherine Dunham?

    Dunham was trained in ballet and went to University of Chicago and majored in anthropology.

    What did the Rosenwar commission do with Dunham?

    The commission sent Dunham to Caribbean and African Culture was developing in Caribbean. She went to Haiti and Jamaica.

    What did Dunham do with the stuff that she has learned in the Caribbean and what did she bring back to the states?

    She went back to the states and brought rituals of dance of Caribbean. She brought isolation, pasantry, ceremony, and ritual.

    What is isolation?

    The ability to isolate 1 part of one's own body from others.

    Dunham began what technique?

    Dunham technique

    What is the Dunham technique based on?

    Isolations, Caribbean styles mixed with Euro. Ballet techniques

    What are the two types of plays?

    Straight plays and Musicals

    Describe Straight Plays?

    They have no music and no dance

    Give an example of a musical and describe it?

    West Side Story. It was choreographed by Jerone Robbins. It was loosely based on Romeo and Juliet. It was about two gangs (one that was Puerto Rican and one was White).

    What is the willing sense of disbelief and give an example?

    When we go to the theatre to watch a musical, we're going to accept things that we may not expect. Hollywood blockbusters (like Transformers) can make it look so visually beautiful and realistic so you won't need "the willing sense."

    What is the Spectacle?

    When talking about live plays and live musicals, it is the thing that is being marveled at (like spiders flying around theatre).

    In 1975, what was the largest selling broadway musical of all time and describe it?

    "A Chorus Line Dance Ten Looks Three". Basically in this play, you get to see what it's like to audition for a musical and we see each character's audition process for musical

    Who did Katherine Dunham influence?

    Jack Cole and Bob Fosse

    What did Bob Fosse do and what were his beliefs?

    Fosse deconstructed musicals. Fosse didn't want you to believe in the musicals. Fosse focused on the music and dancing. He created the musical "Chicago" and it was based on the 20s-30s, but it still gives you the same timeless effect (because it looks like it was still relevant to 2013).

    Who was the bridge between vernacular dance and jazz dance?

    Katherine Dunham

    Who formed her own technique after going to the Caribbean?


    What did Dunham's technique do to vernacular dance?

    Added to vernacular dance and gave it a structure

    Who influenced Jack Cole and Bob Fosse? And who are they?

    Katherine Dunham influenced them. They are the fathers of Jazz Dance

    What was Dunham able to see that others couldn't?

    She was able to see things in Caribbean that she couldn't see in America

    What did the Caribbean consist of?

    They had a homogenous African community

    What is a Diaspora?

    People from Africa that are distributed around the world

    How was African American Vernacular Dance being treated in America compared to the Caribbean?

    In America, vernacular dance was being run to the ground and being suppressed. In the Caribbean, African dance was allowed to flourish

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