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in 1738, 3,981 slaves and 4,606slaves in 1745 / out of 61,000 TOTAL POP.
-slaves were forbidden to carry firearms, when not in the company of
their masters, and anyone who gave or lent a gun to a slave faced a fine
of 20 shillings (GUN)
-slaves couldn't assemble on their own or be on the streets at night ,
-any slave found more than 5 miles away from home without pass was to be
flogged (beat or whipped) , and the master was required to pay a reward
to the person who had reported infraction
-slaves guilty of arson were subject to punishments, many were burned at the stake when caught
-in 1743, plot uncovered in Burlington County, slaves agreed to revolt slit the throats of their masters and masters' sons,
-capture the women (to be ravished later) plunder the farms, and escape
to the French and indains. A slave let word of the plot slip during an
argument with a white man, the authorities were alerted, and after an
investigation 30 ringleaders were arrested. Bc split had not actually
gone into effect, only one man was hanged; the rest were sentenced to be
flogged or had their ears cut off.
-founded by William Penn (a
refuge for English quaker-believed God could love every man and women
and everyone could be saved!!!!)
-slavery grew slowly due to the quakers opposition , however Penn
himself felt that African slaves were more satisfactory workers than
-1729-1758 , Chester county had 104 slaves on 85 farms, with 70% of the
slave owners likely Quakers,. By 1693 Africans were so numerous in the
the colony capital that the Philadelphia Council complained of "the
tumultuous gathers of the Negroes in the town of Philadelphia"
-1720, wheat-based economy had
sprung up- luring scots-irish and German immigrants, about 58,000
Germans and 16, 500 scots-iris came to colony between 1727-1754
-1721, slave pop was 2500-5,000
by 1751 slave pop was 11,000
-late 1769s slave pop was 30,000 and free blacks in colony
-early movement for manumission because more respect given to blacks as human beings
-blacks and whites had more contact than in other colonies - schools and
churches were a part of the lives of blacks. marriage was generally
respected, the black family achieved a stability unlike that in most
-1st slave holding colony in New
England, Boston merchants made first attempt at direct import of slaves
from west Africa to the west indies in 1644
-Primary interest was trading africans to colonies in the south , also
traded rum, fish, and dairy products - BOSTER, SALEM, PROVIDENCE, and
LONDON were major areas of trading (what what)
-from fewer that 200 slaves in 1676
-550slaves in 1708
-2000 slaves in 1715
it reached its largest percentage of the total population between 1755-1764, when it stood at around 2.2 percent.
-slaves concentrated in the industrial and seaside towns- Boston was about 10 % black in 1752
-a Mass. law of 1641: specifically linked slavery to Biblical authority,
and established for slaves the set of rules "which the law of God, est.
in Israel concerning such people, doth morally require"
slaves brought in colony in 1652,
after overtaking Boston by 1750, Newport and Bristol were the major
slave markets in the American colonies
-small white population-blacks made up a higher percentage of the total pop than elsewhere in New England, from 5.9% in 1755
-3,761 slaves in 1774
THE 3rd HIGHEST TOTAL in ENGLAND
- 1709-1807 Rhode Island merchants sponsored at least 934 slaving
voyages to the coast of Africa ad carried an est. 106,544 slaves to the
New World. From 1732-64 Rhode Islanders sent annually 18 ships, bearing
1800 hogsheads of run to Africa to trade for slaves
-earring 40,000 annually.
-Newport,, the colony's leading slave port, took an est. 59,070 slaves to america before the revolution
-the BROWNS, one of the great mercantile families of colonial America, were Rhode Island slave traders,
-at least six of them-James and his bro Obadiah, and Jame's four sons,
Nicholas, John, Joseph, and Moses, ran one of the BIGGEST SLAVE-TRADING
businesses in New England, and for more than half a century the family
reaped huge profits from the slave trade
-their donations to Rhode island college were so generous that the named was changed to Brown University
-the runaway law of 1714 penalized ferryman who carried any slave of the colony without a certificate from their masters
-the law against thefts by slaves in Rhode Island was the severest in
New England, carrying a sentence that could be 15 lashes or even
banishment from the colony-- a particularly dreaded punishment, as it
usually meant deportation and sale to the merciless sugar plantations of
the West Indies
-slaves in Hartford in 1639 and New Haven in 1644, relatively few until 1700, in 1730 there were 700 slaves/total pop 38000
-all the principal fams of Norwich , Hartford and New Haven were said to
have one or two slaves, by 1774, half of all the ministries, lawyers,
and public officials owned slaves and 3rd of all the doctors
-new london was both an industrial center and the site of large
slave-workers farms; with 2,036 skaves, it accounted for almost
one-third of all the blacks in conn.
-new london town itself, with 522 blacks and white pop of 5,366 led the
state in number of slaves and percentage of black inhabitants
-connecticut slavery lacked the "paternalism" the characterized southern
slavery, so that even from the early days, the colony had a problem
with masters who simply turned....
-mid 1700s Afr Amer. begin to develop a kin0ship network.
-The slave fam is the center of the network and it held on to african traditions and passed them along to younger members
-during slavery europeans will adopt some cultural practices of slaves,
and the slaves have no choice but to take on european values-
-many africans men and women have extensive knowledge of plants and herbs.
-ceasar a colonial slave in south carolina was freed by the colony for making an antidote for a poision
-slaves retained some african names
women- often played major roles , most slaves had relationships with
other slaves had relationships with other slaves on the same plantation
-often it was acceptable for slaves to have sex before they were
"married" and most slaves women married in their teens and men in their
mothers took babies to fields, children went to work at age 5
-at 1o they worked in fields
-prime ages of slaves were 20-40years old
teen boy were at prime age to be sold, not teen girls those were a child
-women encouraged to have children married or not
-women sold at about 75% of value of male slaves -1750 s male slaves cost app. 50 pounds
1. Initally George Washington;s
continental army excluded blacks, but this policy was reverse after Lord
Dunmore the former governor of Virginia issues a proclamation of
freedom to slaves who joined the british army- between 10,000-50,000
slaves ran away and joined British
2. In the summer of 1775 a slave conspiracy was discovered on the coast
of S. Carolina led by slaves who were boat pilots, they were given 80
lashes and a portion of their ears were cut off
3.1776, a new york law permitted the substation of blacks for white who had been drafted
4. on July 2, 1776, Thomas Jefferson submitted draft of Declaration of
Independence, this condemned the King's involvement in the slave trade -
jeffereson was asked to remove -final version july 4 1776
5. In 1778 Massachusetts and Rhode Island formed separate regiments for
blacks and whites. New York offered freedom to all slaves who served in
the army for 3 years- owners given land bounty for their slaves
6. Before end of war, most states
and Continental congress were enlisting slaves with the understanding
that they were to receive their freedom at the end of their service
7. Although Washington pleaded-Georgia and S. Carolina were the only two states that refused to enlist black soldiers
8. Some 5,000 blacks fought on the side of the Americans - they fought
at Monmouth, Red Bank, Saratoga, Savannah, all the major battles of the
war- Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell were with Washington during his
crossing of the Delaware
9. Ceasar Terront piloted Virginia vessel the Patriot , and mark Starlin
was the first black naval captain in Virignia's history, he made daring
raids on British at Hampton Roads - reclaimed by master after war and
died in slavery
10. Blacks clearly saw the implications of "freedom" in their fight
against England, in Jan 1773 group of slaves petitioned the state of
Massassachiseets for their freedom
-during the early 1780s the
Chesapeake region experienced a severe depression-tobacco plantations
were plagued by soil exhaustion and a glutted market.
-southern planters had experienced with wheat and other grainsto bolster
the sagging economy, regional recovery only began when they turned
-long staple cotton (grows in sea island, has long silky fibers, doesn't
have good density) was already highly valued because its silky fibers
could be easily separated from the seeds- only grew in climates on the
sea islands off the coast of Georgia and S. carolina
-Short staple could be cultivated across large areas in the south, but
it was difficult to separate fibers from seeds- a slave could clean no
more than a pound of cotton a day
1793,Eli Whitney (a yankee
schoolteacher) was born in the West Borough, Massachusetts in 1765
visiting the south created the cotton gin- box containing a roller,
equipped with wire teeth, designed to pull the fibers from seeds
-laborer could clean up to 50 lbs of short staple cotton per day
-1790, 3,135 bales produced, by 1800 -73145 bales, 1820-334,378; 1805
cotton announced for 30% of Amercas exports, by 1820 it exceeded half
most of England
-Invention breathed new life into slavery imported into Georgia and South Carolina
1. French Revolution began in 1798- blacks in various French controlled areas looked toward the prospect of freedom
2. in 1791, slave uprising in St. Dominque led by Toussaint L'Quveture-
gained freedom for slaves here and in Haiti, by 1801 built roads,
repaired buildings made every citizen a soldier
3. Napoleon lured him to France where he was captured and placed in a cell where he died in 1803
4. Jean-Jacques Dessalines continued war, France surrendered on Nov 28, 1803- slaves granted freedom and land
5. Napoleon sells Louisiana Territory to Jefferson for four cents an acre 830,000 sq miles for $8,831,250
which nearly doubled the size of America- this made it possible to
extend production of cotton and sugar- slavery became more entrenched in
-slave traders and masters had a
curious dilemma-they feared the wholesale importation of raw new
Africans, but they were also desperate for laborers to cultivate cotton
-in the early 19th century antislavery groups petitioned for federal
legislation against the slave trade -free blacks in Phily led the way by
requesting revision of the slave trade law form congress
-dec 1805, Senator R. Bradley of Vermont introduced a bill to prohibit the slave trade after jan 1, 1808
-on march 2, 1807 law prohibiting the African slave trade passed,
persons convicted were to be fined and imprisioned. Fines ranged from
$800 for knowingly buying illegally imported Africans to $20,000 for
equipping a slave ship
5. england outlawed slave trade in 1807, many anti-slavery interests in
the north were optimistic institution would decline- law was early
enforced. Responsibility shifted from secretary of treasury to secretary
of navy, ad at times the dept of state.
Born in Northampton County, North Carolina (in 1797)
-was property if Horton Family
-in his autobiographical sketch he said that he learned to read from school children
2. During his late teen, he began visiting the Univ of North Carolina
taking produce to students -began peddling love peddling love poems to
male students who he charged 25 cents , students then sent peoms to
3.Aided by Caroline Hertz, who was the wife of a professor, Horton had
his first publication when two of his poems were published in 1828 in
her hometown newspaper the Lancaster (Mass) Gazette.
4. Horton was willing to write about anything that touched him, cont. to
publish until 1865- last poems dealt with the Civil war and
personalities such as Grant, Sherman, and Lincoln
5.Last records find him in Philadelphia in 1866 and he probs died there in 1883
1. Born in 1731 in Baltimore Country, Maryland, the grandson of an indentured Englishwoman and African
-mother a free black also married an African from Guinea who had been freed.
-He attended a local school with black and white children
2. Was highly proficient in mathematics and astronomy, was named to the
commission which made the original survey of Washington, D.C.
Beginning in 1792, he issued an annual almanac which has been compared to Benjamin Franklins Poor Richard's Almanac
3. A bachelor Banneker lived most of his life on his family 100 acre
farm about ten miles outside of Baltimore-stuided all night , slept in
the mornings and worked in the afternoons. Spent many nights laying
under a pear tree looking at the sky
4.Spoke out against slavery- in famous letter written in 1791 he told
Thomas Jefferson that "words were one thing and slavery is another."
1. Blacks benefited from the general trent to establish and improve schools in the new public
2. in 1798, a separate school for black children was established by white teacher in the home of Primus Hall of Boston
3. in 1800 blacks asked the citizens of Boston for a separate school but were denied,
they est. a school for their own and employed two Harvard men as
instructors. in 1820 the city of Boston finally opened as elementary
school for black children
4. The N.Y. African free School best in 1787 by the Manumission Society
was one of the best known in this period, when it began it had 40
students and by 1820 it was accommodating 500 black children
5. New Jersey began education black children in 1777, by 1801 there had
been short lived schools in Burlington, Salem, and Trenton.
6. As early as 1774 the Quakers in Phily best school for black children,
by 1797 with the help of philanthropist there were no less than seven
schools for blacks in Phily.
7. in 1784, Methodist were the
first to declare that slavery was "contrary to the golden laws of God"
they gave their members 12 months to liberate their slaves-Viriginia and
other southern states forced a suspension of this revolution
8. in 1789, Baptist said that slavery was a "violent depredations of the
rights of nature and inconsistent with a republican government- after
war many churches accepted black members.
9.During the war (american rev.) black churches were established in S.
Carolina, Georgia , and Virginia, First black church probs est.
1773-1775 in Silver Bluff S. Carolina
10. In Phily in 1777, slave Richard Allen purchased his freedom and was
converted , he along with Absalom Jones organized the Free African
Society after officials at the St. George;s Church pulled them from
their knees while praying
11. After splittiong with Jones, in 1799 Allen organized the Bethel
African Methodist Episcopal Church and in 1816 he became the first black
12. in 1821 JAMES VARICK organized the African Methodist Epis. Zion Church
13. By 1830 there were black churches of almost every conceivavle description-Ethiopian Church of Jesus Christ in Savannah, GA.
-and a black Dutch Reformed Church in NY city
14. Fraternal organizations - Prince Hall along with 15 other blacks
were initiated on March 6, 1787 in to a lodge of the British Freemasons.
On May 6, 1787 Hall founded African Lodge No. 459
15. On Oct 17, 1787 Hall and other Boston blacks filed petitions that
demanded the Massachusetts legislature provided equal education for
16. Jean Baptiste Point DuSable -helped to settle in the 1770s area that
will become Chicago, he build the first home there and opened the first
business, He was pushed to the boundaries of the area as more white
settlers arrived in the area
1. Closing of slave trade in 1808 makes domestic trade more profitable and by 1815 it was a major economic activity.
2 Films like Woolfork, Saunders, and Overly of Maryland and Franklin and Armfield of Virginia helped to develop the business
3. Baltimore, Washington,, Richmond, Norfolk, and Charleston were the
principal trading centers in the older states- Montgomery, Memphis, and
new orleans were major markers in newer areas.
4. Many were moved via the Atlantic Ocean or on flatboats on the Ohio, Tennessee, or Mississippi Rivers -always taken in chains
5.Between 600,000 and 1 million slaves migrated from the east to the west states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Missouri
6. In 1831 Thomas R. Dew admitted that Virginia was a "Nego raising
state" able to export 6,000 per year. Many girls became mothers at 13-14
by the time the slaves were 20 some slaves were to have given birth to 5
7 Bounties and prizes offered for bearing children , also practice of
dividing families particularly in areas of Alambama (selma) and delta of
Ms were average ration was 100 women - 140 men
in 1803 Meriwether Lewis and
William Clark had excedition to Louisiana Territory, Clarks slave York
helped to befriend Native Americans, he helped provide food by hunting
and fishing- only member of expedition who did to receive money or land
for their services
2. in 1820, Edward Rose served as guide,hunter, and interpreter for the Missouri Fur Company
3. Pierre Bonga was a prominent trapper and interpreter in the Minnesota
Territory helped neogtiate with the Chippewas for his fur company.
4. Born in 1798 of mixed parents James P Beckwourth worked for Rocky
Mountain Fur Company-skilled in use of gun, bowie knife and tomahawk. in
1824 adopted by Crow Native Americans and led them on several raids.
1 War feuded by brit impressemtns
of American sailors- Henry Clay , John C. Calhoun and Felix Gundy are
"war Hawks: who push for War
2--------Small # of blacks served in conflict, large # enrolled in Navy, 1/10 of crews on Upper Lakes were blacks
3......Tecumseh (Shawnee) attemped to organize Native Americans in Ohio,
Indiana, and Michigan- tried to recruit Pawnee and members of 5
Civilized tribes (1.Cherokee, 2. Creek, 3. Chickasaw, 4. Choctaw, 5.
4....Two battalions of black soldiers with Andrew Jackson when he defeated Brits at BATTLE OF ORLEANS IN DEC of 1814
4. Slaves usually chose their own
mates based on mutual attraction, like poor white premarital
intercourse was frequent but promiscuous behavior was rare. Most couples
maintained affectionate lasting relationships.
5. Women slaves had more responsibility- bearing children, work, and
family. Expected to work in fields in addition to cooking, sewing ,
child care and traditional female jobs in slave quarters.
6.Women developed networks of mutual support-cared for each others
children, sewing, quilting, cooking, laundry, attending births,caring
for the sick and dying and praying together.
7. Slave family provided love, protecting, education, moral guidance transmitted culture, status , role models and basic support
1.For slaveholders religion often
represented a form of social preachers who played prominent roles in
administering baptisms, weddings, and funerals, white masters sought to
control religion to their own ends.
2.Black religious gatherings were usually forbidden unless white observers were present or white preachers led them.
1. Day to day acts-breaking
tools, burning crops, burning barns and houses, stealing, or destroying
animals and food, defending fellow slaves from the punishment,
poisoning,faking illness especially women slaves.
2. Running away- typical runaway was a young male, many ran into and hid
in woods or swamps. Escapes occurred by forging passes, posing as
master and servant, disguising one's sec, sneaking aboard ships.
1.Harriet Ross born in 1820 or 1821 in Maryland
-had extremely cruel master, she was hit in the head with a weight made
of iron and laid in bed for several months and was nursed back to
health, but blacked out and had seizures
2. in 1844, she married John Tubman who was free-marriage did not last , she escaped in 1849 to phyla
3.returned to get her brothers, their wives and some of their children
4. She returned to the south 19 times aided by the underground railroad
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