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  • Double/triple consciousness:

    Term coined by W.E.B Dubois that describes the phenomenon that African americans have in regard to their dual culture. The mental challenge of having an African heritage in the western world. Africans need to judge and act based on two different states of minds. Conscious of the two people they reflect.

    Thomas Jefferson

    Founding father of the United States of America. Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Was critical of the ability of newly freed slaves to assimilate into American ways of life due to the brutality of slavery and the mental anguish it inflicted. Infamous for his affair with Sally Hemmings and the many mixed race children that resulted from it and how he dealt with it. Promised to free his children but never happened.

    Montejo

    Afro-cuban born into slavery. Ran away to the mountains. During the revolution. Then ended up working on plantations after freedom. Experienced many different cultures and religions even if he didn't immerse himself in them. One of the first looks we have had into new world slavery and the brutality of it. But also showed the creolization of the Americas.

    Louisiana Purchase

    French land that was sold to the US because they didn't need it and didn't have enough troops to defend. Part of Napoleon's downfall

    Sally Hemings

    Thomas Jefferson's mistress, had 6 or 7 of his kids

    Triangle Trade

    slaves were brought from Africa to the Americas. Sugar, coffee and molasses were brought from the Americas to Europe. Tobacco and guns were brought from Europe to Africa.

    Middle Passage

    Stage of triangle trade where large number of slaves being brought over to the Americas in boats with bad treatment. Many died on the passage.

    Gustavus Vassa

    Equinaos baptized name. Learned to read, write and trade. Bought his way out of slavery. Assimilated to English Culture and wrote the first book from a slave's perspective.

    Saint Domingue

    Caribbean French colony. Produced half of the world's sugar and had a huge amount of slaves. Was the pearl of the french colonies. Made tons of money. Why France sent so many troops to try to keep it.

    Transculturation

    being a part of two different cultures or races and not feeling completely in one of the other. Always on the edge of both but never really accepted into either.

    Haitian Revolution

    the rebellion of slaves and free people of the Island from the French government. Led to the idea of freedom for black nations and in other slave territories.

    Everyday resistance

    things you do in a bad situation to show you're going against your owners and that you won't put up with it. Usually a more discreet resistance that they are less likely to get caught or punished for.

    Creolization

    Due to the institution of slavery there were many people from different cultures in the Americas and as a result of these cultures coming together they started to create their own culture and languages derived from their ancestral cultures. The creation of a new culture in the Americas.

    Yoruba

    Ethnic group that was a big part of the slave trade that ended up coming to America that helped keep African culture alive.

    Santeria

    religion that draws many parallels to catholicism and Yoruba. Had a god that was similar to most of the Catholic Saints. Symbolized the creolization of the west indies.

    Samuel Ajayi Crowther

    Yoruba man who was captured into slavery but later freed by the British before he could be transported to the new world. Settled in Sierra Leone and became an influential member of the church there. Eventually became the first African Anglican bishop but that was revoked due to his race and then he translated the Bible into Yoruba.

    Tragic Mulatta

    Victim of the one drop rule. Fictional character that was a symbol in many different literatures. Story of a slave that could pass for white but always ended up tragically. Meant to draw sympathetic reaction from whites, especially higher class white females

    Palmares

    Area in the interior jungles of Brazil that runaway slaves would go to in the Mountains. Grew very large with an African style kingdom but couldn't be taken down for a century because of their strategy. Unique because of their ability to govern, survive, and their catholic religion. One of the first instances of a black nation. Eventually conquered by the Portuegese because of their fear word of this freedom would get out.

    Capoeira

    a type of fighting styled dance used to let slaves let out anger against their owners. Brazilian dance with African roots.

    Ida B. Wells-

    black journalist who protested about "black rapists." Very large impact after reconstruction ended and created the first organization against lynching in London. Exposed the world to the travesties in New Orleans.

    Miscegenation

    interracial relationships. Common among men, but when a white woman was with a black man it was considered rape and he was a "black beast."

    Toussaint Louverture

    leader of the Haitian Revolution. After revolution tried to work people like the did in slavery and was deported and jailed.

    cimarron

    escaped slaves living in a secret community

    la citadelle

    fortress built by the haitians to prepare for the French. Was put on a high mountain top to spot any French invasion. Was basically set to be the Alamo for the Haitians. Shows the fervor that Haitians were in concerning another French attack that they devoted all of their worth to creating a fortress instead of building their economy.

    lukumi

    Another name for Santeria.

    assimilation

    The process by which the member of another culture or ethnic group comes to resemble a member of another culture or ethnic group. This theme was most popular in Equiano's story where he seemed to try to assimilate into Christian British culture.

    orisha

    Spirits of the Yoruba religion that represent the many manifestations of God. Each one has a certain energy or skill. Similar to the saints in the catholic religion. Is often associated with Capoeira

    mestre

    A teacher and leader of Capoeira who has had a well known influence on the dance. Two of the most famous are Mestre Bimba and Mestre Pastnha. These men helped to spread Capoeira during a time when it was banned in Brazil.

    malicia

    An essential theme of Capoeira. Has a similar root as the word malice in English but means more. It pertains to the notion of double-dealing or cunning. This was a key lesson from slavery. Slaves had to be clever to avoid punishment if they were to break rules and go against their masters demands, like dance capoeira. Also means to not be too trusting of others.

    weapons of the weak

    This is the idea that for individuals who are oppressed, their only weapon is to engage in everyday resistance. For example, a slave could deliberately mishear orders or slack on their work in order to protest their current state.

    voodoo

    A religion that originated in West Africa as Vodun but later became pertinent in the West Indies during the African Diaspora. It is very popular in places like Haiti where it developed in the 1700's. The religion draws many parallels to christianity and the Yoruba religion like the worship of certain spirits with unique qualities. Worshipped spirits for good fortune or harm to masters.

    amalgamation

    The action, process, or result of combining or uniting. This was a major theme with Marcus Garvey. He created the United Negro Improvement Association and the African Communities League. Both of these organizations helped to give men and women of color a special bond and a cause to rally behind together. It later sparked movements like Rastafari and the Nation of Islam.

    one drop rule

    The idea that one drop of African American blood makes you African American. It was developed in the early days of slavery but has continued throughout the history of the United States.

    freetown (sierra leone)

    Area established by and later occupied by the British that became a home for freed slaves. Although it seemed like a smart idea, it ended up creating harsh ethnic tension that has lead to many civil wars.

    new world slavery

    Colonial powers used slaves to do their labor in the new world. They were used to farm and extract natural resources to benefit far away powers. Part of this stemmed from the economic system of mercantilism which emphasized extracting resources from overseas colonies with slaves to benefit the monarch.

    Syncretism

    combining different, contradictory beliefs together. This brings several cultures and ideas together.

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