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Term coined by W.E.B Dubois that
describes the phenomenon that African americans have in regard to their
dual culture. The mental challenge of having an African heritage in the
western world. Africans need to judge and act based on two different
states of minds. Conscious of the two people they reflect.
Founding father of the United
States of America. Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Was
critical of the ability of newly freed slaves to assimilate into
American ways of life due to the brutality of slavery and the mental
anguish it inflicted. Infamous for his affair with Sally Hemmings and
the many mixed race children that resulted from it and how he dealt with
it. Promised to free his children but never happened.
Afro-cuban born into slavery. Ran
away to the mountains. During the revolution. Then ended up working on
plantations after freedom. Experienced many different cultures and
religions even if he didn't immerse himself in them. One of the first
looks we have had into new world slavery and the brutality of it. But
also showed the creolization of the Americas.
Due to the institution of slavery
there were many people from different cultures in the Americas and as a
result of these cultures coming together they started to create their
own culture and languages derived from their ancestral cultures. The
creation of a new culture in the Americas.
Yoruba man who was captured into
slavery but later freed by the British before he could be transported to
the new world. Settled in Sierra Leone and became an influential member
of the church there. Eventually became the first African Anglican
bishop but that was revoked due to his race and then he translated the
Bible into Yoruba.
Victim of the one drop rule.
Fictional character that was a symbol in many different literatures.
Story of a slave that could pass for white but always ended up
tragically. Meant to draw sympathetic reaction from whites, especially
higher class white females
Area in the interior jungles of
Brazil that runaway slaves would go to in the Mountains. Grew very large
with an African style kingdom but couldn't be taken down for a century
because of their strategy. Unique because of their ability to govern,
survive, and their catholic religion. One of the first instances of a
black nation. Eventually conquered by the Portuegese because of their
fear word of this freedom would get out.
black journalist who protested
about "black rapists." Very large impact after reconstruction ended and
created the first organization against lynching in London. Exposed the
world to the travesties in New Orleans.
fortress built by the haitians to
prepare for the French. Was put on a high mountain top to spot any
French invasion. Was basically set to be the Alamo for the Haitians.
Shows the fervor that Haitians were in concerning another French attack
that they devoted all of their worth to creating a fortress instead of
building their economy.
The process by which the member
of another culture or ethnic group comes to resemble a member of another
culture or ethnic group. This theme was most popular in Equiano's story
where he seemed to try to assimilate into Christian British culture.
A teacher and leader of Capoeira
who has had a well known influence on the dance. Two of the most famous
are Mestre Bimba and Mestre Pastnha. These men helped to spread Capoeira
during a time when it was banned in Brazil.
An essential theme of Capoeira.
Has a similar root as the word malice in English but means more. It
pertains to the notion of double-dealing or cunning. This was a key
lesson from slavery. Slaves had to be clever to avoid punishment if they
were to break rules and go against their masters demands, like dance
capoeira. Also means to not be too trusting of others.
This is the idea that for
individuals who are oppressed, their only weapon is to engage in
everyday resistance. For example, a slave could deliberately mishear
orders or slack on their work in order to protest their current state.
A religion that originated in
West Africa as Vodun but later became pertinent in the West Indies
during the African Diaspora. It is very popular in places like Haiti
where it developed in the 1700's. The religion draws many parallels to
christianity and the Yoruba religion like the worship of certain spirits
with unique qualities. Worshipped spirits for good fortune or harm to
The action, process, or result of
combining or uniting. This was a major theme with Marcus Garvey. He
created the United Negro Improvement Association and the African
Communities League. Both of these organizations helped to give men and
women of color a special bond and a cause to rally behind together. It
later sparked movements like Rastafari and the Nation of Islam.
Area established by and later
occupied by the British that became a home for freed slaves. Although it
seemed like a smart idea, it ended up creating harsh ethnic tension
that has lead to many civil wars.
Colonial powers used slaves to do
their labor in the new world. They were used to farm and extract
natural resources to benefit far away powers. Part of this stemmed from
the economic system of mercantilism which emphasized extracting
resources from overseas colonies with slaves to benefit the monarch.