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  • Slavery was about ______

    profit

    Slaves worked from ______

    sun-up to sun-down

    Overseers were...

    often white

    Drivers were...

    often black

    Why did slave owners want their slaves to have kids?

    1. More slaves
    2. Less Runaways

    Who were slave children raised by?

    Older slaves on the plantations, not their parents

    What religion were majority of slaves?

    by 1830 90% of slaves were Christian

    How slave music evolved to popular music

    work songs --> spirituals --> blues+gospel --> popular

    How did slaves tell stories?

    oral tradition (story telling)

    Growth of Slavery

    1790- 700k 1820-1.5m 1860-4m

    Why did slavery grow so quickly?

    cotton

    Why did cotton require so many slaves?

    1. very labor intensive
    2. removing the seeds is time consuming/difficult

    ______ invented the cotton gin

    Eli Whitney

    How many slaves grew what in 1830?

    55% grew cotton
    10% grew tobacco
    10% grew sugar + rice
    15% were domestic
    10% worked in trades

    by 1860 __% of slaves grew cotton.

    75%

    Less than __% of southerners owned slaves.

    25%

    Most slave owner owned _____ slaves

    few

    Most slaves lived on _____.

    plantations

    Toussiant L'Ouverture

    - former slave from Haiti
    - knew how to read/write
    - free black and land owner
    - rebelled against napoleon and almost won, but was tricked into capture.
    - Haiti won independence after Toussiant L'Ouverture

    Who did the US buy Louisiana from?

    France because they needed money to fund wars

    Why was the Louisiana purchase so significant?

    it doubled the size of the US

    Florida was bought from _____ because_____.

    Spain
    they wanted to stop runaway slaves from joining the seminoles

    Growth of free black population

    1790- 60k 1820- 300k 1860- 500k

    Black had difficulty in the north because:

    - Racism + discrimination (thought of as lazy)
    - Competition --> immigrants
    - Free blacks had few skills

    Economic success was easier in the south because:

    people knew they had valuable skills because they all used to be slaves.

    Slave Revolts

    1. New York City Revolt 1712
    2. Stono River Rebellion 1739
    3. The Great Negro Plot 1741
    4. Gabriel's Revolt 1800
    5. Denmark Vesy Conspiracy 1822
    6. Nat Turner 1831

    New York City Revolt 1712

    - Black slaves set fire to a building
    - Attacked people trying to put out the fire
    - 9 killed
    Laws Passed:
    - Separate poor blacks and whites
    - Punishments for the conspirators

    Stono River Rebellion 1739

    - Started by Jemmy the Angolan in South Carolina
    - Led 20 slaves in a march to FL
    - Killed all slave owners (and families) that had a bad reputation
    - 20 whites and 44 blacks killed
    Laws Passed:
    - Whites must carry guns

    The Great Negro Plot 1741

    - In New York City
    - People were freaked out over Stono
    - After several mysterious fires white officials went on a "witch hunt"
    - 16 y.o. indentured servant made up a story to get free and rich
    - 174 people were arrested, most were killed in unpleasant ways.
    Laws Passed:
    - Limit interaction between blacks and whites

    Gabriel's Revolt 1800

    - Skilled slave from Virginia
    - Literate and a blacksmith
    - Had over 1000 slaves in his army
    - The night he planned to go intense rains came
    - 2 slaves told their masters
    - Gabriel and 34 other people were arrested and killed
    Laws Passed:
    - Codes against slaves reading

    Denmark Vesy Conspiracy 1822

    - Free black who was a former slave in South Carolina
    - Spent most of his time annoying the Mayor of Charleston although he was a carpenter
    - He spoke out against slavery
    - Started the AME (African Methodist Episcopal Church)
    - Rumors of a revolt were started by the annoyed mayor
    - 35 people including Vesy were killed
    Laws Passed:
    - Codes against free blacks

    Nat Turner 1831

    - Was a slave who believed he was chosen by God to lead a revolt.
    - After seeing several "signs" he led his followers on a killing spree in Virginia.
    - 57 whites (women + children too) were killed
    Laws Passed:
    - Black codes against black preachers

    Results of Slave revolts

    There was fear and anger toward literate, free, and preaching blacks.

    ACS (American Colonization Society)

    - Send the black "back" to Africa
    - Liberia (Capital: Monorvia)

    Hardships blacks faced going "back" to Africa

    - Language barrier
    - Left with nothing to help them
    - Hostile Africans

    Henry Brown

    Slave who mailed himself to become free

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