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  • Sources of conflict between Blacks/Asians:

    Religion; Affirmative action; sexualization (penis vs. no penis); intellectualized (brains vs. no brains) .

    White people compared to whiteness and

    Black people and Blackness and

    "The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line."

    W.E.B. Du Bois; Founder of sociology, arguably. Influential theorist. He's speaking of the division between white people and people of color internationally.

    What's the problem of the 21st century?

    Colorblindness, colorism, capitalism.

    What does bell hooks mean by the "center?"

    Power: white, wealth, heterosexual, being American.

    What are the margins?

    A place of estrangement, alienation, and worse: assimilation and co-option.

    What do you gain from the margins?

    Empathy, double-consciousness.

    Marginality is more than a site of depravation.

    It is the site of radical possibility. It's an oppositional consciousness. It's not just where you live, it's where you identify.

    Hegemonic ideas:

    Ideas so repeated they become true.


    Through law, protest, small acts.

    Examples of counter hegemonic discourse:

    Hip hop; victory is in the struggle (when athletes try to stand in solidarity with a movement).

    What is the social construction of race?

    Like when Mexicans could be white, Black, Asian, so on. Race is a social construction rooted in human interaction; not biological.

    AUTHORS | Where did the giraffe end up? How was color not based on skin color in the IO world? How else is yellow not like white? What else pulls Black and yellow apart?
    Memorize paper format:
    Black male traits.
    What exactly did the Renunciation Act allow people to do?
    Why was the Renunciation Act ruled unconstitutional?
    Is Jaden Smith in Karate Kid a sign of tension or alliance?


    Four facets of racial formation:

    Races are part of gender and class relations; meaning-systems change quickly (post-9/11 Muslims became racialized); races are constructed relationally; humans create race.


    A fabrication of a place. Created by the center. It is the mirror image of what is inferior and alien ('Other') to the West.

    Orient vs. Occident is:

    A formation of the other in relation to what is considered normal.


    Representation of the person; an example of racial lumping.

    How Prashad and Okihiro end their pieces, about white supremacy:

    Multi-racial white supremacy. It was those outside of whiteness that fed the Aryan myth, like Brahmin Indians. It is very difficult to escape the presence of whiteness and white superiority.

    Ice Cube's "Black Korea"

    Unveils some of the store-based conflicts between Blacks and Koreans.

    Indian Ocean before 1498:

    Differences between people were rooted in language; lots of commerce and trade (giraffe); cosmopolitan, cordial, open; polyculturalism; linguistic exchanges (Swahili and Arabic, etc.); Da Gama brought avarice and violence.

    Cultural differences vs. racial differences:

    Cultural differences can be more easily changed, adapted.

    Xenophobia vs. race:

    Color is not the reason for the fear; and your location can change. Ethnocentrism.

    Slavery in the Indian Ocean world was based on:

    Economics, not on the basis of race. Color was not based on skin color. Racism was necessary to justify slavery's practices. Capitalism and race are wedded. There must be an exploited group to generate profit.

    How did the European encounter change things in the IO?

    Radically altered the social relations in the water. Altered how people saw each other. Avarice and violence.

    What systematic practices allowed race to solidify into white supremacy?

    Plantations, slavery, and segregation. Practices and ideology/discourse go together, like race & capitalism.

    White-yellow-Black, traditional hierarchy, except for:

    Wars, and maybe in the media.

    How's yellow like white, according to Okihiro?

    Model minority myth; cultured values; not Black; economic middleman.

    How's yellow not like white?


    What pulls Black and yellow apart?

    Lack of citizenship for Asians; war...

    Racialization of Blacks in America:

    LeBron and Gisele cover (African American man as King Kong), animalization; The need for labor and land (slavery and plantation labor); "negative comparison": wild, instinctual, savage, childlike; not masters over their natural life; therefore they needed to be controlled by others, sexually and socially. In contrast to: white, Christian, rational, sexually controlled, superior.

    What other groups have been racialized for labor? WE WANT YOUR LABOR

    Indentured Irish and SE Europeans on the East Coast (they weren't white yet); Mexican labor in the SW U.S.; Asians on the West coast, as cheap, temporary labor; Native Americans, for their land.

    But we don't want your life:

    Restricted intermarriage with whites (1661-1967); restricted citizenship; restricted land ownership; restricted entry.

    Blacks were used to remind the British...

    Of what they were not. Blacks reflected earlier European concerns of "savages"

    19th century conceptions of Africans:

    Savagery. Previously used to describe Europeans in the wilderness. That they were closer to nature; more child-like.

    Native Americans were deemed savages because of...

    Cultural differences. Therefore, culture and the savagery, can be changed.

    Depictions of Africa today focus on:

    Animals; wildlife.

    Why all these conceptions of Africa and Blacks?

    Justify how Europeans used slavery of Africans; which was explained by the Curse of Ham.

    Why did the "science of race" arise post-slavery?

    Post-slavery, there needed to be reasons to keep Blacks and whites separated.

    How did the "science of race" develop:

    Darwin; Social evolutionism: Great Chain of Being: God created a natural order. Stages of evolution (from primitivism to civilization).

    The savage as:

    The past, without history; as child; justifies the "civilized/white" helping the evolution of the less civilized.

    Monogenesis --> Polygenesis

    Polygenesis argued that whites were scientifically derived differently than other racial groups.

    What did discourses/ideologies about Africans try to address:

    Moral problem of slavery. What did these discourses try to quell? Slave rebellions.
    Defined who belonged in the U.S., a "self-governing" place: self-control, civilized.

    1790 Naturalization Act:

    Gotta be a white male, property owner, resident for two years, good morals.

    Thomas Jefferson's stance toward slavery:

    Owned over 250; saw slaves as a stain on the "lovely white." TJ proposed exporting all slaves back to Africa.

    Child/savage ideology served to

    Separate poor whites and poor Blacks.

    Bobby Jindal and Nikki Haley are both trying to...

    Benefit from whiteness.

    Comparative racialization does not mean that...

    Races are the same.

    First wave of Asian immigration: 1848-1924. Themes:

    Nativism = anti-immigrant.
    Push and pull of international migration.
    Labor needs and creating the nation.
    WHat is the relationship between capitalism and racism?
    Immigration laws, restrictions, and defining America.
    Controlling images.

    Coolie trade:

    Ships were repurposed slave ships.

    Asian American movement in the 1960s grew out of:

    The Black Power movement. Asian American was meant to serve as a political label.

    Asian, as a category, is:

    Biologically false. Has gained social meaning often mistaken for geographic and racial.

    Asian/Black "good" vs. "bad" culture used to explain disparities in:

    Over-rep of AsAms in great colleges and universities; over-rep of AfAms in the incarceration system.

    1882 Chinese Exclusion Act:

    Foundation to anti-Asian immigrant legislation.

    Second wave of Asian immigration: post-1965:

    Defined by welcoming the "model minority"

    1965 Immigration Act:


    Third wave of Asian immigration: post-1975

    Entry of SE Asian refugees; marked by the fall of Saigon in 1975.

    How the British controlled China:

    Got poppy from South Asia; made opium; took it China, bringing guns and crime, for tea.

    Immigration and creating a national identity.

    Ellis Island served Europeans.
    Angel Island: much more of a jail for Chinese immigrants.

    Pull factors of Chinese immigration:


    Why didn't the U.S. want Chinese women to immigrate?

    They thought they would be prostitutes OR they would settle and form families.

    Chinese male immigration led to:

    Anti-miscegenation laws; back-breaking labor in the mines; bachelor societies, which reinforced the myth that Asian men were desperate for white women.

    What accounted for increasing anti-Chinese nativism?

    Work on the transcontinental railroad further east while the Irish were building it further west.
    Declining economy led to an increase in racism and anti-immigration.
    Media depictions of Chinese men as superhuman (eight arms) AND subhuman (rat like).

    Black Orientalism and the Representations of Chinese in the Black press:

    Calling Chinese heathens (non-Christians); dirty, backward, unfit for citizenship.
    But this wasn't racist; citizenship in the U.S. is about arguing that you belong more than another group.

    Asian Men as the Yellow Peril:

    1850: no marriage between whites and "negroes or mulattoes."
    1880: no marriage between whites and Mongols

    1875 Page Law:

    No Chinese women allowed because of a fear of prostitution.

    1860s Black Codes


    1870 Naturalization Act

    Now Black men could become citizens.

    1880s-1960s Jim Crow

    Legalized segregation.

    Early Japanese immigration centered on:

    Hawaii when it was a colony. The fall of Chinese immigrants meant a rise in Japanese, and vice-versa.

    Sino-Russian war of 1905:

    Japan, the first nonwhite war victory over a white country. Gave Japan a bargaining chip in immigration with the U.S.

    1907 Gentlemen's Agreement Act:

    Banned the entry of Japanese laborers, essentially.

    1913 Alien Land Law:

    Those eligible for citizenship can own land.

    1920 Alien Land Law:

    Those ineligible for citizenship cannot own land in their U.S.-born child's name.

    1922 Ozawa vs. U.S.:

    No, you have to be Caucasian to be white.

    Early Indian immigrants:

    Formerly citizens, formerly white.
    1923: No, Indians are not white, because of how the common man understands it.

    1924 Immigration Act or the Johnson-Reed Act:

    Two percent of the nationality in the U.S. in 1890 can immigrate. Virtually stopped S & E European immigration. Also stopped Asian migration (esp. Japanese). Consolidated whiteness, drew a line around Europe.

    Filipino immigrants started arriving as U.S. nationals:

    Threatened white women;

    1934 Tydings-McDuffie Act:

    gives Phillippines independence in 10 years, but Filipinos lose U.S. national status immediately. SHADY.

    1933 Roldan Case:

    added "Malay" to California's anti-miscegenation laws;

    The dominant culture defines itself by...

    Excluding others. The center only knows what it is by saying what it is not.

    Scientific racism developed when? What did it argue?

    Post-slavery. It was not objective. Argued that the outside characteristics of a person tell us about the inside of a person. Darkness does not equal Blackness. It argued that people with different characteristics (or races) can't mix.

    Social Darwinism:

    19th century pseudo-scientific theory that individuals or groups achieve advantages.


    19th century pseudo-scientific theory; examined cranal capacities.

    Selective breeding example:

    Sterilizing Latina women.

    What were Jefferson's central fears about emancipation?

    That the numbers of Blacks would increase. That there would be miscegenation between Black men and white women.

    When was the first anti-miscegenation law?

    1661, in Maryland. No B-W marriage (also to control property rights and social privileges).

    1883 anti-miscegenation law:

    Missouri rules no intermarriage, because no progeny between mixed children.

    2000 anti-miscegenation law:

    Alabama still not allowing interracial marriage.

    Social and violent sanctions against fears of miscegenation:

    Lynching and castration. Part of the unsexing of Black men (against threat of white women being raped).
    White dressed in their best, brought children.

    Controlling images produce and reward:

    Stereotypes. (Ex.: Denzel Washington gets an Oscar for a role in which he said he was going to be,"badder than King Kong.")

    What are the function of stereotypes?

    To justify the status quo. Stereotypes of Black women function with intersections of race, class, and gender.

    The Black Lady/Club Woman, traits and purpose:

    Respectable, hard working.
    Used to justify limiting affirmative action and to blame such women for getting jobs only because of affirmative action.

    Jezebel/Hoochie/Ho, traits and purpose:

    Hypersexed Black woman, overly sexual, predatory, animalistic;
    Therefore justifies when white men sexually assault Black women; normalizes heterosexuality; upholds white womanhood (enforces these binaries; the white woman is pure; the Black woman is soiled; commodification if someone always wants sex, they are unrapeable.

    Intraracial gender politics examples. What do these examples illustrate?

    Nelly's tip drill --> Spelman fundraiser canceled --> Nelly blames Spelman for his relative's death.
    Black women are illustrated as the scapegoat; as the cause of Black social problems.

    Black Matriarchs, traits and purpose:

    Ex.: Michelle Obama
    Aggressive, family-head, emasculating for men.
    Justifies "strong Black women," family issues. It becomes something to put responsibility on the family instead of structures; serves to become a scapegoat for blaming family culture, not structures; solidifies the American work ethic.

    Controlling images of Black women also serve as a warning for:

    white womanhood.

    Intersection of racism and sexism in organizations like:

    Churches, marriage, families, colleges, national orgs.
    Black men who play Black women in movies.

    Forms of resistance for these controlling images:

    Create different standards of beauty;
    Cultivate an oppositional consciousness.
    Positive self-definition.

    Notions of masculinity are tied to:

    Violence, patriarchy, sexism/misogyny, buildings (phallic).

    Barack and Curtis illustrate what about Black masculinity:

    It's narrow. Masculinity constrains men who don't fulfill them. 50 Cent's music applies some white supremacist thinking; AND the concept that a Black man can't have both a Hugo Boss suit and baggy jeans in his wardrobe

    Alternatives to Black masculinity:

    Multiplicity, fluidity, self-determination.

    Black Mammies: Traits and Purpose:

    Faithful, obedient, servant, asexual.
    Justifies economic exploitation. Takes away from the emotional labor a Black woman can be putting into her own household.

    What is the purpose of controlling images?

    Normalize oppression.

    Formula of controlling images:

    Power --> defines society's values and establishes "truth" --> manipulating symbols/stereotypes --> objectification.
    Used to also justify respectability politics.

    Welfare queen, traits and purpose:

    Lazy, neglects kids, selfish, very fertile.
    A way to control Black fertility in a shrinking economy; Argument that she is having babies for more welfare; reinforces heterosexual marriages; masks cuts in welfare spending (theory that cutting welfare puts welfare queens into the job market).

    Hip Hopper, traits and purpose:

    Scapegoat for Talented 10th.

    Talented Tenth, traits and purpose:

    Middle-upper class; respectable.
    Used to build a strong Black nation. (Actually misogynistic)

    Strong Black Man, traits and purpose:

    Used to build a strong Black nation (actually misogynistic)

    Contradictions of WWII:

    U.S. fighting for freedom & democracy. At home, U.S. mass interned Japanese Americans.

    Ethnicity, defined:

    Ancestry and cultural practices.


    Always refers to the process through which these categories of racialization; and multi-racial white supremacy.
    Race is a way to consolidate and categorize people, e.g. Muslim-religious term.

    John Hope Franklin vs. Malcolm X:

    Franklin was eager to enlist in the U.S. army;
    Malcolm X claimed he was eager to enlist in the Japanese Army.

    Sources of racial antagonism via JA internment:

    Blacks, Mexicans, and whites got their jobs, land.

    Sources of racial alliance via JA internment:

    Some AfAm soldiers in Philippines stayed there, married local women, or led rebel factions against the U.S.

    Double Victory:

    Against racism at home; against fascism abroad.

    Problem with Blacks following Japan's model:

    Japan also had brutal imperialism, were kinda pursuing ethnocentric ideals.

    Why would the Japanese fight for the U.S. in WWII?

    Kinda screwed either way; but you might want to prove that you belong and deserve citizenship in the U.S.;

    Citizenship is:

    where your passport is from.

    Role Japan played in the minds of Af-Ams:

    They were viewed as a model nation for people of color; the first nonwhite country to beat a white one; Du Bois saw Japanese imperialism as the scourge of white supremacy; Af Ams might resist the draft; created Afro-Asian organizations.

    Executive Order 9066:

    Called for the internment of Japanese for military necessity, national security, etc. Signed 4/30/1942, FDR. 120,000 "aliens and non-aliens" of Japanese descent. 60% were U.S. born citizens.

    Second wave of the Great Migration, 1940-1970

    SE to NE; S. Central to Midwest; SW South to NW and Cali.

    Black people's response to internment:

    We could be next --> led to interethnic solidarity.
    Conversely, "at least it's not us."
    But the bombing of Pearl Harbor drove a wedge between JAs and Af Ams.

    Process of internment and its effects:

    Given numbers, housed in stables;
    Oftentimes, Japanese served as the labor for these camps. Lots of male suicide, alcoholism, decline in patriarchy.
    Generation reversal: second gen (Nisei) viewed as more valuable, because they were viewed as more American.
    Relative increase in women's independence.
    Erosion of Issei power.


    1st gen.


    2nd gen.

    Impact of trauma upon JAs:

    Some moved away from the U.S. after the war; People in Japan became less willing to immigrate here.

    No No Boys

    Declined 'no' to U.S. allegiance while interned; and no to military service.

    442nd Regimental Combat:

    Japanese-American force from Hawaii. Not interned in Hawaii.

    Assimilation: an effect of trauma?

    2001: JA population was shrinking.
    6th largest Asian ethnic group.
    32 percent of Japanese are foreign-born; 74 percent of AsAm are.
    64 percent outmarry.

    Outsider to ally:

    Chinese Americans and Korean Americans sometimes worked to distance themselves from the Japanese. Esp. in war propaganda.

    Some non-Japanese asked for internment and JAs could avoid internment by:

    Entering the labor force in say LA or Chicago.

    WWII's impact:

    Life for Chinese, Koreans, Indians, and Filipinos improved.

    1946 Luce-Cellar Bill:

    naturalization and quota of 100 for both Filipinos and Indians.

    1952 immigration change:

    Japanese and Koreans granted citizenship.

    Negro Victory via:

    inclusion and participation in wartime effort;

    How was national unity driven along Asian/Black lines in WWII?

    Black integration (1941 Exec 8802) vs. JA exclusion.

    Executive Order 8802, 1941:

    Prohibited racial discrimination in war industries.

    The U.S. needed 10 million workers during WWII, but what held them back?

    racial segregation and discrimination in the workplace. Esp. at Lockheed and Douglas, for example.

    Racial identities are:

    relational, constitutive.

    How do Asian men perceive Black women?


    How do Asian women perceive Asian men?


    How were Blacks and Asians somewhat similar, but also divergent?

    Blacks: more childlike, more ape-like.
    Asians: more ratlike, more mentally powerful, constant outsider.

    WWII and interment contradiction:

    We were also at war with the Italians, but they were not interned.

    1944 Renunciation Act:

    Allowed interned Japanese to renunce U.S. citizenship: 5,700 did. Some renounced citizenship to stay in camps longer before being shipped back to Japan, which was devastated by war. The U.S. could then trade Japanese who renounced U.S. citizenship and then draft for U.S. Americans held by Japan.

    Hymn For The Weekend:

    Is Beyonce appropriating? There are Black people in India. India, a poor country, is being used for entertainment rather than understanding. Race is not enough for an analysis here, nationalism matters too.
    Coldplay is British (colonization by the British --> Western cultural imperialism and American neocolonization)
    The video is also HIndu-centric.
    Ultimately, it's an Orientalist fantasy.

    The five leaders tied together:

    Gandhi, Du Bois, MLK, Ho Chi Minh, Mao Zedong.

    Du Bois' problem of the color line:

    Has to do with white colonial powers vs. colored peoples of the war.

    Du Bois and his split views of Japan:

    Good that they're fighting European imperialism; bad they're focused on Japanese superiority. POC domination isn't really better than white domination.

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