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voluntarily came to this country seeking prosperity, at first they
experienced harassment by law enforcement, they worked together and
gained economic and political power, and assimilated into the dominant
A group was brought to this
country involuntarily or lived here and had its land taken. The group
was subsequently dominated by the dominant group. Example: African
Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans
1. Organized the Association for the study of Negro life and history
2. Encouraged academic research and publishing books on Black history and life
3. Founded and served as editor of the Journal of Negro History and started Negro History Week which expanded to a month
What were some of the negativity AA studies took on?
Black scholars opposed the development of a separate field of study
White universities withdrew commitment and support from these academic black studies programs
Some believed the program wouldn't survive as an academic discipline
Franz Boas delivered the
graduation message at Atlanta University in which he dispelled many of
those myths about Africa. Described Africa as an expansive continent
with great empires such as Mali & Ghana.
1. Had a white mother and black father
2. Educated at white schools
3. Became a mathematician, astronomer, and inventor
4. Drafted by Thomas Jefferson to serve with surveying commission to identify street lines in DC
Describe the social and political climate that promoted the rise of Black Studies Programs at predominately-white universities.
Political: Increased admission of
Black students and hiring Black faculty at predominantly white
universities; didn't think the study would prepare students for graduate
Social: Frustration that many students experienced in and outside of the
classroom. Increased awareness of Black power and black consciousness
movements in the black community
How did African slavery differ from European slavery?
1. African slavery existed before
European slavery, and when the Europeans came they took advantage of a
system that was already in place.
2. In Europe, they had chattel slavery which meant that slaves were
property with no rights and no freedom. They were slaves for life.
Be able to identify and describe the (3) Great African Empires:
1. Ghana is one of the oldest African empires
2. Had large army (iron works) and productive trade
3. Gold provided most of the wealth, iron mining and manufacturing,
variety of skilled craftsmen, sold agricultural products, ivory, gold,
4. They were invaded by Muslims and forced to convert to Islam
5. Invasion and droughts sent the economy into decline
1. Were previously under the
Ghanaian empire, emerged as a power after the decline and destruction of
Ghana, King embraced Muslim religion and formed alliances with Muslim
2. Economy-agricultural, presence of other crafts
3. King Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca. It was the first time a king traveled from West Africa to Mecca
4. Mali got raided by other nations which weakened it and led to its decline
1. Emerged as a dominant power under Sonni Ali
2. The most advanced society on the African continent
3. Known for it intellectual climate
4. Major contribution-Education
a. establishment of schools, colleges, and universites
b. Timbuktu was an intellectual center where many West African scholars were concentrated
*Africans were the 1st to develop the idea of "university"
5. Civil wars and invasions weakened the empire
2. What was the Middle Passage? Describe the conditions for the Africans being transported to the New World.
1. The phase of the slave trade where slaves would be packed into ships for the voyage to the New World.
2. The transport of African slaves across Atlantic
3. About 12 million slaves were transported from Africa
4. Mortality rates were high: about 2 million slaves died during the voyage
causes of death:
fever and disease due to unsanitary conditions, suicuide, starvation, mass murders by the ship's crew
What was Nat Turner's Revolt? How was it used to justify slavery?
1. 75 black slaves murdered 60 whites
2. state militia and armed whites outnumbered black slaves and suppressed the rebellion
3. supporters of slavery used this incident to show that black slaves
were inherently inferior barbarians; slavery was needed to control and
Describe Black's involvement in the Revolutionary War.
1. Played a limited role as soldiers in the war
2. George Washingoton ordered to reject free and enslaved blacks elistment for military service
3. Lord Dunmore invited blacks to join the British military with the promise of freedom.
a. "Ethiopian regiment"
b. Washington partially reversed the rejection order-free blacks could enlist
4. About 5000 blacks fought with the American and British armies with the hope that they would gain freedom
How did the end of the revolutionary war and America's victory affect the institution of slavery?
1. It did not end slavery
2. Antislavery movement
3. In the North, there was a move to abolish slavery
a. Vermont was the first state to abolish slavery
b. Massachusetts declared that slavery was unconstitutional
c. Northern states had moved to abolish slavery creating the "quasi-free" negro
4. The south did not abolish slavery but rejected antislavery ideas and pursued it with passion
How was the three -fifths doctrine applied in the Dred Scott Decision?
Was a former slave who had lived
free and sued to earn his freedom. The case went all the way to the
supreme court and they ruled that all people of African ancestry could
not become citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue. He
remained a slave.
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