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  • What is AA studies?

    An interdisciplinary academic field of study that examines the history and challenges of Blacks who are of African descent living in North America, the diaspora, and Africa.

    What are the five social institutions that are largely focused on in AA studies?

    Education, Economics,Politics, Family, and Religion

    What are the various interdisciplinary fields in AA studies?

    History, Arts, Literature, Psychology, and Sociology

    African American studies is an empirical field of study. What does that mean?

    It is a scientific study

    List the other academic terms used for African American studies.

    Black Studies, Afro-American Studies, African American Studies

    History recalls that the first African slaves landed where?

    Jamestown, Virginia in 1619

    What is an indentured servant?

    Servants that had a specific period of time they were to work and after their time was served, they were free.

    What were slaves?

    Slaves were the property of the slave owner.

    Immigration Model

    Immigration: Immigrants voluntarily came to this country seeking prosperity, at first they experienced harassment by law enforcement, they worked together and gained economic and political power, and assimilated into the dominant culture.

    Colonial Model

    A group was brought to this country involuntarily or lived here and had its land taken. The group was subsequently dominated by the dominant group. Example: African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans

    What are the five contributions of the discipline?

    Assimilation, Acceptance, Avoidance, Aggression, Accomodation

    What is eugenics?

    A social philosophy that advocates genetic engineering. Keep the good genes and take out the bad.

    David Walker

    1. Father of black liberation ideology
    2. His book: David Walker's Appeal: To the Coloured Citizens of the World

    What is the Pan-African movement?

    Created by David Walker. It was a belief that all people of African descent should unite and go back to Africa

    Sojourner Truth

    Women's rights activist and abolitionist, famous lecture, "Ain't I a woman." Fought segregation and worked with freed slaves.

    Frederick Douglass

    former slave who escaped
    was a speaker who used the technique moral-suasion ( intentions used to influence or change behavior)
    advocated assimilation and integration

    W.E.B Dubois

    1. Introduced the idea of AA studies in academics
    2. Organized Atlanta University Conferences to study black life

    Carter Woodson

    1. Organized the Association for the study of Negro life and history
    2. Encouraged academic research and publishing books on Black history and life
    3. Founded and served as editor of the Journal of Negro History and started Negro History Week which expanded to a month

    What was the 1st University to offer African American courses

    Fisk University

    What state did the black studies program get established?

    San Francisco State in 1968 and Dr. Nathan Hare was the chairman of the first black studies program

    What were some of the negativity AA studies took on?

    Black scholars opposed the development of a separate field of study
    White universities withdrew commitment and support from these academic black studies programs
    Some believed the program wouldn't survive as an academic discipline

    Gunnar Myrdal

    Wrote the book, "An American Dilemma"
    A Swedish economist
    studied southern AA and whites in the 1940's
    Said if AA are to avoid prejudice, discrimination, they must assimilate

    Why is the term "minority" inappropriate to use?

    It derives from the word "minor" meaning less than
    Has a negative psychological effect

    Endogamus and Exogamus

    Endogamus ( marrying within the group)
    Exogamus ( marrying outside the group)

    Cornel West

    "Race matters" Got his undergraduate from Harvard Univ and his Ph. D. from Princeton. Was the first AA to get a Ph. D.D from Princeton. An advocate about race, gender, and class.

    Alexander Lucius Twlight

    First AA to receive a bachelor's degree. Graduated from Middlebury College in 1823.

    Henry M. Stanley

    Wrote "In Darkest Africa" an account of his experiences

    About how many African languages are there?

    2,000 and 4 linguistic goups
    Most native languages belong to the Niger Congo

    What is the most common language in Africa?


    What is chattel slavery?

    Slaves were property with no rights and no freedom. Slaves were slaves for life as were their children and grandchildren

    What are the 3 types of slavery?

    Prisoners of war, enslaved for payment of a debt, punishment for a crime

    What were slaves allowed to do?

    Marry, have families, and income, could buy their freedom, most slaves were women, the Atlantic slave trade favored male slaves

    David Livingstone

    Was a missionary and believed that he was taking the gospel to a ignorant and backward people


    The process by which a person or persons acquire the social and psychological characteristics of a group


    The minority/dominated group responds to minority groups status by rationalizing and accepting prejudice.


    minority group avoids contact with the dominant group to escape prejudice


    May respond by challenging prejudice and discrimination . Also referred to as defiance that may be violent or nonviolent.


    the process of adapting or adjusting to someone or something

    What is Maroons?

    A name for slaves that escaped

    What is Manumission?


    Charles Darwin

    1.Wrote Origin of the Species & The Descent of Man.
    2. Darwin believed that Blacks were inferior to civilized races
    3. Process of elimination was a way to purify society of those who were unfit

    Dr. Nathan Hare

    The chairman of the 1st black studies program

    Franz Boas

    Franz Boas delivered the graduation message at Atlanta University in which he dispelled many of those myths about Africa. Described Africa as an expansive continent with great empires such as Mali & Ghana.

    Crispus Attucks

    The first person to die in the American Revolution

    Prince Hall

    A preacher who established the first African Lodge. Founder of Black Freemasonry. He supported emigration to Africa movements and advocated schools for black children in Boston

    Benjamin Banneker

    1. Had a white mother and black father
    2. Educated at white schools
    3. Became a mathematician, astronomer, and inventor
    4. Drafted by Thomas Jefferson to serve with surveying commission to identify street lines in DC

    Origin of the Species

    Written by Charles Darwin

    Journal of Negro History

    Woodson founded and served as editor

    David Walker's Appeal: To the Couloured Citizens of the World

    1. Written to Black in the U.S
    2. Condemned white Christianity for supporting slavery
    3. Encouraged Blacks to resist slavery/ bondage

    African American Studies is interdisciplinary. What does that mean?

    A field of study that examines the history, culture, past and present experiences, achievements, issues and challenges of Blacks

    Why do African American scholars reject the use of minority to describe African Americans as a group?

    1. Minority derives from the word minor, meaning less than
    2. It has negative psychological effects
    3. It implies that a group is always in a subordinate position.

    What was scientific racism? How did these scholars view African Americans?

    An empirical study.

    What is the Pan-African Movement? Whose writings laid the foundation for the Movement?

    Belief that all people of African descent worldwide should unite in solidarity. David Walker laid the foundation for the movement.

    Who is the Father of the Liberation Movement?

    David Walker

    Who began Negro History/Black History Week?

    Carter Woodson

    What was the first HBCU to have a Black Studies Program?

    Howard University

    Describe the social and political climate that promoted the rise of Black Studies Programs at predominately-white universities.

    Political: Increased admission of Black students and hiring Black faculty at predominantly white universities; didn't think the study would prepare students for graduate school
    Social: Frustration that many students experienced in and outside of the classroom. Increased awareness of Black power and black consciousness movements in the black community

    What predominately-white university was the first to implement a Black Studies Program?

    Fisk University

    Black scholars in traditional disciplines and Black Nationalist groups differed regarding a separate Black Studies Program. Explain the difference in philosophies.

    They believed that a separate African American Studies Program could not survive as a scholarly and academic discipline without the control of a traditional department

    What was the most resource used in West Africa?


    How were slaves important to the economy?

    Slave owning set the stage for the commercial network linking Europeans and Africans in the slave trade

    What is the oldest of the West African great empires?


    Africa was known as The Dark Continent. Why?

    There has been much ignorance about Africa. Early American opinions about Africa were influenced by explorers and missionaries who went to Africa to "Christianize the heather."

    How many African languages are there? What is the most common language spoken by most Africans?

    1. About 2,000 languages
    2. Swahili is the most common language spoken

    How did African slavery differ from European slavery?

    1. African slavery existed before European slavery, and when the Europeans came they took advantage of a system that was already in place.
    2. In Europe, they had chattel slavery which meant that slaves were property with no rights and no freedom. They were slaves for life.

    What are the three groups most likely to be taken into African slavery?

    1. Prisoners of war
    2. People enslaved for payment of a debt
    3. People enslaved for punishment of a crime

    Be able to identify and describe the (3) Great African Empires:

    1. Ghana is one of the oldest African empires
    2. Had large army (iron works) and productive trade
    3. Gold provided most of the wealth, iron mining and manufacturing, variety of skilled craftsmen, sold agricultural products, ivory, gold, and slaves.
    4. They were invaded by Muslims and forced to convert to Islam
    5. Invasion and droughts sent the economy into decline


    1. Were previously under the Ghanaian empire, emerged as a power after the decline and destruction of Ghana, King embraced Muslim religion and formed alliances with Muslim nations
    2. Economy-agricultural, presence of other crafts
    3. King Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca. It was the first time a king traveled from West Africa to Mecca
    4. Mali got raided by other nations which weakened it and led to its decline


    1. Emerged as a dominant power under Sonni Ali
    2. The most advanced society on the African continent
    3. Known for it intellectual climate
    4. Major contribution-Education
    a. establishment of schools, colleges, and universites
    b. Timbuktu was an intellectual center where many West African scholars were concentrated
    *Africans were the 1st to develop the idea of "university"
    5. Civil wars and invasions weakened the empire

    Which Empire was known for resurrecting Black learning and education?


    What was the University of Sankore & where was it located?

    It offered courses in literature, law, astronomy, medicine, & math. It was located in Timbuktu.

    What was the Kingdom of Benin?

    1. A dominant kingdom during the 16th and 18th century
    2. Known for bronze and copper artistry
    3. Great military strength
    4. Broken in the 18th

    What were slave raids?

    The use of military tactics to go into an area and kidnap to make slaves

    2. What was the Middle Passage? Describe the conditions for the Africans being transported to the New World.

    1. The phase of the slave trade where slaves would be packed into ships for the voyage to the New World.
    2. The transport of African slaves across Atlantic
    3. About 12 million slaves were transported from Africa
    4. Mortality rates were high: about 2 million slaves died during the voyage
    causes of death:
    fever and disease due to unsanitary conditions, suicuide, starvation, mass murders by the ship's crew

    Why were Africans preferred over the white indentured servants as a source of labor?

    To perform labor duties

    What was Nat Turner's Revolt? How was it used to justify slavery?

    1. 75 black slaves murdered 60 whites
    2. state militia and armed whites outnumbered black slaves and suppressed the rebellion
    3. supporters of slavery used this incident to show that black slaves were inherently inferior barbarians; slavery was needed to control and discipline them

    What were slave codes?

    Codes enacted by the state to discipline and control the slave and define the relationship between African slaves and whites

    Why did the colonies legalize slavery?

    1. Continuing labor shortage
    2. Growing slave population
    3. Slaves becoming more disorderly and difficult to control

    Describe Black's involvement in the Revolutionary War.

    1. Played a limited role as soldiers in the war
    2. George Washingoton ordered to reject free and enslaved blacks elistment for military service
    3. Lord Dunmore invited blacks to join the British military with the promise of freedom.
    a. "Ethiopian regiment"
    b. Washington partially reversed the rejection order-free blacks could enlist
    4. About 5000 blacks fought with the American and British armies with the hope that they would gain freedom

    How did the end of the revolutionary war and America's victory affect the institution of slavery?

    1. It did not end slavery
    2. Antislavery movement
    3. In the North, there was a move to abolish slavery
    a. Vermont was the first state to abolish slavery
    b. Massachusetts declared that slavery was unconstitutional
    c. Northern states had moved to abolish slavery creating the "quasi-free" negro
    4. The south did not abolish slavery but rejected antislavery ideas and pursued it with passion

    What was the antislavery movement?

    Pennsylvania Abolition Society

    How did the 13 colonies respond to the antislavery sentiments?

    They passed laws to endorse slavery such as: slaves had no rights except those given by slave masters, children and all descendants were sold into slavery with no rights as humans

    What did historian John Hope Franklin mean when he talked about the "quasi-free Negro"?

    Quasi-free Negro meant that slaves were free but they still had barriers in front of them

    What was the three-fifths doctrine?

    The constitution of the United states would count blacks as three-fifths of a person. It would be used to determine a state's total population for legislative representation and taxing purposes.

    How was the three -fifths doctrine applied in the Dred Scott Decision?

    Was a former slave who had lived free and sued to earn his freedom. The case went all the way to the supreme court and they ruled that all people of African ancestry could not become citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue. He remained a slave.

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