Types of Hearing Loss flashcards |

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General Types of HL


Peripheral HL

-SNHL (cochlear)

Conductive HL and Components

-Usually due to outer or middle ear problems


-Components: O.E., E.C., T.M., & M.E.

What can cause a Conductive HL?

-Usually temporary: Medical intervention
-Cerumen impaction
-TM perforation
-Otitis Media or Sterile -Fluid

Perceptual Consequences of a Conductive HL

-"Plugged up"

SNHL HL and Components

-Usually due to damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve


-ALL Components: cochlea, hair cells, 8th CN, spinal ganglion, central aud. path

-Sensory Components: cochlea, hair cells (Peripheral)

-Neural Components: 8th CN, Spinal ganglion, central Aud. path (Central)

What can cause a SNHL?

-Excessive Noise exposure

Perceptual Consequences of a SNHL

-Distortion of speech
-Hearing in noise
-Difficulty hearing HF sounds

What can cause a Retrocochlear HL?

-Genetics: Auditory Neuropathy
-Hereditary: NF2

Perceptual Consequences of a Retrocochlear HL

-Desynchronize firing
-Fluctuating HL

Mixed HL

-both outer/middle ear and cochlea/nerve problems.


AC worse BC

Central HL and Components

-Anything past the cochlea is central
-SNHL (retrocochlear)
- Central aud. processing

-Components of Aud. pathway: auditory cortex, med. geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus


the 8th nerve and beyond

Functional HL

-Acts like they can't hear, but there is no damage.
-Pseudohypacusis (malingering or psychological)



•Malingering: flat out faking, doing it on purpose

•Psychological: no cause for it, but have a hearing loss, but using it for help to cope with a traumatic situation (bombings, PTSD).

Define: Congenital, Acquired, and Adventitious

•Congenital: born with it

•Acquired: developed after birth

•Adventitious: something took advantage of the system and there is a sudden HL

Define: Acute, Chronic, Sudden, and Gradual

•Acute: severe developed fast (mostly used w/ ear infections); typically for conductive loss

•Chronic: has lasted a long time; typically for conductive loss

•Sudden: woke up one day and all of the sudden can't hear

•Gradual: slowly over time

Define: Temporary, Permanent, Progressive, and Fluctuating

•Temporary: will go away

•Permanent: will always have

•Progressive: keeps getting worse over time

•Fluctuating: comes and goes

Unilateral VS. Bilateral

•Unilateral: one sided (one ear)

•Bilateral: two sided (both ears)

Symmetrical VS. Asymmetrical

•Symmetrical: equal loss in both ears

•Asymmetrical: loss in both ears, but one is worse than the other

Routes of Sound Transmission

•AC: looks for conductive loss
-Tells degree and configuration of loss

•BC: shakes fluid in the middle ear to see if there are other components to the loss by bypassing the O.E. & M.E.
-Tells nature of loss

Abscissa VS. Ordinate

•Abscissa (horizontal): freq. measured in Hz

•Ordinate (vertical): dB HL; intensity (Amp.)

Absolute threshold

what we mark, the lowest level they respond at 50% of the time

Symbols: AC

-Right ear: O
-Left ear: X

-Right ear: Δ
-Left ear: ⃤

-Connect symbols w/ line

Symbols: BC

-Right ear: <
-Left ear: >
-Forehead: ^
-Right ear: [
-Left ear: ]

-Connect symbols w/ dotted lines

Symbols: No Response

Add to any symbol:
-Right ear: ↙
-Left ear:↘

-Don't connect

Symbols: Sound Field

-Non ear specific: S

Degree: Adults

Normal= -10 to 25 dB HL
Mild= 26 to 40 dB HL
Moderate= 41 to 55 dB HL
Moderately Severe= 56 to 70 dB HL
Severe= 71 to 90 dB HL
Profound = >90 dB HL

Degree: Children

Normal= -10 to 15 dB HL
Slight= 16 to 25 dB HL
Mild= 26 to 40 dB HL
Moderate= 41 to 55 dB HL
Moderately Severe= 56 to 70 dB HL
Severe= 71 to 90 dB HL
Profound = >90 dB HL


-Precipitous (> 20 dB diff. in θs b/w 2 adjacent freq.)
-Trough ("cookie bite")
-Inverted Trough
-Carhart's Notch (2K)
-Noise Notch (b/w 3K-6K; comes back up after 6K-8K)
-High Freq. (drops ~3K and above)

Vibrotactile Limits and Symbols

-250 Hz = 25 dB HL
-500 Hz = 55 dB HL
-1K-8K Hz = 70 dB HL

-Right ear: <vt?
-Left ear:>vt?

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