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48 True/False questions

  1. treatment for meneire's disease-Low-sodium diets
    -Diuretics
    -Sedatives, tranquilizers
    -Vestibular suppressants (e.g., Antivert); drugs that suppress the vestiulus system
    -Endolymphatic shunt surgery
    -Destruction of the labyrinth/cutting the auditory nerve

          

  2. kernicteruspostnatal infections; rubeola

          

  3. many sensorineural disorders are-acoustic neuroma/vestibular schawnnoma
    -multiple sclerosis
    -cerebovascular accident/stroke

          

  4. x-linked inheritance accounts for2-3% of genetic hearing loss
    -rare

          

  5. autosomal recessive inheritancegene exists on one off 22 pairs of non-sex determining chromosomes
    -hearing loss bc of heritence for EITHER parent
    -50% chance of any child inheriting hearing loss
    ex
    punett sq of Dd with dd

          

  6. rubellamaternal-contracted, passed to child through placenta prenatally; typically bilateral, severe to profound loss, with worst hearing in the mid frequencies (cookie bite configuration)

    -earlier infection increases the chance of hearing loss
    -possibly accompanied by heart/kidney defects, visual impairment (german measles)

          

  7. hyperbilirubinemiatransmitted to child in eurtero
    -may manifest itself up to 60 years later, if syphilis shows < 10 yrs, profound hearing loss & bilateral with sudden onset

          

  8. autosomal dominant inheritance accounts for20% of all genetic hearing loss

          

  9. syphilistransmitted to child in eurtero
    -may manifest itself up to 60 years later, if syphilis shows < 10 yrs, profound hearing loss & bilateral with sudden onset

          

  10. bacterial meningitiespostnatal infection; leading cause of acquired childhood severe sensorineural hearing loss
    -can affect cochlear, audiotry nerve, CANS (inflammation causes ossification inside cochlear)

          

  11. congenital infectionlow frequencies

          

  12. characteristics of nose induced hearing loss-Almost always bilateral (unless very mild), but can be asymmetrical
    -Affects frequencies between 3000 & 6000 Hz first (doesn't affect outer/middle ear, it affects cochlear
    -Notched configuration

          

  13. leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss in childrennoise exposure and presbycusis

          

  14. presbycusistransmitted to child in eurtero
    -may manifest itself up to 60 years later, if syphilis shows < 10 yrs, profound hearing loss & bilateral with sudden onset

          

  15. non-genetic causes of hearing loss-Congenital Infections: TRCHs
    -hyperbilirubinemia with kernicterus
    -trauma at birth
    -medication during birht
    -low birth weight bc of byperbilirubinemia
    -postnatal infections: bacterial mningitis, mumps, measles (rubeola)
    -ototoxic medications
    -meniere's disease
    -noise exposure
    -prescbycusis
    -genetic causes
    -otitis media

          

  16. autosomal dominant inhertitancegene present in both parents
    -25% change of any child inheriting hearing loss
    -children can be carriers

          

  17. toxoplasmosisage-related hearing loss (50+)

          

  18. characteristics of presbycusis-affects cochlea, but can also affect auditory nerve and CANS
    -high frequencies affected first
    -bilateral, symmetrical, typically mild to moderate hearing loss

          

  19. retrocochlear disorders-acoustic neuroma/vestibular schawnnoma
    -multiple sclerosis
    -cerebovascular accident/stroke

          

  20. measlespostnatal infections; common causes of unilateral sever-profund sensorineural

          

  21. leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adultsnoise exposure and presbycusis

          

  22. incidence of severe sensorineural hearing loss-ototoxic medications
    -meniere's desease
    -noise exposure
    -presbycusis
    -genetic causes
    -otitis media

          

  23. usher's syndromegoiter and profound deafness

          

  24. other acquired causes of sensorinerual hearing loss-ototoxic medications
    -meniere's desease
    -noise exposure
    -presbycusis
    -genetic causes
    -otitis media

          

  25. mumpspostnatal infections; common causes of unilateral sever-profund sensorineural

          

  26. characteristics of acoustic neuroma/vestibular schawnnoma-almost always unilateral
    -affects high frequencies first

          

  27. herpes simplex virusbile deposits in CNS at cochlear nuclei

          

  28. ototoxic medicationsattack inner ear through bloodstream---high frequencies affected first
    -aminoglycoside antibiotics (streptomycin[vestubulo toxin], neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin [cochlea toxin)
    -diuretics (especially furosemide)
    -chemotherapeutic agents (platinum based agents, e.g., cisplatinin, carboplatin)

          

  29. pendred's syndromecongenital deafness and progressive loss of vision (retinitis pigmentosa) leading to eventual blindness

          

  30. symptoms of meniere's diseaseepisodic vertigo **
    tinnitus, feeling of fullness in the ear

          

  31. postnatal infections are associated withToxoplasmosis
    Rubella
    Cytomegalovirus
    Herpes
    Ssyphilis

          

  32. enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrom is commonly identificiedchildren with sneorineural hearing loss of unknonw etiology
    -often bilatreal
    -sensorineural hearing loss at birth or onset in childhood
    -

          

  33. types of inheritance-autosomar dominant inheritance
    -autosomal recessive inheritcane
    -x-linked inhertitance (passed from mother to son)

          

  34. waardenburg's syndromeautosomal dominant inheritance; absence of organ of corti and atrophy of spiral ganglion; accompanied by:
    -white forelock of hair
    -iris bicolor or heterochromia

          

  35. ____ of genetic hearing loss is part of syndrome1/2

          

  36. characteristics of multiple sclerosis
    and cerebovascular accident/stroke
    -almost always unilateral
    -affects high frequencies first

          

  37. examples of autosomal recessive inheritancegene present in both parents
    -25% change of any child inheriting hearing loss
    -children can be carriers

          

  38. meniere's disease-excess fluid in the inner ear
    -progressive or fluctuating, low-frequency HL
    -bilateral or unilateral (thought to be more often unilateral)

          

  39. symptoms of neuroma/vestibular schawnnomatinnitus & dizziness common symptoms

          

  40. autosomal recessive accounts for80$ of all genetic hearing loss
    -the majority

          

  41. noise induced hearing losshair cell and other cochlera structures dmaged or destroyed
    -dependent on intensity, spectrum of noise, duration of exposure & individual resistance (not necessarily related to loudness of noise)

          

  42. ____ of congential hearing losses are genetic30%

          

  43. enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndromesymptom of Pendred syndrome, associated with mondini cochlear dysplasia
    -'reflux' of endolymph through abnormally large endolymphatic duct and vestibular aqueduct (bony canal leading from inner ear to cranial cavity) causes damage to cochlear structures in scala media (akin to meniere's mechanism), endolymphatic sac thought to regulate fluid pressure—increase in CSF pressure may cause reflux ('blowing a trumpet', weight lifting, diving, air plane flight) (someitme progressive, sometimes suddenly)
    -initially in high frequencies

          

  44. accumulation of drug in blood affectslow frequencies

          

  45. acoustic neuroma/vestibular schawnnomabenign, slow-growing tumor compressing the nerve [compresses brain stem functions]
    -(must be removed surgically)
    -most common tumor of temporal bone

          

  46. cytomegalovirus (CMV)postnatal infections; rubeola

          

  47. female to male ratio for Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndromesymptom of Pendred syndrome, associated with mondini cochlear dysplasia
    -'reflux' of endolymph through abnormally large endolymphatic duct and vestibular aqueduct (bony canal leading from inner ear to cranial cavity) causes damage to cochlear structures in scala media (akin to meniere's mechanism), endolymphatic sac thought to regulate fluid pressure—increase in CSF pressure may cause reflux ('blowing a trumpet', weight lifting, diving, air plane flight) (someitme progressive, sometimes suddenly)
    -initially in high frequencies

          

  48. apirin affectsbile deposits in CNS at cochlear nuclei