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243 Multiple choice questions

  1. What are the benefits and risks to the person related to service provision and do the benefits warrant the risk
    Is an example of.
  2. Where conversation is taking place
  3. BTE
  4. Maximum comfort level
    Want to see dynamic range
  5. Prescriptive Targets
    National Acoustic Laboratory (NAL for adults)
    Desired Sensation level (DSL for children)
  6. Harder to recognize because they are easily confused
  7. Most Common
    Can hear low frequencies better than high frequencies
  8. Used for children who won't cooperate
    Speech mapping in a test box
    Average values used
  9. Open VT
    Vowels differ by tongue height and frontness
    Low and middle frequencies (<1000 Hz)
    Easy for people with HL to identify
    Most acoustic power in speech
    Mark the syllables nucleus
  10. Adjectives describe nouns not verb
  11. Changes in amplitude over time
    X Axis: Time
    Y Axis: Amplitude
    Vowels are dark area because they have the most acoustic energy
    Can't distinguish between different sounds
  12. Opens in 1864
    Lincoln signs the charter
    Only accredited college to offer degrees to deaf students
    Manual Method (Sign)
  13. Better speech skills and phoneme recognition
    Kids learn better because they have access to speech
    Larger receptive vocabulary and that helps with reading levels later on
  14. Extended period of noise then Stops
  15. 90 dB HL +
  16. Frequency and Intensity
    Sibilants a Non Sibilants
    Sibilants are more intense
  17. Picks up from one side more than the others
    Reduce unwanted noise
  18. Age
    Language Level
    Cognitive Ability
    Speech Intelligibility
    Primary Language
    Length of deafness
    Visual Acuity
  19. F2 Transition to vowel
    Frequency of the most intense portion of burst
  20. /m/
  21. Don't rely on absolute frequencies
    Rely on the position of F1 and F2
  22. All voiced
    Minimum constriction of the VT
    Liquids and Glides
  23. Endorsement of oral education by international consortium of educators
    Favored oralism
    USA only country to oppose the oralist method
  24. Facilitate language acquisition/habilitation
    Reduce restrictions of communication
    Provide benefit to client and communication partners
    Goal is to minimize hearing related disabilities
    Want to limit negative effects of hearing loss
  25. First oral school in Germany
    Tactile cues while speaking
  26. Normal
  27. Carry the most importance of speech intelligibility
  28. Whistling Noise
    Hearing Aid creates waves that are out of sync and cancel each other out
  29. Restoring lost state of function
    Requires a team (Audiologist, SLP, Deaf Educator)
    Primary person may depend on age of client
  30. 70 dB HL - 90 dB HL
  31. Computers
  32. Source = VF Vibration
    Filter = VT Shape
    Output=Combination of source and filter
    This allows us to precieve different vowels
  33. 20 dB HL - 40 dB HL
  34. Utilizing hearing aids as soon as possible and maximize cues to perceive speech
    Distinguish between subtle differences among sounds
  35. Characterized by formant transitions
    Glides distinguished by F2
    Liquids distinguished by F3
  36. Improves understanding in a group setting
    Uses loud speakers
    Everyone benefits not just the person with a hearing loss
  37. People with Hearing Loss have more errors with this
  38. Weakening of formant intensity
    Especially F1
    Nasal murmur
  39. Advantages
    Fits wide range of hearing loss
    Room for buttons
    Longer battery life
    Good for individual with dexterity issues
    More visible
    Can be vulnerable to rain
    Two pieces
  40. Frequency Modulated Radio Waves
  41. Voice Bar
    Timing Cues are Major factor
    VOT length, longer yields voiceless
  42. Aided, patient is using their hearing aid
    Sound Field instead of ear phone
  43. Transmitter and receiver need to be on same FM Channel
    May get interference with other radio waves
  44. Common in recorded measures
    Easier for people with Hearing Loss
  45. 0 dB HL - 20 dB HL
  46. Length of Sound (voiceless longer)
    Intensity (Voiceless louder)
    Timing and Intensity cues
  47. Under the ICF classification system, impairment refers to problems with
  48. Invented signs to get out of the "Vow of Silence"
    Taught the Deaf
  49. Pressure Vent in earmold or ITE
    Openfit aids
    Reprogramming of hearing aid
  50. Rooms have a wire that emits electromagnetic signals in response to speech
    Magnetic signal picked up by telecoil in hearing aid
    No extra equipment
    Improves SNR
  51. AC differ from BC on Audiogram
    Treated with medical follow up
    Site of Hearing Loss
    Outer Ear
    Ear Drum
    Middle Ear
  52. Start of formal Sign Language
    Established first free public school for deaf in France
    Wanted to standardize sign/fingerspelling
  53. Rare
    Hear high frequencies better then low frequencies
    Seen in conductive losses
  54. Vowels classified by vowel height and frontness
    Consonants classified by manner and place of articulation and their voicing
    Effects of hearing loss vary by degree of the loss
  55. Tests are comparable to "real world" contexts
  56. Genetic
    May become slope or flat over time
  57. Voicing
    Manner of Articulation
    Place of Articulation
  58. Reliable
    Sensitive to differences between test conditions
    Correlates with speech perception in the real world
  59. Doesn't restore normal hearing
    Doesn't work well in noisy situations
    Many models cause the occlusion Effect
  60. USA's response to the conference of Milan
    Kept sign language alive during the reign of oralism
  61. Listener
  62. Minimal difficulties with voicing and manner because of the timing cues
    Placement is the hardest
    Misperception of final consonants because you lose intensity as the speech strand finishes
  63. Time on X axis
    Frequency on Y Axis
    Intensity is the darkness

    Visual representation of components of speech
  64. Hearing Assistive Technology Systems
    Technology that provides auditory information in ways that people who have a hearing loss can use
  65. Person was born without hearing or lost hearing at an early
    Speech/Language has yet to develop
  66. 100 dots plotted in speech banana
    Plot audiogram line
    Count the dots below line
    1000-4000 Hz most clustered
    Can have same PTA but different scores here
  67. 26-40 dB
  68. Noise is 5 dB Higher than Signal
  69. Problem: All sound gets amplified in the environment
    Creates communication strategies
  70. A person's ability to judge whether two speech stimuli are the same or different
  71. Consistent amplified signal that will improve speech perception
    There fore access to speech spectrum
  72. Clinical reasoning is a way of explaining
  73. Responsive to changes in mouth opening (tongue height)
    High =Low vowel
    Low = High Vowel
    This allows us to detect vowels
  74. Signal equals Noise
  75. Speech understanding _____ be accurately predicted on the basis of an audiogram alone
  76. 65 dB SPL
  77. Amplify speech sounds and environmental sounds
    Works well in quiet enviornments
  78. Everyone signs
    Had a large deaf population, probably from a genetic cause up to 1/4 of families were deaf
    Deaf citizens were treated equal
    Didn't formally educate Deaf on the isle
  79. PBK
  80. Corner vowels are anchor
    Use corner vowels to help distinct the other vowels
  81. Plug in hearing aid and it tells you how long it was used since the last session
  82. Telecoils used for this purpose
  83. 2000 Hz
  84. Frequency of most intense part of burst
    F2 Transition
    Frequency is Important
    Hardest to Distinguish
  85. Complete closure of VT
    Cessation of airflow
    Consonant release burst
    Voice Bar
  86. People with hearing loss were denied rights throughout history
    NO outward sign of intelligence because they didn't speak
  87. Voicing
    Place of Articulation
  88. Advantages
    One piece
    Less vulnerable to rain
    Similar features to BTE
    Less powerful than BTE
    Smaller battery life
    Prone to feedback
  89. Important acoustic cue for diphthongs
  90. Combination of fricative and stop
  91. Transition in and out of vowels
    Similar to homorganic stops
  92. Fundamental Frequency information
    VF vibrate before stop burst
    Voicing cue
    Only voiced stops have this
  93. Audiograms are a visual representation of someones hearing level
    Tells us the softest sound they can hear
    Uses Speech Frequencies
    250-8000 Hz
  94. All TVs now have this ability
  95. Audiologist
    Speech-Language Pathologist
    School Personnel
  96. Varies in individuals with profound deafness
    Partially predicts hearing aid benefit
    Difficult to assess clinically
    Psychophysical measures difficult to apply clinically
    Relationship between psychophysics and speech perception is not clear
    PTA is inadequate
  97. Hard wire devices are relatively
  98. Intonation
  99. Good candidate for CI
    Only hear very intense low frequencies
  100. VF Vibration
  101. $100-$1000
  102. Figurative area on an audiogram that shows us where speech sounds occur
  103. Mainly work with pediatric cases of hearing loss
    Facilitate development of language
    Work with parent to help teach speech and language outside of visits
  104. Which factor is more important to consider when selecting pediatric speech perception measures
  105. a scale of 0-1
    1=completely audible
    Tells if hearing aid is fitted well
    Compare target SII and the SII measured
    want to be within 5 dB
  106. Is verification done by Real Ear Measure or Functional Gain
  107. Shows intensity (dB) over frequency (Hz)
    Y axis is intensity
    X axis is frequency
    Good for vowel identification
    No time dimention
  108. Nasal Murmur
    Formant Weakening
  109. Auditory Training uses this to improve communication
  110. Left ear airconduction
  111. Age of Child
    Mothers Education Level
    Better ear PTA
    Site (NC, IA, NE)
  112. A wire is around the room and transmits auditory information that people with hearing aids can use
    This is easier than a FM system
  113. Person who contract deafness while acquiring first language
    Subset of prelingual
  114. Provides counciling services
    Insurance doesn't cover this
    Not really primary role see them annually/semiannually
  115. Telecommunication Device for the Deaf
    This is how deaf people communicated before text or video messaging
    They hooked up their phone to this and typed out their message
    Both recipients need this device
  116. Used to understand the nature of condition
  117. Vibrations for a alarm clock
    Flashing lights
  118. Individuals with unilateral hearing loss perform more poorly on speech perception tests when speech is directed towards the ___ ear and noise is directed towards the ____ ear
  119. Speech has peaks and valleys
    Valleys get filled in by reverberation
    Creates muffled speech
  120. Better ecological validity
    You meet many people
    Have to adjust to different voices
  121. 21-40 dB
  122. Now test 50-60 dB SPL instead of 65-75 dB SPL
    Do this because of ecological validity
  123. Test softest sound
    No access to MPO
    Just PTA
    Used for CI's and BAHA's
  124. Restrictions and limitations of a health condition
    personal Factors
    Environmental Factors
  125. Signal is 5 dB Higher than Noise
  126. Greatest amount of energy in speech is found below this frequency
  127. Words in a sentence are related to each other
  128. C=Counseling and psychosocial (modifying personal attitude)
    A=Audibility and amplification
    R=Remediate communication activities
    E=Environmental/coordination/participation improvement
  129. Telling us different configurations and their effect on speech
    how children perceive speech with hearing aids
  130. Degree of Hearing Loss
    Configuration of Hearing Loss
    Symmetry of Hearing Loss
    Type of Hearing Loss
  131. Personal Communication Devices
    Group Communication Devices
    Telephone Devices
    Alerting Devices
  132. Primary disadvantage of administering a recorded single word recognition test in a quiet sound booth
  133. Poor predictor of speech understanding
    Especially for people with hearing aids or CI
    Doesn't tell you how patient understands speech at the conversational level
    Doesn't give you insight into how the patient performs in difficult listening situations
  134. Patient using their CI on a audiogram
  135. Development of awareness of sound
    Development of gross discriminations
    Development of broad discriminations among simple speech patterns
    Development of finer discriminations for speech sounds
  136. Right Ear Air Masked
  137. People with mid to high frequency loss struggle with differentiating F2
  138. Responsive to the size of the OC or Tongue Frontness
    High =Front Vowel
    Low =Back Vowel
    Allows us to differentiate vowels
  139. Feedback management
    Volume Control
    Digital Noise Reduction
    Directional Microphones

    These depend on listeners situation they can change for different environments
  140. Audiology existed in the private sector
    Audiologists can't dispense hearing aids
    Focus on speech and lipreading
  141. Set by audiologist
    Useful for different situations
    Can have multiple in one aid
  142. Legislation mandating provision of services to children with hearing loss in public setting: PL 94:142
    Deaf read at a 3rd grade level
    Some parent centered programs emerging
    More emphasis on hearing
    Emergence of Total Communication
  143. Combination of two vowels
    More dynamic
    See a formant transition
  144. Right Ear Bone Conduction
  145. We use this to understand speech
    AR maximizes residual hearing
    Gives more access to speech spectrum
    How does amplification effect this
  146. Direct Connection from listener and ALD
    Beneficial for one on one conversations
  147. Right Ear Bone Masked
  148. Most common SNR
    Signal is louder then the noise
  149. Speech mapping
    Goal is to have speech audible and MPO isn't exceeded
  150. Real Ear Measures with probe mic
    Simulated real ear measures in test box
  151. WWII primary focus on auditory training was on these people
  152. This is a middle man for an individual who has a TDD and an individual who doesn't have a TDD
  153. Receiver
  154. PTA is equal to or greater than 90 dB HL
    No speech perception
    No benefits from hearing aids
    CI candidate
    Each person is different not homogenous
    They have different auditory capacities and ability to benefit from amplification
  155. First physician who recognize deafs could reason
    Had a deaf son and he created a code of symbols
    Thought deaf people could be educated
  156. How much access do you have to the speech spectrum/speech banana
  157. Which of PBK WIPI and NU-CHIPS is an open set
  158. Advantages
    Less visible than BTE
    Low sounds enter the ear naturally
    Reduces occlusion effect
    Can't block low pitch noises
    Shorter battery life
    Vulnerable to rain
    Requires specificc configuration of HL (4 kHz notch)
  159. Change loudness of hearing aid
    Can sync both hearing aid
  160. Not medically treatable
    Site of Involvement
    Auditory Nerve
  161. Movement of formant frequency
    You see intensity change
    Shows movement of the vocal tract
    Occurs when vowels precedes or follows a consonant
  162. Bilateral: PTA between 25-85 dB HL
    Evidence based research supporting benefits of hearing amplification
    Person with limited amount of hearing loss
  163. All Frequencies at the same intensity
    Children with SNHL tend to have this
  164. Rare
    Noise is louder then the signal
  165. Reliable everyone gets the same speaker and same words
    Use this whenever possible
  166. Conductive
  167. Pediatric prescriptive Approach
    dB HL-> dB SPL
    Create targets for speech
    Create targets for Maximum Power Output
  168. 40 dB HL - 70 dB HL
  169. Hearing Loss
    Dynamic Range
    Auditory Resolution
  170. dB difference between softest sound you can hear and loudest sound without pain
    Want to increase this with amplification
    Limited range makes it harder to fit a CI
  171. Device that supports communication in difficult listening situations
    Improves SNR
    Decreases Distance
    Decreases reverberation
  172. Is more accurate for vowels in context than for vowels in isolation
  173. It is what was used before newborn hearing screenings. They used a closed set due to limitations of a child's intelligibility or vocabulary skills. Items are presented with a limited number of options
  174. Oralist
    Opened school in Boston
  175. Used in private areas such as court rooms
  176. Selecting from a limited number of options
    Doesn't require verbal response
    Easy though
    Think of a multiple choice question
  177. Become deaf after age 5 had normal hearing and developed speech and language
  178. Parent advising/counciling/tutoring
    Very young children with congenital hearing loss
    Want to expose child to language
  179. Varies across frequencies and influences auditory capacity
    Degree/Configuration determines amount of gain a hearing aid provides
    Degree/Configuration determines portions of speech spectrum that can be audible
  180. On average parents said their child wore hearing aids 2.6 hours longer
  181. Constricted VT
    High frequency acoustic energy (above 2000 Hz)
    Low intensity
    Marks end of syllables
  182. Signal and Noise presented at the same level
  183. C=Communication Status: Hearing Loss and Activity Limitations
    O=Overall Participation Variables
    R=Related personal Factors
    E=Environmental Factors
  184. Narrow constriction of articulatory tract
    Creates turbulent air flow
  185. Options are theoretically unlimited
    Not given possible answers
    Think short answer questions
  186. Easy to recognize because the are not confused with other words
  187. Where the audiologist uses their own voice to administer a hearing test
  188. Liquids distinguished by this formant
  189. 1843-1912
    Sign is flourishing, everyone is learning
    Proposal for a Deaf State
    30+ Schools for the Deaf founded
  190. This speech sound has the greatest intensity
  191. Right Ear Air Conduction
  192. Used to understand the practical issues affecting clinical action
    Concerned with clients ability to have support for disability outside of clinic
  193. Transmitted through light waves rather than radio waves
    Excellent sound quality
    Can't be used outside
    Needs to be aligned with transmitter
  194. The ADA allowed hearing impaired people to have these in all places
  195. Flexible, can stop easily, especially with young children
  196. Cell phones can't connect directly to hearing aids
    Need a middle man
  197. Diagnostic Reasoning may occer ___ to meeting client
  198. Used for people with hearing aids because it makes speech perception easier
    Not used for CI because they should be able to just have the auditory information
  199. CI's debut
    Digital amplification
    This allowed hearing aids to become smaller
  200. 20 Hz - 20,000 Hz
  201. How common the word appears in language
  202. Easy to recognize because they are common
  203. Clarification of responses could not be attempted as in if the WIPI was used as an open or closed set
    Low Response Rate
  204. All Voiced
    VP Port opens to nasal cavity
    OC creates the nasal murmur
  205. Competence distinction
    Sensory aids to detect sound patterns
    Listening experience to learn relationships between sounds and their source
    Cannot reflect auditory capacity
    Non native english speakers and young children
  206. People with conductive losses
    Neural part of auditory system is intact
  207. 250 Hz- 8000 Hz
  208. Recognition of need for early identification
    Large body aids, limited power
    Paucity of programs/ opportunities for the deaf and hard of hearing
    Regionally defined in philosophical emphasis
    Treatment averaged 1-2 hours a week
    Minimal parent involvement
  209. Used to understand the meaning of the condition to the person
    Therapists strives to understand each patients "story"
  210. Use gain
    Only amplify the frequencies that need amplification
  211. 24%
  212. Ear Canal is blocked sound energy can't escape
    Speaker thinks they are talking louder then they actually are
  213. Left Ear Bone Conduction
  214. Left Ear Air Masked
  215. How many other real words can you create by changing adding or deleting one phoneme in a word
  216. Client is very young age
    Shorter than if sample was recorded
    Could pause if the client needs a break
  217. Relative Silence
    Release Burst
    Rapid Transitions
    Duration cues MOST important
  218. Combination of SNHL and Conductive Loss
    Outer, Middle, and Inner Ear involvement
  219. Gave parents questionnaire and asked what they thought
    Data logged hearing aids
  220. Harder to recognize because they are not familiar
  221. HATS broader and encompass ALDs and alerting devices
    ALDs help a person in a specific situation
  222. Left Ear Bone Masked
  223. RARE
    Maybe caused by mixed hearing loss
  224. Inner ear reflects a spectral (frequency) and temporal (timing) differences amoung sound patterns
    Limits individuals ability to perceive contrasts among amplified speech
    Impacts speech perception even after HL and dynamic range issues are addressed
    has effect on performance in noisy environments
  225. Low Frequency (500 Hz)
    Easy for people with hearing loss to hear because of the low frequency
  226. Used for listening to phone
    Uses magnets
    Works best with landlines
  227. Combination of speech and sign
    New sign systems emerged (PSE SEEI SEE II)
  228. Delay >500 ms
    Caused by reverberation
  229. Speech Intelligibility Index
    Count the dots
  230. 50 Hz - 10,000 Hz
  231. Who gives out HATS
  232. Eclectic approaches: schools of lip reading
    Electronic hearing aids debuted in the 20's
    More rigorous effort at utilization of residual hearing aid in communication
    WWII had a lot of adults who had a HL and that was different than a child born with a HL
  233. 3 Frequency = 500 Hz 1000 Hz 2000 Hz
    4 Frequency = 500 Hz 1000 Hz 2000 Hz 4000 Hz
  234. Time it takes for reflected sound to reduce by 60 dB
  235. Change in
    Intensity Frequency and Duration
    Just need to focus on F1 and F2
  236. Acoustic resonances in the VT
  237. Period of silence
    Release burst
    RAPID transitions in and out of adjacent sounds
    Frequency, intensity, and timing are important
  238. Founded first American Deaf School in 1817
    Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Institution of Deaf and Dumb Persons
    Later to become the Connecticut School for the Deaf
  239. 75 dB HL = Consonant Place
    90 dB HL = Initial Consonant Voicing
    100 dB HL = Vowel Place
    105 dB HL = Vowel Place
    105 dB HL = Talker Gender
    115 dB HL = Syllable Number
    >115 dB HL = Vowel Height
  240. Open-set because number of alternatives in theory are unlimited
  241. Picks up sound from all directions
    Best in quiet environments
  242. Recent Technological Advance that individuals can use with their hearing aids
  243. Capacity to detect and differentiate sound patterns
    Varies in individuals with profound deafness
    Partially predicts hearing aid benefits