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41 True/False questions

  1. Challenges Facing Contemporary Amplification1.) Environment still causes problems - background noise

    2.) No single best way to get a hearing aid - lots of competition

    3.) Cost is significant barrier to many users ($1500 - $4000)

    4.) Cosmetics continues to be a major factor

    5.) No universal defined goals - no definition of benefit in the law - no requirement to do any test to demonstrate benefit

    6.) No correspondence of benefit to anything (does it mean they are satisfied? No) Many domains of outcome

    7.) Majority of people who could benefit from PHAs don't have them and don't want them!

          

  2. Activity Limitation- evaluation and fitting of amplification devices
    - counseling
    - communication training (auditory and visual)
    - support for family members/sig others
    - referrals as needed
    - consultant
    - non-medical management of tinnitus

          

  3. Types of Amplification Systems1.) to amplify SPEECH to a level that is audible yet comfortable to the listener

    2.) to help in sound localization

    3.) to help in sound detection

    4.) restore a range of loudness experience

    5.) if auditory-oral is focus of development, to help the child develop speech and spoken language

          

  4. Dispensinga.) do you know why a particular type of hearing aid was recommend?
    b.) were hearing aid features explained to you?
    c.) do they fit comfortably? Were you able to insert the hearing aids yourself?
    d.) were all the controls explained to you? Was the care of hearing aids and earmolds explained to you?
    e.) did you receive written material or helpful resources?
    f.) were you asked to evaluate any improvement on the effect of hearing loss on your life?
    g.) were group hearing aid orientation sessions provided?
    h.) did you receive any information on using telephones or assistive listening devices?

          

  5. Challenges and Opportunities in AR1.) increase demand for services by/for older adults
    2.) increase in # of cochlear implants
    3.) increase in fragile pediatric population
    4.) changing and increasing technology
    5.) development of a multicultural society
    6.) changes in health care delivery cost-shifting, cost-cutting, accountability
    7.) shortfall in # of audiologists (esp. in CA)

          

  6. Problems Affecting an Adult with Hearing Loss-Auditory Deprivation - esp if prelingual or perilingual at time of onset - will not hear all acoustic events; sound localization difficulties; not link sounds to events/causes/sources

          

  7. Testinga.) do you know why a particular type of hearing aid was recommend?
    b.) were hearing aid features explained to you?
    c.) do they fit comfortably? Were you able to insert the hearing aids yourself?
    d.) were all the controls explained to you? Was the care of hearing aids and earmolds explained to you?
    e.) did you receive written material or helpful resources?
    f.) were you asked to evaluate any improvement on the effect of hearing loss on your life?
    g.) were group hearing aid orientation sessions provided?
    h.) did you receive any information on using telephones or assistive listening devices?

          

  8. Problems Affecting Children with Hearing Loss:-Auditory Deprivation - esp if prelingual or perilingual at time of onset - will not hear all acoustic events; sound localization difficulties; not link sounds to events/causes/sources

          

  9. Identify Key Parts of Hearing AidTwo most important options: microphones and telecoils

    Microphone - converts from acoustic to electrical signal
    Amplifier - increases or amplifies signal
    Loudspeaker/Receiver - converts electrical signal to acoustic signal - delivers signal through tubing or earmold
    Batteries - power source

          

  10. Three Fundamental Concepts in AR1.) Communication is primary, it is public, and it breaks down

    2.) AR is the non-medical management of the person with hearing problems and needs.

    3.) Persons with hearing problems and needs are a heterogenous group that vary across several categories of variables

          

  11. Activities in AR- evaluation and fitting of amplification devices
    - counseling
    - communication training (auditory and visual)
    - support for family members/sig others
    - referrals as needed
    - consultant
    - non-medical management of tinnitus

          

  12. Two General Principles regarding Amplification and AR1.) Customization led to greater awareness of individual differences and variability.

    2.) PHA fitting and assessment can be sophisticated and is evolving (probe tube microphone and outcomes measures)

    3.) Better quality of care with more audiologists involved in PHA dispensing

          

  13. Two Main Areas of Activity in AudiologyDiagnostics - literally Audiometry, the measurement of hearing

    Rehabilitation/Habilitation

          

  14. Purposes of AR1.) to assist in realizing a person's optimal potential in communication, regardless of age

    2.) to improve the communication function of persons with hearing problems

    3.) to overcome the problems imposed by the organic condition and by the environment and to enhance participation in life and society

          

  15. Participation Restrictiona problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations

    example: does not participate in social functions; avoids caring for young children - unable to hear needs; unable to attend favorite sporting events

          

  16. How to Achieve Success in AR (Audiologist/Speech Professional)1.) Customization led to greater awareness of individual differences and variability.

    2.) PHA fitting and assessment can be sophisticated and is evolving (probe tube microphone and outcomes measures)

    3.) Better quality of care with more audiologists involved in PHA dispensing

          

  17. Concept #3: people with hearing loss are heterogenousorganic characteristics - of hearing loss itself; age when HL developed; nature/extent of HL; presence of other disabilities

    personal characteristics - person's attitude; reaction to their condition; reactions of others; influence on expressive communicative ability;

    environmental factors - the person's communicative needs; the environment; activity limitations and participation restrictions

    type and quality of management - amount and success of previous intervention; how successful they have been

          

  18. How can we optimize function for a person with HL?1.) Get within 6 feet of speaker
    2.) Minimize reverberation
    3.) Minimize background noise
    4.) Practice using visual cues
    5.) Use inherent redundancy/predictability of communication
    6.) Use hearing aid or some other form of amplification

          

  19. When does a communication breakdown occur?When there's a problem at ONE or MORE of the levels of communication.

          

  20. Outline 3 Areas of HLAA "Purchasing a Hearing Aid: A Consumer Checklist"Testing
    Dispensing
    Full Disclosure

          

  21. Critical Period Hypothesisa problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations

    example: does not participate in social functions; avoids caring for young children - unable to hear needs; unable to attend favorite sporting events

          

  22. Concept #1: Communication is primaryCommunication involves a person and therefore any problems or inefficiencies with communication are a social/community/public problem.

    Levels of Communication:
    -Intent (sender)
    -Message
    -Transmission
    -Reception
    -Comprehension
    -Response

          

  23. Differences between prelingual onset of HL and adult-onset hearing lossAdults:
    - will affect social life in the family and the community
    - may cause vocation vulnerability
    - has psychological and emotional consequences
    --> the sooner the adult accepts their condition and takes positive action the better their life will be.

    Children
    - auditory deprivation - leads to increased challenges in learning an auditory based language system
    - inadequacy of a functional communication system.
    - emotional adjustment
    - social isolation
    - academic achievement vulnerability
    - vocational vulnerability
    - reduced quality of life
    - burden on the parents to make a choice regarding hearing amplification, burden on the family, it is an additional cost.

          

  24. Problems Affecting Parents of Children with Hearing Loss-parents have to make choices
    -siblings and family members are affected
    -costs associated with hearing loss

          

  25. Purposes of Amplification1.) to assist in realizing a person's optimal potential in communication, regardless of age

    2.) to improve the communication function of persons with hearing problems

    3.) to overcome the problems imposed by the organic condition and by the environment and to enhance participation in life and society

          

  26. Audiology's Core Values-Hearing Conservation (Prevention) - Prevention is the best "rehabilitative" measure
    -Early Identification
    -Early Intervention (which follows Identification)

          

  27. Conditions for Optimal Function for Person w/HL1.) Get within 6 feet of speaker
    2.) Minimize reverberation
    3.) Minimize background noise
    4.) Practice using visual cues
    5.) Use inherent redundancy/predictability of communication
    6.) Use hearing aid or some other form of amplification

          

  28. Impairmenta problem in body function or structure

    example: bilateral sensorineural hearing loss

          

  29. Amplifiera problem in body function or structure

    example: bilateral sensorineural hearing loss

          

  30. Advantages to PHA1.) Portable
    2.) Custom fit and adjusted

          

  31. Components of the Communication Model1.) to amplify SPEECH to a level that is audible yet comfortable to the listener

    2.) to help in sound localization

    3.) to help in sound detection

    4.) restore a range of loudness experience

    5.) if auditory-oral is focus of development, to help the child develop speech and spoken language

          

  32. Positive Changes in Amplification1.) Customization led to greater awareness of individual differences and variability.

    2.) PHA fitting and assessment can be sophisticated and is evolving (probe tube microphone and outcomes measures)

    3.) Better quality of care with more audiologists involved in PHA dispensing

          

  33. Consequences of Auditory Deprivation for a Child with HL1.) Reduction in reception of acoustic events in their environment
    2.) Reduced perception of auditory space - will have localization difficulties
    3.) Reduced recognition of acoustic events - will likely not link sounds to events/causes/sources

          

  34. Disadvantages of PHA1.) Signal to Noise problems
    2.) Unrealistic expectations

          

  35. Concept #2: AR is non-medical mangementtypically the person doesn't realize that they have problems/needs or they won't accept that they have problems/needs

          

  36. Rehabilitation vs. HabilitationRehabilitation - restoring a lost skill

    Habilitation - developing a skill that was never present (usually referring to children)

          

  37. Emphasis in AR?improving and enhancing communication

    associated AR terms: communication function, communication breakdown

          

  38. Disabilitya.) do you know why a particular type of hearing aid was recommend?
    b.) were hearing aid features explained to you?
    c.) do they fit comfortably? Were you able to insert the hearing aids yourself?
    d.) were all the controls explained to you? Was the care of hearing aids and earmolds explained to you?
    e.) did you receive written material or helpful resources?
    f.) were you asked to evaluate any improvement on the effect of hearing loss on your life?
    g.) were group hearing aid orientation sessions provided?
    h.) did you receive any information on using telephones or assistive listening devices?

          

  39. Components of Auditory Deprivation for a Child with HL1.) Reduction in reception of acoustic events in their environment
    2.) Reduced perception of auditory space - will have localization difficulties
    3.) Reduced recognition of acoustic events - will likely not link sounds to events/causes/sources

          

  40. Problems Affecting Children with Hearing Loss - Contd.-Auditory Deprivation - esp if prelingual or perilingual at time of onset - will not hear all acoustic events; sound localization difficulties; not link sounds to events/causes/sources

          

  41. Full Disclosurea.) did you receive a written contract detailing the services to be provided?
    b.) did your dispenser check your insurance status?
    c.) did the dispenser provide information about hearing aid manufacturers he or she works with?
    d.) did the dispenser provide written info on any warrantees?
    e.) did the dispenser provide written info about the trial period and refund policy?