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41 Multiple choice questions

  1. *Major consequence of auditory deprivation: increased challenge in learning an acoustic-based language system

    can lead to issues with...
    -emotional adjustment
    -social isolation
    -academic learning difficulties
    -educational achievement vulnerability
    -vocational achievement vulnerability
    -reduced quality of life
  2. Diagnostics - literally Audiometry, the measurement of hearing

  3. typically the person doesn't realize that they have problems/needs or they won't accept that they have problems/needs
  4. 1.) Amplification is the primary tool in AR - helping people minimize their hearing problems

    2.) Amplification devices (HA) are always an incomplete and imperfect solution to a complex condition
  5. processor; functionally it increases signal

    amount of energy added is called gain; output - input = gain
  6. 1.) Communication is primary, it is public, and it breaks down

    2.) AR is the non-medical management of the person with hearing problems and needs.

    3.) Persons with hearing problems and needs are a heterogenous group that vary across several categories of variables
  7. 1.) to amplify SPEECH to a level that is audible yet comfortable to the listener

    2.) to help in sound localization

    3.) to help in sound detection

    4.) restore a range of loudness experience

    5.) if auditory-oral is focus of development, to help the child develop speech and spoken language
  8. 1.) Portable
    2.) Custom fit and adjusted
  9. -Auditory Deprivation - esp if prelingual or perilingual at time of onset - will not hear all acoustic events; sound localization difficulties; not link sounds to events/causes/sources
  10. -Hearing Conservation (Prevention) - Prevention is the best "rehabilitative" measure
    -Early Identification
    -Early Intervention (which follows Identification)
  11. 1.) Facilitate positive action - overcome barriers to care, such as denial
    2.) Understand that the recipient of the services may not appreciate you and may view you as part of the problem
    3.) Have appropriate technical skills
    4.) Have measurable goals
    5.) Have and impart realistic expectations
    6.) Expose your own biases
  12. Adults:
    - will affect social life in the family and the community
    - may cause vocation vulnerability
    - has psychological and emotional consequences
    --> the sooner the adult accepts their condition and takes positive action the better their life will be.

    - auditory deprivation - leads to increased challenges in learning an auditory based language system
    - inadequacy of a functional communication system.
    - emotional adjustment
    - social isolation
    - academic achievement vulnerability
    - vocational vulnerability
    - reduced quality of life
    - burden on the parents to make a choice regarding hearing amplification, burden on the family, it is an additional cost.
  13. improving and enhancing communication

    associated AR terms: communication function, communication breakdown
  14. a.) did you receive a written contract detailing the services to be provided?
    b.) did your dispenser check your insurance status?
    c.) did the dispenser provide information about hearing aid manufacturers he or she works with?
    d.) did the dispenser provide written info on any warrantees?
    e.) did the dispenser provide written info about the trial period and refund policy?
  15. - evaluation and fitting of amplification devices
    - counseling
    - communication training (auditory and visual)
    - support for family members/sig others
    - referrals as needed
    - consultant
    - non-medical management of tinnitus
  16. 1.) Environment still causes problems - background noise

    2.) No single best way to get a hearing aid - lots of competition

    3.) Cost is significant barrier to many users ($1500 - $4000)

    4.) Cosmetics continues to be a major factor

    5.) No universal defined goals - no definition of benefit in the law - no requirement to do any test to demonstrate benefit

    6.) No correspondence of benefit to anything (does it mean they are satisfied? No) Many domains of outcome

    7.) Majority of people who could benefit from PHAs don't have them and don't want them!
  17. umbrella term covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions

    implication of a disability is change, loss, or reduction in function
  18. -Affect social life in the family and the community
    -May cause vocational vulnerability
    -Has implications for psychological and emotional consequences

    -Affects quality of life overall
  19. Rehabilitation - restoring a lost skill

    Habilitation - developing a skill that was never present (usually referring to children)
  20. -emotional adjustment differences
    -social isolation
    -academic learning difficulties
    -education achievement vulnerability
    -vocational achievement vulnerability
    -reduced quality of life
  21. 1.) Signal to Noise problems
    2.) Unrealistic expectations
  22. a.) were you given a hearing screening or a full hearing exam? - (were you given a copy of your audiogram)
    b.) were you told what type of hearing loss you have?
    c.) were you asked about the effect of hearing loss on your home, work, school life?
    d.) did a significant other have the opportunity to express the effect of your hearing loss on them?
  23. 1.) Distance from sound source is within 6 feet
    2.) Reverberation ("echo") is minimal
    3.) Background noise is minimal
    4.) Talker speaks directly --> clear speech
    5.) Topic (context) of message is known
    6.) Visual cues are available
    7.) Active/Alert/Assertive/Anticipatory Listener
  24. When there's a problem at ONE or MORE of the levels of communication.
  25. Testing
    Full Disclosure
  26. a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations

    example: does not participate in social functions; avoids caring for young children - unable to hear needs; unable to attend favorite sporting events
  27. 1.) Personal Hearing Aids (PHA)
    2.) Assistive Listening Devices (ALDs)
    3.) Group/Classroom Amplification Systems
    4.) Cochlear Implants or other implantable hearing devices
  28. -If a child is not exposed to language within first 5 years of life will not be competent in all aspects of language
  29. a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action

    example: receiving spoken message in communication; difficulty receiving high-frequency sounds; difficulty hearing distant sounds
  30. Two most important options: microphones and telecoils

    Microphone - converts from acoustic to electrical signal
    Amplifier - increases or amplifies signal
    Loudspeaker/Receiver - converts electrical signal to acoustic signal - delivers signal through tubing or earmold
    Batteries - power source
  31. 1.) Sender (talker)
    2.) Signal (message)
    3.) Environmental Influences
    4.) Receiver (listener)
  32. 1.) Customization led to greater awareness of individual differences and variability.

    2.) PHA fitting and assessment can be sophisticated and is evolving (probe tube microphone and outcomes measures)

    3.) Better quality of care with more audiologists involved in PHA dispensing
  33. organic characteristics - of hearing loss itself; age when HL developed; nature/extent of HL; presence of other disabilities

    personal characteristics - person's attitude; reaction to their condition; reactions of others; influence on expressive communicative ability;

    environmental factors - the person's communicative needs; the environment; activity limitations and participation restrictions

    type and quality of management - amount and success of previous intervention; how successful they have been
  34. 1.) Reduction in reception of acoustic events in their environment
    2.) Reduced perception of auditory space - will have localization difficulties
    3.) Reduced recognition of acoustic events - will likely not link sounds to events/causes/sources
  35. a.) do you know why a particular type of hearing aid was recommend?
    b.) were hearing aid features explained to you?
    c.) do they fit comfortably? Were you able to insert the hearing aids yourself?
    d.) were all the controls explained to you? Was the care of hearing aids and earmolds explained to you?
    e.) did you receive written material or helpful resources?
    f.) were you asked to evaluate any improvement on the effect of hearing loss on your life?
    g.) were group hearing aid orientation sessions provided?
    h.) did you receive any information on using telephones or assistive listening devices?
  36. 1.) to assist in realizing a person's optimal potential in communication, regardless of age

    2.) to improve the communication function of persons with hearing problems

    3.) to overcome the problems imposed by the organic condition and by the environment and to enhance participation in life and society
  37. 1.) increase demand for services by/for older adults
    2.) increase in # of cochlear implants
    3.) increase in fragile pediatric population
    4.) changing and increasing technology
    5.) development of a multicultural society
    6.) changes in health care delivery cost-shifting, cost-cutting, accountability
    7.) shortfall in # of audiologists (esp. in CA)
  38. 1.) Get within 6 feet of speaker
    2.) Minimize reverberation
    3.) Minimize background noise
    4.) Practice using visual cues
    5.) Use inherent redundancy/predictability of communication
    6.) Use hearing aid or some other form of amplification
  39. Communication involves a person and therefore any problems or inefficiencies with communication are a social/community/public problem.

    Levels of Communication:
    -Intent (sender)
  40. a problem in body function or structure

    example: bilateral sensorineural hearing loss
  41. -parents have to make choices
    -siblings and family members are affected
    -costs associated with hearing loss