41 Matching questions
- Two General Principles regarding Amplification and AR
- Identify Key Parts of Hearing Aid
- Concept #1: Communication is primary
- How can we optimize function for a person with HL?
- Purposes of Amplification
- Consequences of Auditory Deprivation for a Child with HL
- Types of Amplification Systems
- Two Main Areas of Activity in Audiology
- Challenges Facing Contemporary Amplification
- Differences between prelingual onset of HL and adult-onset hearing loss
- Components of Auditory Deprivation for a Child with HL
- Outline 3 Areas of HLAA "Purchasing a Hearing Aid: A Consumer Checklist"
- Critical Period Hypothesis
- How to Achieve Success in AR (Audiologist/Speech Professional)
- Emphasis in AR?
- Three Fundamental Concepts in AR
- Problems Affecting an Adult with Hearing Loss
- Advantages to PHA
- Problems Affecting Children with Hearing Loss - Contd.
- Purposes of AR
- Challenges and Opportunities in AR
- Positive Changes in Amplification
- Concept #2: AR is non-medical mangement
- Concept #3: people with hearing loss are heterogenous
- Disadvantages of PHA
- Problems Affecting Children with Hearing Loss:
- Rehabilitation vs. Habilitation
- Participation Restriction
- Activities in AR
- Conditions for Optimal Function for Person w/HL
- Audiology's Core Values
- Problems Affecting Parents of Children with Hearing Loss
- Activity Limitation
- Full Disclosure
- Components of the Communication Model
- When does a communication breakdown occur?
- a -Hearing Conservation (Prevention) - Prevention is the best "rehabilitative" measure
-Early Intervention (which follows Identification)
- b 1.) Reduction in reception of acoustic events in their environment
2.) Reduced perception of auditory space - will have localization difficulties
3.) Reduced recognition of acoustic events - will likely not link sounds to events/causes/sources
- c a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations
example: does not participate in social functions; avoids caring for young children - unable to hear needs; unable to attend favorite sporting events
- d 1.) Environment still causes problems - background noise
2.) No single best way to get a hearing aid - lots of competition
3.) Cost is significant barrier to many users ($1500 - $4000)
4.) Cosmetics continues to be a major factor
5.) No universal defined goals - no definition of benefit in the law - no requirement to do any test to demonstrate benefit
6.) No correspondence of benefit to anything (does it mean they are satisfied? No) Many domains of outcome
7.) Majority of people who could benefit from PHAs don't have them and don't want them!
- e improving and enhancing communication
associated AR terms: communication function, communication breakdown
- f 1.) to assist in realizing a person's optimal potential in communication, regardless of age
2.) to improve the communication function of persons with hearing problems
3.) to overcome the problems imposed by the organic condition and by the environment and to enhance participation in life and society
- g Adults:
- will affect social life in the family and the community
- may cause vocation vulnerability
- has psychological and emotional consequences
--> the sooner the adult accepts their condition and takes positive action the better their life will be.
- auditory deprivation - leads to increased challenges in learning an auditory based language system
- inadequacy of a functional communication system.
- emotional adjustment
- social isolation
- academic achievement vulnerability
- vocational vulnerability
- reduced quality of life
- burden on the parents to make a choice regarding hearing amplification, burden on the family, it is an additional cost.
- h 1.) Signal to Noise problems
2.) Unrealistic expectations
- i 1.) to amplify SPEECH to a level that is audible yet comfortable to the listener
2.) to help in sound localization
3.) to help in sound detection
4.) restore a range of loudness experience
5.) if auditory-oral is focus of development, to help the child develop speech and spoken language
- j 1.) Sender (talker)
2.) Signal (message)
3.) Environmental Influences
4.) Receiver (listener)
- k 1.) Amplification is the primary tool in AR - helping people minimize their hearing problems
2.) Amplification devices (HA) are always an incomplete and imperfect solution to a complex condition
- l a.) were you given a hearing screening or a full hearing exam? - (were you given a copy of your audiogram)
b.) were you told what type of hearing loss you have?
c.) were you asked about the effect of hearing loss on your home, work, school life?
d.) did a significant other have the opportunity to express the effect of your hearing loss on them?
- m - evaluation and fitting of amplification devices
- communication training (auditory and visual)
- support for family members/sig others
- referrals as needed
- non-medical management of tinnitus
- n Testing
- o a.) do you know why a particular type of hearing aid was recommend?
b.) were hearing aid features explained to you?
c.) do they fit comfortably? Were you able to insert the hearing aids yourself?
d.) were all the controls explained to you? Was the care of hearing aids and earmolds explained to you?
e.) did you receive written material or helpful resources?
f.) were you asked to evaluate any improvement on the effect of hearing loss on your life?
g.) were group hearing aid orientation sessions provided?
h.) did you receive any information on using telephones or assistive listening devices?
- p *Major consequence of auditory deprivation: increased challenge in learning an acoustic-based language system
can lead to issues with...
-academic learning difficulties
-educational achievement vulnerability
-vocational achievement vulnerability
-reduced quality of life
- q a problem in body function or structure
example: bilateral sensorineural hearing loss
- r 1.) Get within 6 feet of speaker
2.) Minimize reverberation
3.) Minimize background noise
4.) Practice using visual cues
5.) Use inherent redundancy/predictability of communication
6.) Use hearing aid or some other form of amplification
- s 1.) increase demand for services by/for older adults
2.) increase in # of cochlear implants
3.) increase in fragile pediatric population
4.) changing and increasing technology
5.) development of a multicultural society
6.) changes in health care delivery cost-shifting, cost-cutting, accountability
7.) shortfall in # of audiologists (esp. in CA)
- t a.) did you receive a written contract detailing the services to be provided?
b.) did your dispenser check your insurance status?
c.) did the dispenser provide information about hearing aid manufacturers he or she works with?
d.) did the dispenser provide written info on any warrantees?
e.) did the dispenser provide written info about the trial period and refund policy?
- u 1.) Distance from sound source is within 6 feet
2.) Reverberation ("echo") is minimal
3.) Background noise is minimal
4.) Talker speaks directly --> clear speech
5.) Topic (context) of message is known
6.) Visual cues are available
7.) Active/Alert/Assertive/Anticipatory Listener
- v Diagnostics - literally Audiometry, the measurement of hearing
- w umbrella term covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions
implication of a disability is change, loss, or reduction in function
- x -Auditory Deprivation - esp if prelingual or perilingual at time of onset - will not hear all acoustic events; sound localization difficulties; not link sounds to events/causes/sources
- y 1.) Portable
2.) Custom fit and adjusted
- z organic characteristics - of hearing loss itself; age when HL developed; nature/extent of HL; presence of other disabilities
personal characteristics - person's attitude; reaction to their condition; reactions of others; influence on expressive communicative ability;
environmental factors - the person's communicative needs; the environment; activity limitations and participation restrictions
type and quality of management - amount and success of previous intervention; how successful they have been
- aa When there's a problem at ONE or MORE of the levels of communication.
- ab typically the person doesn't realize that they have problems/needs or they won't accept that they have problems/needs
- ac -Affect social life in the family and the community
-May cause vocational vulnerability
-Has implications for psychological and emotional consequences
-Affects quality of life overall
- ad -emotional adjustment differences
-academic learning difficulties
-education achievement vulnerability
-vocational achievement vulnerability
-reduced quality of life
- ae Communication
involves a person and therefore any problems or inefficiencies with
communication are a social/community/public problem.
Levels of Communication:
- af -parents have to make choices
-siblings and family members are affected
-costs associated with hearing loss
- ag 1.) Communication is primary, it is public, and it breaks down
2.) AR is the non-medical management of the person with hearing problems and needs.
3.) Persons with hearing problems and needs are a heterogenous group that vary across several categories of variables
- ah 1.) Customization led to greater awareness of individual differences and variability.
2.) PHA fitting and assessment can be sophisticated and is evolving (probe tube microphone and outcomes measures)
3.) Better quality of care with more audiologists involved in PHA dispensing
- ai a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action
example: receiving spoken message in communication; difficulty receiving high-frequency sounds; difficulty hearing distant sounds
- aj -If a child is not exposed to language within first 5 years of life will not be competent in all aspects of language
- ak processor; functionally it increases signal
amount of energy added is called gain; output - input = gain
- al Rehabilitation - restoring a lost skill
Habilitation - developing a skill that was never present (usually referring to children)
- am 1.) Personal Hearing Aids (PHA)
2.) Assistive Listening Devices (ALDs)
3.) Group/Classroom Amplification Systems
4.) Cochlear Implants or other implantable hearing devices
- an Two most important options: microphones and telecoils
Microphone - converts from acoustic to electrical signal
Amplifier - increases or amplifies signal
Loudspeaker/Receiver - converts electrical signal to acoustic signal - delivers signal through tubing or earmold
Batteries - power source
- ao 1.) Facilitate positive action - overcome barriers to care, such as denial
2.) Understand that the recipient of the services may not appreciate you and may view you as part of the problem
3.) Have appropriate technical skills
4.) Have measurable goals
5.) Have and impart realistic expectations
6.) Expose your own biases