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41 True/False questions

  1. Anotiano auricle

          

  2. Otoscopy:
    Procedure
    1. To inspect the outer ear
    2. To determine if we can see the eardrum and all landmarks look to be normal
    3. To give us an idea if we should proceed with testing

          

  3. Manubrium of the Malleuswill probably see this 1st; look towards the middle to find the umbo
    •Right ear: 1 o'clock
    •Left ear: 11 o'clock

          

  4. Otoscopysmelly discharge that comes out from the ear common w/ otitis externa

          

  5. Otitis Externa-The rest of the TM
    -TM is more stiff in this portion to be able to send info

          

  6. Bullaein the center; connects to the TM

          

  7. Middle Ear Abnormalities-Cauliflower ear
    -Keloid
    -Anotia
    -Microtia
    -Preauricular cysts
    -Pits

          

  8. Membranous layer of TM•Congruent with all the middle ear space

          

  9. Otoscopy:
    What are we looking for ?
    • Cannot see the tympanic membrane at all because of
    cerumen impaction
    • Blood in the ear canal
    • Discharge in the ear canal
    • Object in the ear canal
    • Hole in the ear canal (perforation)

          

  10. Epithelial layer of TMgives elasticity

    •Fibers crisscross each other
    •This is the layer that makes the TM appears more translucent, and not clear.
    •Can be stiff or flaccid; opaque or translucent, but not perfectly clear

          

  11. Pre-Auricular Area: Where & What are you looking for?-area in front of ear
    -Look to see if there are any pits (or holes), tags that are hanging on (excessive skin), sores.
    -Look behind ears too

          

  12. Pars Flaccida-The rest of the TM
    -TM is more stiff in this portion to be able to send info

          

  13. Exostosis-Ear canal gets very narrow.
    -Cerumen can completely build up the canal.

          

  14. Parts of an Otoscope-Speculum (adult or child tip)
    -Viewing window

          

  15. Microtiano auricle

          

  16. Tympanoplasty-Calcium deposits will stick to eardrum on the backside of the TM; means they've had a lot of ear infections
    -Could attach to ossicles themselves

          

  17. Cone of Lightreflection from the otoscope, if not there the TM is not pulled back properly

          

  18. Necrotizing Otitis Externa-swimmer's ear
    -white cottage cheese looking
    -Otorrhea
    -Drops help return the pH to normal, good for swimmers.

          

  19. Tympanosclerosisa form of bone overgrowth in the middle ear that causes progressive hearing loss

          

  20. Auricle abnormalities•Positive Pressure
    •Negative Pressure (retraction)
    •Tympanosclerosis
    •Scarring
    •Perforations
    •Fluid or Otitis Media
    •Tympanoplasty
    •Skin Graph
    •P.E. tubes
    •Bullae
    •Cholesteatoma

          

  21. Otosclerosis-Surfer's ear
    -abnormal growth of bone

          

  22. Cholesteatoma-if TM stays pulled back for a long period of time, the skin will start to peel and fall to the bottom of the E.C.
    -Looks like little white lumps or pearls
    -Very acidic; eats decaying skin, but can also eat through the TM, ossicles, bone, etc.

          

  23. Post-Auricular Area: Where & What are you looking for?-area in front of ear
    -Look to see if there are any pits (or holes), tags that are hanging on (excessive skin), sores.
    -Look behind ears too

          

  24. Lateral Process-Little white bump at the top of the malleus
    -Not attached to the TM, but pushes it out

          

  25. Atresiano auricle

          

  26. Ototscopy: Purpose1. To inspect the outer ear
    2. To determine if we can see the eardrum and all landmarks look to be normal
    3. To give us an idea if we should proceed with testing

          

  27. Osteoma-Ear canal gets very narrow.
    -Cerumen can completely build up the canal.

          

  28. Stenosisno auricle

          

  29. Landmarks of TM•Manubrium of the Malleus
    •Umbo
    •Lateral process
    •Cone of light
    •Pars Flaccida
    •Pars Tensa

          

  30. Otoscope:
    What is considered normal/clear visualization?
    • Need to see the main landmarks (from the previous slide)
    • Having clear visualization of the tympanic membrane is the most important
    • Some cerumen (earwax) is normal as long as you can visualize some part of the eardrum

          

  31. Fibrous layer of TM•Congruent with all the middle ear space

          

  32. Landmarks of the Outer Ear•Manubrium of the Malleus
    •Umbo
    •Lateral process
    •Cone of light
    •Pars Flaccida
    •Pars Tensa

          

  33. Ear canal abnormalities-Cauliflower ear
    -Keloid
    -Anotia
    -Microtia
    -Preauricular cysts
    -Pits

          

  34. Otorrheasmelly discharge that comes out from the ear common w/ otitis externa

          

  35. Ear canal: Where & What are you looking for?-May not have an ear canal, or only have a partial one
    -Auricle malformations (cupped, partially developed, etc.)
    -Atresia
    -Stenosis

          

  36. Auricle: Where & What are you looking for?-the ear itself
    -Look for malformations
    In development, there are hillocks. (if they're are not joined together well)
    -If one ear is higher/lower or smaller/larger than the other -→ developmental problem.
    -Can be craniofacial problems or issues with the cochlea.
    -Too small/big (check children)
    -Cupped shape = too small →from craniofacial abnormalities
    -Older males tend to have large ears because of excessive cartilage.
    -Looking for sores and potential signs skin cancer (e.g. crusty melanomas).

          

  37. Pars Tensa-boney growths

          

  38. Otoscope:
    What is considered abnormal?
    If you are performing otoscopy correctly you should see the
    following landmarks:

    • Tympanic Membrane
    • Pars Flaccida (Membrane of the eardrum)
    • Handle of the Malleus (the first ossicle)
    • Umbo of the Malleus
    • Short process of the Malleus (hard to see for most people)
    • Cone of light

          

  39. TM: 3 layers-blisters between the fibrous and epithelial layer of eardrum. Like a blood blister, hurts very badly.
    -Most common way to get it is trauma (e.g. q-tip) , candling, hot water, etc.

          

  40. TM abnormalities•Positive Pressure
    •Negative Pressure (retraction)
    •Tympanosclerosis
    •Scarring
    •Perforations
    •Fluid or Otitis Media
    •Tympanoplasty
    •Skin Graph
    •P.E. tubes
    •Bullae
    •Cholesteatoma

          

  41. Umbo-blisters between the fibrous and epithelial layer of eardrum. Like a blood blister, hurts very badly.
    -Most common way to get it is trauma (e.g. q-tip) , candling, hot water, etc.