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162 True/False questions

  1. Aristotle's view on the deafGreek = perfect language, those born deaf are "senseless and incapable of reason"

          

  2. What is functional gain and why is it unreliable for hearing aid verification?the difference between aided and unaided threshold measurements; only tell about the gain of the HA at very soft input levels

          

  3. What are two acoustic cues for manner of articulation in nasal consonants?General decrease in intensity, and additional resonance around 500 Hz (nasal murmur)

          

  4. What are some qualities of an ideal speech perception task?Durational/timing cues

          

  5. What is the difference between HATS and ALDs? -HATs is broader term encompassing ALDs and
    alerting devices.
    ALDs help people in specific situations

          

  6. What is an example of a syntactic constraint?words in a sentence are related to each other "put the salt in the cloud" makes sense syntactically but not semantically

          

  7. Dark/Middle Ages and deafnesscourt jesters, committed to asylums, banned from churches

          

  8. Source-filter ModelSource = vibrating vocal folds
    Filter = shape of the vocal tract
    Output = combination of source and filter

          

  9. What is SII and why do we care about it?capacity to detect and differentiate sound patterns

          

  10. What kind of signal do FM systems operate with?Frequency Modulated radio waves (hence FM)

          

  11. 2 place cues for stopsfrequency of release burst
    frequency and direction of formant transition

          

  12. Golden Age of Deaf Education"Oral education is superior to manual education" (US only opposers)

          

  13. Name two external sound sources that Direct Audio Input connect to, via hearing aidsFM, MP3, computers, televisions

          

  14. When considering lexical factors that affect speech perception, what does word frequency mean?How often a word occurs in the language

          

  15. What are the 3 basic components of auditory capacity?Considerable
    Moderate
    Minimal
    None

          

  16. What is the hardest cue for the hard of hearing? Why?20 to 20,000 Hz

          

  17. T/F? Perception of vowels is not affected in persons with severe-to-profound hearing lossFalse

          

  18. What cue is the most important to affricate perception?Durational/timing cues

          

  19. Persons with limited amount of hearing loss are referred to as...Deafness is acquired while learning language

          

  20. 4 main parts of a hearing aidmicrophone, amplifier, receiver, battery/batteries

          

  21. What does CORE stand for?Communication Status
    Overall Participation Variables
    Related Personal Factors
    Environmental Factors

          

  22. Why are ITEs/CICs a bad option for young children?a. Their ears are constantly growing, requiring frequent changes in earmolds
    b. Difficult to access volume control
    c. Very small, so easy to lose

          

  23. Characteristics of VowelsLow and mid-freq acoustic energy
    More intense than consonants
    Produced with an open vocal tract
    Longer, slower to change than consonants

          

  24. Name two reasons an audiologist might prefer to use live voice test administrationAge of the child, administration time is faster, more flexible

          

  25. What happened after Milan?Signing in classrooms forbidden, some corporal punishment, deaf teachers into retirement

          

  26. 2000sContralateral Routing of Offside Signal - method for individuals with single sided deafness

          

  27. T/F In general, two hearing aids are better than oneTrue

          

  28. What acoustic cue occurs when a vowel precedes or follows a consonant, resulting in a change in resonance?Weakening of intensity (add a cavity = dampens)
    extra resonance (nasal murmur

          

  29. Define Dynamic RangedB difference between the softest sound you can hear and loudest sound without pain

          

  30. T/F? /r/ and /l/ are distinguished by F2.Pure Tone Average: take the threshold (dB) at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz

          

  31. What percentage of survey respondents reported never using aided speech perception testing with preschoolers?PBK, WIP, NUCHIPS

          

  32. What situation are telecoils primarily useful for?Speech Intelligibility Index- better measure of auditory capacity than PTA (find out about gain at different inputs)

          

  33. What is the average level of conversational speech at 1 meter from the speaker?Intonation, rhythm, pitch, stress

          

  34. Conference of MilanChanges in amplitude over time

          

  35. "What are the benefits and risks to the person related to service provision and do
    the benefits warrant the risk?" This Is an example of
    Ethical Reasoning

          

  36. What does the C in CARE stand for?counseling and psychosocial

          

  37. What is the difference between an omnidirectional and directional microphone?Omni- equally sensitive in all directions
    directional permit varying sensitivity coming from
    a given direction

          

  38. FM systems can range in price from...$100 to $1000

          

  39. Which of these three measures is an example of an open-set test? PBK, WIP, NUCHIPS?language takes place in a social context - conversation at football game will usually
    be about sports

          

  40. Open-fit BTE hearing aids allow (low/mid-to-high) frequencies to be delivered via the normal pathway while (low/mid-to-high) frequencies are amplifiedallow LOW via normal pathway /
    mid-high freqs are amplified

          

  41. According to the Neighborhood Activation Model, words that are (high/low) in word frequency and (high/low) in neighborhood density that the best speech intelligibility. Choose the correct option in each caseFalse

          

  42. 3 things when looking at an audiogram: considerDegree, configuration, type/location

          

  43. What does CARE stand for?Counseling and Psychosocial
    Audibility/Impairment Management
    Remediate Communication Activity
    Environmental/Coordination Participation Involvement

          

  44. FIRST AMERICAN DEAF SCHOOL1817** Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Lauren Clerc - first and only deaf university in the united states

          

  45. What is auditory capacity?How the inner ear reflects frequency and timing among sound patterns (has a direct effect on performance in noisy/reverberant environments)

          

  46. T/F? The Americans with Disabilities Act permits individuals with hearing dogs access to all public spacesVoicing

          

  47. What are TDD? Define and spell out acronymHearing Assistive Technology Systems -
    technology that provides auditory information in ways a person with hearing loss can use

          

  48. Consonant classificationocclusion
    transient/frication (burst)
    aspiration
    transition*

          

  49. What does perilingual onset refer to?Deafness is acquired while learning language

          

  50. When is vowel recognition more accurate?Charles Michel De L'Eppe/ French guy 1760 "bridging the gap" between deaf and hearing worlds through standardized system of signs/fingerspelling

          

  51. Where is the greatest amount of energy in speech found? (Below which frequencies?)Below 1000 Hz

          

  52. T/F? Speech understanding can be accurately predicted on the basis of an audiogram alone.TRUE

          

  53. T/F US federal law states that all televisions are required to have closed captioning.False

          

  54. What recent technological advances allow individuals with hearing loss to access their hearing aids while talking on cell phones?a. Reliable
    b. Sensitive to differences between test conditions
    c. Correlates with speech perception in the real world

          

  55. What is auditory resolution?gives a report of the average number of hours of daily use (function of most HAs these days)

          

  56. Which factor is more important to consider when selecting a pediatric speech perception
    measure, vocabulary age or chronological age?
    NAL is for adults and DSL (desired sensation level) is for kids. Used for determining HA gain.

          

  57. How does the Telephone Relay Service work?TDD user sends a message to a relay operator, who calls the landline user with the
    message

          

  58. What is BAHA?Bone Anchored Hearing Aid - stimulates cochlea via bone conduction

          

  59. For people with hearing loss, do errors occur more often with place of articulation or manner of articulation?PLACE of articulation

          

  60. T/F? Hardwire devices are rarely used by people with hearing loss because of their prohibitive costTelephones

          

  61. What is the easiest cue for the hard of hearing?Voicing

          

  62. Who/where were the first reports of attempting to educate the deaf?Samuel Heineke 1755 (first oral school for the deaf) Tactile cues!

          

  63. What are four objectives for auditory training with childrena) Awareness of sound
    b) Gross discrimination
    c) Broad discrimination among speech patterns
    d) Finer discrimination for speech

          

  64. What is CROS?Bone Anchored Hearing Aid - stimulates cochlea via bone conduction

          

  65. 3 manner cues for stopsocclusion
    transient/frication (burst)
    aspiration
    transition*

          

  66. WaveformChanges in amplitude over time

          

  67. four factors that influence the life of hearing aid batteriesHATs is broader term encompassing ALDs and
    alerting devices.
    ALDs help people in specific situations

          

  68. F2 responsive to changes in...Tongue frontness/backness

          

  69. Acoustic cues for MANNER of nasal perceptionSamuel Heineke 1755 (first oral school for the deaf) Tactile cues!

          

  70. What does neighborhood density mean?communication status

          

  71. T/F? After World War II, the primary focus of auditory training was to improve the speech and language development of children with severe-profound hearing lossHearing Loss
    Dynamic Range
    Auditory Resolution

          

  72. What is a major limitation of the Munoz et al. study?movement of the formant frequency

          

  73. If a therapist strives to understand each patient's "story" or problem, he/she
    is engaging in what type of reasoning according to the ICF model?
    a. Restrictions and limitations of a health condition
    b. Personal factors
    c. Environmental factors

          

  74. Early 1900s to 1950sIncreased employment of deaf people, soldiers, manufacturing, etc. ALSO: increased population with hearing issues

          

  75. Difference between rehabilitation and habilitationSamuel Heineke 1755 (first oral school for the deaf) Tactile cues!

          

  76. What is the frequency range of human hearing?movement of the formant frequency

          

  77. Acoustic cues for semivowelsFormant transitions
    Semivowel transitions
    Freq changes in F2 for /w/ and /j/
    Freq changes in F3 for /r/ and /l/

          

  78. Gaullaudet CollegeOpened in 1864, manual emphasis , Abe Lincoln signed the Charter

          

  79. Why are all children not optimally fit?VERIFICATION TECHNIQUE is the primary reason

          

  80. What is a formant?Bone Anchored Hearing Aid - stimulates cochlea via bone conduction

          

  81. Early 20th Century Deaf HistorySchools of lipreading, electronic hearing aids in 1920s, more efforts of using residual hearing to aid in communication

          

  82. Correct recognition of /s/ is related to hearing sensitivity above what frequency?2000 Hz

          

  83. Mid 20th centuryFocus on speechreading/lipreading and auditory training (with returning servicemen from WWII)

          

  84. What's an example of a semantic constraint?words in a sentence are related to each other "put the salt in the cloud" makes sense syntactically but not semantically

          

  85. Why are consonants important?For intelligibility- tells us where one word ends and another starts, mark the edges of syllables, important for morphosyntax

          

  86. What is NAL and DSL and how are they different?counseling and psychosocial

          

  87. 1970sLegislation! Parent-centered programs emerging, emphasis on hearing conservation

          

  88. Acoustic cues for PLACE of nasaldirection and duration of formant transition
    /m/ lowest in freq and shortest
    /n/ higher and longer
    /ng/ highest and longest

          

  89. Why is an audiogram insufficient?Poor predictor of speech understanding
    Not good at verifying hearing aids
    No insight into how they perform in average, daily listening situations (we don't walk around whispering in pure tones)

          

  90. Place cues depend on __________TIMING

          

  91. Diagnostic reasoning may occur prior to meeting a patient/client. True or falseTrue

          

  92. Manner cues depend on ________FREQUENCY

          

  93. What are the semivowels?Contralateral Routing of Offside Signal - method for individuals with single sided deafness

          

  94. Plato's view on deafEveryone is "born perfect", if there is no outward sign of intelligence, the deaf person is not capable of ideas or language

          

  95. When did formal sign language start?Vowel recognition is more accurate in context rather than isolation

          

  96. What was cool about Martha's Vineyard?Everyone there "spoke" sign language-- all were equal

          

  97. What is the primary disadvantage of administering a recorded single word recognition test in quiet in a sound booth?Poor ecological validity

          

  98. Which formants are the most important for identifying vowels?The first and the second formants (F1 always the lowest freq)

          

  99. In AR, Patient activities and participation are influenced bya. Their ears are constantly growing, requiring frequent changes in earmolds
    b. Difficult to access volume control
    c. Very small, so easy to lose

          

  100. Tongue high = (high/low F1?)
    Tongue low = (high/low F1?)
    tongue forward = high F2
    tongue back = low F2

          

  101. According to the survey, what are the 3 most commonly used speech perception measures with
    preschoolers?
    Weakening of intensity (add a cavity = dampens)
    extra resonance (nasal murmur

          

  102. Voicing cues depend on ________FREQUENCY

          

  103. Which class of speech sounds are most important for determining the intelligibility of speech: vowels or consonants?Consonants

          

  104. 1990sCOCHLEAR IMPLANTATION! Digital amplification, more prominent emergence of Deaf community

          

  105. Hebrew Laws/Deaf RightsIncreased employment of deaf people, soldiers, manufacturing, etc. ALSO: increased population with hearing issues

          

  106. What are two acoustic cues for place of articulation in a stop consonant?Frequency of the most intense portion of the burst and the F2 transition

          

  107. Early Christian's view of the deafLow and mid-freq acoustic energy
    More intense than consonants
    Produced with an open vocal tract
    Longer, slower to change than consonants

          

  108. A person's ability to judge whether two speech stimuli are the same or
    different is called
    discrimination

          

  109. SpectrumIntensity (dB) over frequency (Hz)

          

  110. When/who was start of oral education?Sign language flourishing, proposal for a deaf state

          

  111. What type of consonant has the most redundant cues?stops - overlap with acoustic cues of adjacent phonemes

          

  112. What variable predicted the amount of time difference between datalogging and parent report of hearing aid? (Walker et al)HATs is broader term encompassing ALDs and
    alerting devices.
    ALDs help people in specific situations

          

  113. Speech energy is contained within what frequencies?Vowel recognition is more accurate in context rather than isolation

          

  114. Who was Geronimo Cardano?first physician who recognized that deaf people could reason. he had a deaf son

          

  115. What are the five distinction features associated with consonant production, based on Miller and Nicely's classification system?/sh/, /s/, /m/, /ah/, /oo/, /ee/

          

  116. 1960s and DeafRecognition for early identification, cumbersome equipment, minimal parent involvement, ASL proclaimed as true language

          

  117. Tongue forward = (high/low F2?)
    Tongue back = (high/low F2?)
    tongue forward = high F2
    tongue back = low F2

          

  118. What age group had the most challenges in achieving consistent hearing aid use (Walker et al)Child State

          

  119. Name three professionals who might provide AR services to a child with a
    hearing loss
    Maximize use of auditory and related cues to perceive speech and adjustment/orientation to assistive devices

          

  120. What is a closed-set speech perception measure?items are presented from a limited number
    of options

          

  121. What are the six phonemes used in the Ling six sound test?/sh/, /s/, /m/, /ah/, /oo/, /ee/

          

  122. Limiting the negative effects of hearing loss on the patient's significant others is
    part of aural rehabilitation. True or false
    hard of hearing

          

  123. What is a formant transition?movement of the formant frequency

          

  124. Alexander Graham Bell and deafEveryone is "born perfect", if there is no outward sign of intelligence, the deaf person is not capable of ideas or language

          

  125. What are HATS? Define and spell out acronymHearing Assistive Technology Systems -
    technology that provides auditory information in ways a person with hearing loss can use

          

  126. T/F? It is more reliable to administer speech perception via "live voice" than recorded, because your clients will pay better attention to youFalse (lots of variability with live voice)

          

  127. What is an example of a situational constraint?"adjectives describe nouns, not verbs"

          

  128. T/F? For vowels, the frequency of F1 indicates tongue height or mouth openingImproved SNR (improved SNR = improved word understanding)

          

  129. What does the C in CORE stand for?Communication Status
    Overall Participation Variables
    Related Personal Factors
    Environmental Factors

          

  130. Clinical Reasoning is a way of explaining...The clinician's knowledge that influences therapy choices and clinical
    decision making

          

  131. Under the ICF classification system, impairment refers to problems with...body structure or function

          

  132. What kind of measurement is used to determine the output of the hearing aid at the ear drum at various input levels?Real Ear measures

          

  133. True or False? The goal of auditory training is to help an individual maximize the use of his/her residual hearing to improve communicationTrue

          

  134. How is a stop differentiated from a fricative?HATs is broader term encompassing ALDs and
    alerting devices.
    ALDs help people in specific situations

          

  135. According to Schow and Nerbonne, children and adults with mild hearing loss
    have a PTA of 26-40 dB HL True or False?
    False

          

  136. NAD (what is it?)National Association of the Deaf -- formed in response to Milan Resolution

          

  137. T/F? Vowels are greater in intensity than consonantsTrue

          

  138. 5 components of a stopocclusion
    transient/frication (burst)
    aspiration
    transition*

          

  139. How are non-corner vowels identified?Communication Status
    Overall Participation Variables
    Related Personal Factors
    Environmental Factors

          

  140. What does it mean to administer a speech perception measure via "live voice"?False (lots of variability with live voice)

          

  141. Who is the primary person?first physician who recognized that deaf people could reason. he had a deaf son

          

  142. What does a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 0 dB mean? + 5 dB SNR? -5 dB SNR?a) 0 means signal and noise are the same level
    b) +5 means signal is 5 dB louder than the noise
    c) -5 means noise is 5 dB louder than the signal

          

  143. What was the most prevalent challenge in getting children to wear hearing aids, according to parents?20 to 20,000 Hz

          

  144. What response format is more challenging in speech perception measures - open or closed-set and why?items are presented from a limited number
    of options

          

  145. SpectogramTime, frequency, and intensity

          

  146. T/F? Infrared systems are ideal for amphitheaters and outdoor concerts because they permit an
    unlimited number of receivers.
    True

          

  147. F1 is responsive to changes in...occlusion
    transient/frication (burst)
    aspiration
    transition*

          

  148. Classifications of auditory capacityVoicing, manner (how is sound constricted), and place of articulation

          

  149. What is CASPA?National Association of the Deaf -- formed in response to Milan Resolution

          

  150. As an SLP or AUD, I'm very concerned with my client's ability to have
    access to support services for his/her disability. In considering this problem, I'm
    using what type of reasoning?
    Pragmatic Reasoning

          

  151. T/F Medical clearance from a physician is required to obtain HATS.False

          

  152. What is the benefit of using directional microphones?Pure Tone Average: take the threshold (dB) at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz

          

  153. List the variables that were the most significant predictors of daily hearing aid use time, per parent report (Walker et al)maternal education level, age, degree of hearing loss, and test site.

          

  154. What is PTA and how is it calculated?Pure Tone Average: take the threshold (dB) at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz

          

  155. What is data logging?gives a report of the average number of hours of daily use (function of most HAs these days)

          

  156. What are two general objectives for auditory training with adults?Maximize use of auditory and related cues to perceive speech and adjustment/orientation to assistive devices

          

  157. When do individuals with unilateral hearing loss perform more poorly on speech perception tests?Telephones

          

  158. What does it mean for a test to be ecologically valid?Comparable to real world contexts

          

  159. What are the 4 suprasegmental features of speech?Intonation, rhythm, pitch, stress

          

  160. Describe how an audio loop system worksHow the inner ear reflects frequency and timing among sound patterns (has a direct effect on performance in noisy/reverberant environments)

          

  161. 3 voicing cues for stopsfundamental frequency
    aspiration
    VOT

          

  162. True or False? An important acoustic cue for diphthongs is the rate of change in formant frequenciesTRUE