Rehab Aud Question Set 12 - 20 flashcards |

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1. According to the authors, what is one reason for limited collaboration between SLPs and audiologists?

a. the audiology clinical doctorate (AuD) has minimized opportunities for collaboration between the professions
b. There is a limited number of educational audiologists in the US
c. Audiologists and SLPs have a difficult time agreeing on best practices for children with hearing loss
d. ASHA's scope of practice discourages SLPs and audiologists from cross-training in the respective fields

2. In the survey, what was the most frequent response for how often SLPs performed hearing aid listening checks with students?

a. Rarely
b. Monthly
c. Weekly
d. Daily

3. According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA), how often should hearing aid checks be performed?

a. Rarely
b. Monthly
c. Weekly
d. Daily

4. The majority of SLPs who responded to the survey reported that they were not confident in their ability to troubleshoot cochlear implants, hearing aids, and FM systems.

True or False

5. Which type of equipment were the SLPs least confident with troubleshooting?

a. FM systems
b. Cochlear implants
c. Hearing aids
d. Induction loops

6. What was a limitation for the survey study?

a. Most of the SLPs didn't work with children with hearing loss
b. The authors only sent surveys to a limited number of states in the US
c. Most of the SLPs didn't have access to audiologists, so they couldn't answer the survey questions
d. The low response rate may have resulted in an unrepresentative sample of school based SLPs

7. Approximately what percentage of SLPs did not have access to an educational audiologist?

a. One quarter
b. One third
c. One half
d. Two thirds

8. What is one feasible option for improving collaboration between SLPs and audiologists, according to the authors?

a. Train SLPs to fit FM systems, hearing aids, and cochlear implants
b. Set aside dedicated time every week for SLPs and audiologists to communicate via Skype
c. Encourage more audiologists to join ASHA
d. Joint participation on students' IEP teams

9. What was the primary advantage of using Skype to provide tele practice services for the Sound Beginnings program in Utah?

a. Cost
b. Security of the internet connection
c. Relatively stable audio and visual signals
d. A and B only
e. A and C only

*10. List three issues that may arise during the practice session?

Inconsistent bandwidth, poor AV signal, visual glare or darkness, signal interference with other technologies

11. In the Utah Sound Beginnings model for tele practice, one of the goals is that the service provider serves as the ___ for the family during the intervention session.

a. Expert
b. Coach
c. Teacher
d. Therapist

12. What is a benefit to using tele-intervention?

a. Parents have to take an active role in therapy
b. There are fewer cancellations
c. Sessions can be recorded, so additional family members can participate
d. All of the above
e. B and C only

13. What are the limitations to using tele-intervention?

a. Reimbursement by insurance
b. Possible HIPAA violations
c. Technological issues
d. Behavioral issues by the child
e. C and D only

14. Why is the coaching process an integral component of the ihear program?

a. Because IDEA mandates that all children on an IFSP or an IEP receive family centered intervention
b. The coaching process encourages parents to be more involved in intervention, which has a positive impact on the child's language development
c. Using a coaching model is the most cost effective means of providing intervention
d. The coaching model encourages SLPs to take the role of the expert, which parents are generally more comfortable with

15. Stredler-Brown reports that one of the challenges in implementing tele practice is that it is difficult to continue providing the services are the initial gran funding runs out. What does she suggest as a way to sustain tele practice services?

a. Engage multiple local, state and federal agencies to participate in continued funding
b. Look at private funding sources as a means for paying for the services
c. Have parents par for services out of pocket
d. Train more professionals to provide services

16. As of 2003, why was there little prospective research on outcomes of infants and toddlers with hearing loss?

a. Hearing loss is a very low incident impairment, so its hard to find enough research participants
b. Children in this age range won't cooperate for testing
c. Until around the 1990s, the average age of identification of hearing loss was approximately 2 years of age
d. It was commonly assume that children with hearing loss did not have significant delays relative to their same age peers with normal hearing

17. What area of language development was significantly different between the screened and no screened groups, as described by Yoshinaga-Itano?

a. Vocabulary
b. Syntax
c. Speech production
d. None of the above
e. All of the above

18. In the section on cognition and language, the authors describe a seminal study by Yoshinaga-Itano et al. What was the primary finding of that study?

a. Early identified children with additional disabilities had language outcomes that were similar to late identified children with no disabilities
b. Late identified children with no additional disabilities outperformed early identified children with additional disabilities
c. Early identified children with additional disabilities showed significant;y poorer non verbal IQ scores relative to their verbal IQ scores
d. Late identified children with no additional disabilities showed no difference in verbal and non verbal IQ

19. Advantages gained by early identification only occur in children who are exposed to an auditory oral intervention approach

True or False

20. The majority of children in the Holte et al. study met all 1-3-6 guidelines for children who fail the born hearing screen

True or False

*21. What are the 1-3-6 benchmarks, as described by JCIH an AAP?

a. 1 month - all children screened for hearing loss
b. 3 months - al children who fail NHS have hearing loss confirmed through diagnostic testing
c. 6 months - children with confirmed hearing loss enter early intervention

22. Which of the following makes it difficult to get families to follow up, after their child fails the born hearing screen?

a. they see their infant responding to sounds and think there isn't a problem with hearing
b. Parents often aren't notified of born hearing screen results by the birth hospital
c. There is a lack of valid and reliable test measures before a child is 6 months of age and capable of providing behavioral responses in the test booth
d. All of the above
c. None of the above

23. Which of the following is NOT a finding from Holte et al?

A. none of the independent variables predicted age at entry into early intervention
b. Higher SES is associated with younger ages at confirmation and HA fitting
c. Severity of hearing loss affects timeliness of serve delivers (confirmation of hearing loss hearing aid fitting, entry into early intervention)
d. 100% of research participants failed the born hearing screen

24. What was the most common reason for delays in the EDHI process?

a. Otitis media with effusion
b. Multiple rescreenings
c. Delays in getting appointments
d. Distance to audiologist who could perform a diagnostic ABR

25. Write out these acronyms


26. Looking at the maternal education level data reported in Table 2, what generalization can you make about this particular sample of children with hearing loss?

a. It was an advantaged sample of children
b. It was a disadvantaged sample of children
c. It represents the typical socioeconomic status of children in first world countries
d. Maternal education level does not matter when considering outcomes of children with hearing loss

27. Children in the Fulcher et al. study who failed to attend therapy sessions or did not wear their sensory aid on a consistent basis were excluded fro the data analysis. What affect does this exclusion have when determining the effects of audiotory-verbal therapy (AVT) on language outcomes?

a. It biases the results in favor of AVT
b. It biases the results to make AVT look less effective
c. Excluding "non-participatory" children should have no effects on the outcomes

28. What is an example of a non malleable factor?

a. Degree of hearing loss
b. Aided audibility
c. Age of implantation
d. Amount of daily CI use

29. Results suggested that early identified children with severe hearing loss outperformed late identified children with mild hearing loss

True or False

*30. Identify one limitation of the Fulcher et. al. study, as stated by the authors.

High maternal education level
EI group had access to better technology

31. Josie, age 23 months, is beginning to combine words. She primarily uses phrases such as "big cookie" and "silly doggie" in her interactions at home. What type of semantic syntactic word classes has Josie mastered?

a) Action + recipient
b) Action + object
c) Attribute + entity
d) Agent + action

32. For a younger baby, according to Easterbrooks and Estes, the main brain task that is important is:

a. Detection
b. Discrimination
c. Identification
d. Comprehension

33. Jamal is a 15 month old with ly diagnosed sever to profound bilateral SNHL. You just say him for an audiological appointment. During the evaluation you heard him verbally reducing: "ee", "uh oh", and "baba" for mama. You might expect him in a few months to produce which of the following first?

a) many more single words since he is more than one year old
b) different vowels and consonant strings
c) conversational babble/jargon
d) I would expect to hear these all at about the same time

34. Typically, more later identified children with hearing loss tend to be slow mappers

True or False

35. Incidental learning is critical for generalization and has greatest importance for school aged children

True or False

36. A 3-4 year old child is responsive to a wide variety of sounds at approximately what level?

a. 50 dB HL
b. 20 dB HL
c. 10 dB HL
d. 0 dB HL

37. Federal law requires an IFSP for infants and toddlers with disabilities. If you were working with a baby with hearing loss, which of the following information might be provided on the IFSP?

a. Assessments conducted with the child
b. Related services this child might qualify for
c. Transition planning
d. All of the above

38. One problem with born hearing screening not identifying children with true hearing losses may be

a. born hearing screening may result in false positives
b. born hearing screening may result in false negatives
c. Both false positives and false negatives result in children 'slipping through the cracks'
d. Poor training on the part of the screener

39. born hearing screening identifies hearing loss in about how many out of every 1000 borns?

a. 1
b. 3
c. 5
d. 10

40. JCIH guidelines has the intended goal of 1) identification of hearing loss and 2) initiation of services by what ages?

a. birth, 6 months
b. 3 months, 6 months
c. 6 months 9 months
d. birth, 3 months

41. "Finger to ear" cue might be useful to bring a baby's attention to an ambulance sound, or other environmental stimuli

True or False

42. Nursery rhymes, finger plays, and children's songs can be useful to teach vocabulary as well as the rhythm in the language on a receptive level. They are also useful expressively to aid the child in developing auditory closer abilities

True or False

43. Jason, age 16 months, has been using his hearing aids since he was 8.5 months old. Which of the following listening tasks is he most likely engaged in?

a. Detection
b. Discrimination
c. Identification
d. all of the above

44. Hallmark behaviors of pre inflected stage include:

a. usage of 2-3 words without tense and number
b. utilization of a pointing gesture
c. increase usage of prominent intonational patterns by family members, teachers, and caregivers
d. both a and b
e. all of the above

45. Mothers speak more slowly to their infants (mothese) because babies have shorter temporal resolution than older children and adults

True or False

46. Research has demonstrated that children with hearing loss who are implanted before five years of age have potential for age appropriate English language abilities

True or False

47. When testing children with hearing loss, SLPs often have to supplement language testing with measures standardized on children with normal hearing

True or False

48. Speech intelligibility is directly related to degree of hearing loss, and the greatest variability occurs for children whose hearing loss is at or exceeds 75 dB HL

True or False

49. Carney showed in her research that the average speech intelligibility of children whose cheating loss falls int eh severe to profound range can range from 0 10 100% but averages only 20%. Recent research revealed that children with cochlear implants who are given the GFTA perform within normal limits when compared to hearing peers

True or False

50. The auditory oral approach and the auditory verbal approach emphasizes the use of sensory aids (as needed) and the role of parents in promoting learning at home

True or False

51. In a bi bi second language approach, English is developed as as second language via the written form and access to individuals with fluency in ASL in the DEAF culture is important

True or False

52. Which of the following is TRUE regarding children with hearing impairment's early vocalizations?

a. they produce a greater proportion of visible sounds
b. their canonical babbling is delayed in frequency and diversity
c. they show significant difference interior development of place of articulation of consonants
d. all of the above

*53. Libby, age 6, communicates via TC. Her mom wants you to assess Libby's receptive sign vocabulary. You divide to use which formal measure?


54. Jacob, age 3, has am mild sloping to moderately severe bilaterally SN hearing loss. We might anticipate he would have trouble proceeding which of the following words?

a. bad
b. mommy
c. cookie
d. oh oh

55. Preschool children with hearing gloss often struggle with mapping language into everyday routines. This can be due to

a. limited schema about the event or routine
b. less access to language of parents, siblings, and caregivers
c. fewer incidental learning opportunities
d. all of the above

56. A landmark study on language acquisition on preschoolers with hearing loss revealed which of the following as a surprise finding?

a. late identification with low cognition showed the poorest performance on language measures
b. late identification with normal cognition scored higher than late identification with low cognition
c. late identification with normal cognition scored essentially equal to early identification with low cognition
d. early identification with normal cognition scored highest

*57. List two factors that have significantly changed the speech and language outcomes for children with hearing loss

Early identification, increased client diversity, CIs

58. Same as 57


*59. By what age does a typically deleting child with normal hearing learn to discriminate the sounds of their native language

6 months

*60. Gregg, age 11, has a profound hearing loss and voicing problems when he talks. Name one perceptual problem might hear in Gregg's speech attempts is he has sufficient goal fold adduction

Hypo or hyper nasality

61. The OHCL study is an epidemiological study conducted from three universities that hopes to inform practices that lead to differences in outcomes for children who are deaf

True or False

62. Most students who are identified in school aged hearing conservation programs demonstrate sensorineural hearing loss

True or False

*63. What is the recommended interval for assessing hearing in children aged birth to three years?

3 months

64. Hearing loss does not impact educational outcomes in children with mild hearing loss

True or False

*65. The reason that early intervention services occur most frequently in the home or in a natural context is related to interpretation of what federal law?


66. Family centered models of early intervention for children with hearing loss are considered best practice following identification by NBHS programs

True or False

67. If I was using Mahoney's relationship focused intervention, I would encourage a family to engage with their young child in natural contexts in a very responsive manner

True or False

68. If an SLP or audiologist is using adaptive strategies with a child, he/she might engage in which of the following behaviors:

a. looking for changes in heavers and adjusting to meet the child's needs
b. giving additional meaningful opportunities to develop language in a natural context
c. Providing opportunities to embed rich language and auditory experiences into routines
d. all of the above

*69. What does the s commentator model reported by Moeller and Condon provides objective descriptions of children's behavior during observed parent interactions. What does this strategy help parents learn?

What is working well

70. Functional assessment measures are sometimes used to validate as well as document listening performance in varied conditions including natural listening environments (e.g. classroom)

True or False

*71. Learning by overhearing others (incidental learning) is a behavior that falls under which Phase of the Cole and Flexor model?

Phase IV

*72. Johnny is a CI user. His audiologist has encouraged his family to play hide and seek with him and call his name from different locations in the house. This will work on WHICH auditory skill a la Ember listening hierarchy?


73. Deaf mentoring for families who choose a bi0bi program for their child's communication has been shown to reveal greater language gains, yield higher overall vocabulary, and yield even better English syntax than controls who did not receive this programming

True or False

74. In counseling families of children with hearing loss, it is important to stress that early identification of hearing loss will typically yield outcomes in the normal range for their children

True or False

75. In the Emergent Curriculum used in many, preschools, developmentally appropriate units in the curriculum are targeted based not he interests and learning needs of the child, rather than commonly used themes.

True or False

76. According to McConkey Robbins, cochlear implantation and its technology provide create the opportunities for meaning to be established in spoken language.

True or False

77. Children who do not bond to their implants within a short time following stimulation run the rick of having less robust progress and communication progress and are at risk for becoming non-implant users

True or False

78. Formal testing of children with implants helps to clarify performance in communication particularly on more subtle, higher level linguistic tasks required for complex conversations

True or False

79. Which of the following is not correct relative to usage of CIs for children?

a. it is difficult to hear in background noise
b. all implanted children, regardless of age of implantation, continue to struggle in task transitions from more structured to more spontaneous listening situations
c. detection tasks are harder for HA users than for CI users
d. there is more potential for overheating in incidental learning situations for CI users relative to HA users

80. A child is presented with an array of three objects varying in manner in initial position and asked to point to one of the objects in an auditory only condition (show me bat/cat/rat). According to Chute and Nevins, this would be called what kind of task?

a. Pattern perception
b. segmental identification
c. discrimination
d. comprehension

81. To help a child learn how to report a malfunction in his CI, it is important to train him/her to respond to silence as an important concept.

True or False

82. Children who can respond to phrases such as "see you later" or "what are you doing?" are engaging in:

a. listening routines
b. analytic auditory training tasks
c. open-set comprehension tasks
d. closed-set identification

83. When researchers evaluate better outcomes of communication skills in comparison to age of implantation, there is substantial report in more recent studies for and better outcomes associated with implants

a. by age one
b. by age two
c. by age three
d. there is no significant difference between ages 1, 2 or 3

84. Research has shown us that significant delays in language development already exists in most children by the time they receive their CI even if they are early implants.

True or False

85. Johnnie is working on his speech production skills. He practiced saying "key", then moved to "keep", then was successful on the phrases "i keep it". His clinician then had him make up a sentence with the word "keep". He respond with: "Keep. I have keep". As his SLP, a good next step on the ladder of speech training skills would be:

a. Have him try a sentence with "keep"
b. have him try a different word at the spontaneous sentence level that starts with "k"
c. have him try to imitate a sentence that the clinician creates "keep up the good work"
d. drop to the word level as it is clearly too hard for him

86. Being able to interpret as well as signal subtle emotional cues with your voice is sometimes difficult for children with hearing loss. This can lead to:

a. negative reactions from others when things are misunderstood
b. difficulty with social nuances such as interpreting sarcasm
c. caregivers/SLPs to work on scripting responses in social situations
d. both a and b
e. a, b and c

87. Many parents elect to use sign as a "stop-gap" measure before implantation. Robbins suggests that this is a good recommendation except in the following condition:

a. the family wants to learn sign
b. the child is enrolled in a strong program with an auditory emphasis
c. the child is notably frustrated
d. the child may not get an implant until 1.5-2 years of age

88. If I were trying to ascertain a child's functioning in his preschool classroom and wanted to et teachers' input, I would consider giving the

a. ERM
b. IEP
c. Preschool SIFTER
d. all of the above

89. ENL families with CI children are challenging for CI teams in general. This is due to

a. difficulty understand the medial system
b. difficulty understanding the education system fro their child
c. lack of qualified personnel with awareness of cultural differences/language difference
d. both a and b
e. A, B and C

90. You are working with a ly implanted 14 year old 9th grade student. He has been deaf since birth. When you are selecting therapy materials to work on speech production tasks, you decide that the best materials would be:

a. for younger children so that this student would gain coincidence and work quickly through the numerous articulation steps that he did not reach as a younger child with limited access
b. whatever would be most motivating for him: a 9th grader would have strong feelings about what he would wan to work on and be most motivated by what he would see as important
c. a science worksheet hat tis due in a week: you select words that have his target speech sounds and he practice those while he completes his homework assignment
d. talking to each of his teachers and seeing what words they feel that he needs to know for that subject area

91. Data logging is very useful for determining the amount of usage for a CI during school day hours.

True or False

92. It is important to teach children with hearing loss to advocate for their hearing needs as well as inform their teachers/support personnel and sometimes classmates about their hearing loss

True or False

93. Some hearing loss issues for school aged children are more complicated to manage. One example is children with milder losses (such as high frequency) and those with chronic conductive losses. Problems with speech, language, academic and other social/educational functioning have been reported in what percentage of the mild bilateral or unilateral hearing loss children?

a. rarely is academica functioning impaired with unilateral or mild hearing loss
b. 20%
c. 30-40%
d. approximately 50%

*94. ASHA in defining CAPD, suggested that three key auditory areas be assessed. Name the three areas.

Temporal recognition
Binaural separation and integration
Monaural with background noise

95. Besides conducting an ecologically valid assessment, it is important to also include observations of the child with the hearing loss in the classroom setting to best gauge functional abilities

True or False

96. For SLPs working with school aged children with hearing loss, discrete skill training should always be a focus of intervention even if it does not directly relate to the curriculum established or classroom functioning

True or False

97. Josie, who has a severe to profound bilateral hearing loss, has been aided since age 3. She has language learning problems secondary to her hearing loss. When reading Romeo and Juliet and writing an essay for her class assignment from Juliet's point of view, Josie is struggling. If we think of the language requirements for this specific task, which of the following is probably the main area might Josie realistically be challenged by?

a. Conversational strategies
b. Taking perspective
c. World knowledge
d. All of the above

*98. Typical noise levels in an open classroom average how many dB?

70 dB

*99. As social demands increase for students in elementary school, they have increased experience learning to shift their manner of conversations dependent not eh communication partner. If we refer to the 1979 Bloom and Lahey model of language, which area is this most related to?


*100. Daniel, age 8, is a second grader at Wendell Elementary and has bilateral severe SNHL. HIs teacher needs instruction on how to use his FM system and consistently use preferential seating to maximize his functioning. Relative to the components of the CORE model, which aspect will you as the SLP or audiologist be focusing on?


*101. For hearing and hearing impaired listeners, what happens to mean word recognition scores as RT increases?

Mean word recognition decreases

102. Which of the following are common intervention areas for SLPs working with children with HL in the school setting?

a. Expanding world knowledge and semantic mapping of vocabulary
b. developing problem solving and verbal reasoning skills
c. Improving study skills such as note-taking
d. all of the above
e. only a and b

*103. How often should a student's hearing aid be monitored by school personnel?


*104. ASL is to natural language as SEE is to

sign system

105. Without systematically monitoring equipment used for children with hearing loss including FMs, hearing aids, ALDs, the failure rate found by researchers is expected to be approximately what level?

a. 75%
b. 50%
c. 35%
d. 20%

106. In disillusioning how best to educate children with hearing loss, Matkin and Montgomery argue against utilization of a "failure based" noel. In such a model, students are placed in a regular education program initially and then moved to a more restricted special education classroom when success is not realized.

True or False

*107. What % of students receives instruction in a bi-bo approach?


108. Cochlear implants may provide cognitive, environmental, and social value to children with profound hearing loss and additional disabilities.

True or False

109. Any degree of hearing loss places a child at risk for poor academic performance

True or False

110. Children with CIs should usually not use a TC approach

True or False

111. PL 99:457 Education of Handicapped Act mandated service to include

a. For the first time, children with HL
b. Shift in labeling to "disability"
c. birth to 5 including AR services for children and their families
d. all of the above

112. Joey, age 8 has a profound bilateral SNHL and communicates via TC with some speech approximations. He is transferring to your neighborhood school where he will be the only child who signs in his school of 350 children. What problem(s) might you assume Joey might have?

a. difficulty communicating with peers
b. problems using his interpreter at his school
c. peers not knowing how to use an interpreter
d. all of the above
e. only a and b

113. According to Schow and Nerbonne, a deaf 17 year old with profound HL may have the vocabulary level of

a. below 3rd grade
b. 3rd to 5th grade
c. 5th to 7th grade
d. above 7th grade

114. IDEA mandates mainstreaming in the LRE

True or False

115. Recent research has noted that some CI users have more difficulty accessing appropriate school services since their speech intelligibility may mask other auditory, language or learning problems

True or False

116. According to your text, by 2005, nearly 50% of students with hearing loss in K-post high school settings are educated primarily in what setting?

a. self contained classroom
b. resource room
c. specialized facility (school for the deaf)
d. regular classroom

117. Children with auditory neuropathy often

a. demonstrate little benefit form hearing aids
b. may be a good candidate for a CI
c. are variable in their developmental levels and auditory abilities
d. both a and b
e. A, B and C

118. Robbins include san auditory-visual continuum for language learning in her discussion of educational challenges for students with CIs. According to Robbins, if a child has access to usage of a CI, even the child's educational environment does focus on listening and speaking, the child will make good usage of his auditory cues

True or False

119. Often when communication strategies programs being, the leader of the program typically sets up the "rules" for the group. The primary reason is to ensure a safe environment for sharing feelings, concerns and solutions for the group members

True or False

120. For communication strategies training with frequent communication partners, Tye Murray might suggest using shorter, less syntactically complex sentence to enhance the message

True or False

121. "Go get your coat" was misunderstood by Johnny, age 4 who has a bilateral severe SNHL. His mother then continued: "Johnny. We're leaving and we both need a coat. go get your coat" this is an example of:

a. elaborating
b. rephrasing
c. simplifying
d. using a key word

122. According to Tye-Murray, when conceptualizing the states of communication strategies, it is important to move simultaneously through the three steps: formal instruction, guided learning, and real world practice

True or False

123. Living with a spouse or family member with hearing loss can be stressful. Sometimes this is caused by increase noise int he home or increased vocal effort on the part of the partner. there may also be a sense of social isolation

True or False

124. the clinic I work in uses role playing to develop specific communication skills. This is an example of real world practice

True or False

125. "I didn't understand what time you said. Would you mind repeating that appointment time?" This is an example of what kind of communication behavior?

a. modeled
b. passsive
c. agressive
d. assertive

126. In the SPEECH program, several key concepts are stressed including improving proximity, easing the listening burden and manipulating environmental variables to improve the S"N ratio. Another suggestion is to use slow and exaggerated speech to enhance intelligibility for the person with the hearing loss

True or False

127. Rory, Abby and Simon all third graders with cochlear implants, are working in group therapy together. They are learning social conventions for phone usage in a role playing situation. They are most likely working on

a. identifying causes of communication breakdown
b. social constraints of message formulation
c. evaluation of the sender's responsibility in sending a message
d. Implementation of repair strategies

128. Lily, age 8, has a severe hearing loss. She has a lot of difficulty interpreting the reactions when people do not understand her speech. Lulu might benefit from training at which step of the Elfenbein model?

a. Step 1
b. Step 2
c. Step 3
d. Step 4

129. The goal of the article was to determine if there was a long term benefit to born hearing screening for high school aged children with hearing loss. How were the authors able to determine if born hearing screening was beneficial?

a. all of the children in the study were born during a time when born hearing screening was available to all infants in the UK
b. only high risk infants were screened for hearing loss at he time these children int he study were born
c. about half of the children in the study were born during periods of born hearing screening in the UK, and half were not, so the two groups could be compared
d. the UK doesn't have universal born hearing screening

130. What was the primary outcome measure (dependent variable) in the study?

a. reading
b. syntax
c. vocabulary
d. pragmatics

131. How did the authors measure the primary outcome measure (what type of test score did they use)?

a. standard score
b. percentile rank
c. age equivalent score
d. z score

132. Using figure 2 as a guide, what are the major finding form this study?

a. children with early confirmation of hearing loss, on average, catch up to their same age peers with normal hearing
b. children with early confirmation of hearing loss show stable growth int he outcome meuse, while children with late confirmation show a decline over time
c. children with early and late confirmation of hearing loss are both delayed relative to peers with normal hearing, but show the same pattern of growth of time
d. there are no significant differences in scores between eat and late groups at either testing intervals

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