Middle Ear Disorders flashcards |

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middle ear disorders

-tympanic membrane perforation
-tympanosclerosis aka myringosclerosis
-otitits media
-cholesteatoma
-otosclerosis
-ossicular disarticulation
-Treacher Collins syndrome

tympanic membrane perforation

-caused by trauma/ disease process
-likely to cause hearing loss
-most recover spontaneously w/in 2-3 months
-surgical repair sometimes necessary

myringoplasty

surgical repair of TM

tympanosclerosis

aka myringosclerosis
-Calcium deposits formed on TM (sometimes ossicles), sometimes referred to as 'scarring' of the TM
-Typically associated with chronic otitis or trauma to the TM

otitis media

inflamation of the middle-ear space
-secondary infection due to a cold
-otitis media isn't contagious, but the cold is

otitis media is classified according to

type fluid and time course

type of fluid in otitis media

-serous
-suppurative, purulent
-mucoid

population at high risk for otitis media

-young childrenj
-day care/multiple children living at home
-hispanic, native american children
-cleft palate (greater amount of fluid passes up into eustachian tube)
-down syndrome
-suppressed immune system
-second-hand smoke

type of loss bc of otitis media

conductive hearing loss

treatment of otitis media

-resolves naturally
-antibiotics
-pressure equalization/ventilation tubes

potential medical complications due to otitis media

-erossion of ossicles (fluid can break ossicles and erode middle wall)
-erosion into labyrinth (fistula)
-erosion and exposure of facial nerve
-mastoiditis (before advent of antibiotics)
-cloesteatoma
-meningitis, encephalitis

cholesteatoma is associated with

chronic otitits media

colesteatoma

benign 'pseudo tumor' arising from skin cells trapped in middle ear behind TM
-can be acquired or congenital

symptomes of cholesteatoma

draine (with foul odor) from ear, earache
-feeling of pressure, hearing loss
-dizziness or facial muscle weakness

intervention for cholesteatoma

controlling otitis media, surgery for removal and middle-ear reconstruction

otosclerosis

hardening of ear
-formation of spongy bone deposits in middle ear
-progressive, bilateral disease
-produces impaired stapedial mobility and gradual conductive hearing loss

prevalence of otosclerosis

single most common cause of serious hearing loss in young adulthood; not seen in children
-1 in every 5 anglo women
-half as common in Anglo men
-1 in 100 African american
-hereditary (dominant gene)
-onset in 20s early 40s

treatment for otosclerosis

surgical (stapedectomy) or hearing aids

ossicular disarticulaiton

separation (break) of ossicular chaing caused by trauma or disease
-typically acquired
-partial or complete
-80% have erosion of incudo-stapedial joint (joining of incus and stapes)

treacher collins syndrome

1. autosomal dominant inheritance
-1/2 are fresh mutations
2. facial bone abnormalities
-eyes
-ears
-underdevelped cheek bones, very small jaw
-large mouth, w/ dental abnormalities
-often w/ cleft palate

two major causes of hearing loss in children

genetic, sensorineural and otitis media

type of hearing loss in treacher collins syndrome

1. conductinve (combo of atresia and missing ossicles
2. mild to moderate severe degree
3.flat/rising configurtation
3. inner ear structures typically normal; sensorineural present in rare cases

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