Ch. 12 book notes flashcards |

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What are the two basic physical measurements that are associated with pure-tones?

Freq. and Intensity

What frequencies are critical for the perception of speech?

Frequencies b/w 300 and 3000 Hz

The human ear responds best to what frequencies?

Frequencies b/w 20 and 20,000 Hz.

Although the human ear is not equally sensitive to all frequencies. The ear is MOST sensitive to mid-frequencies around 1000 Hz.

Infrasonic frequencies

Frequencies below 20 Hz

Ultrasonic frequencies

Frequencies above 20,000 Hz

Why do we test 3000 Hz?

It is important for speech perception

Why would we test 6000 Hz?

It's importance in diagnosing noise-induced hearing loss

What does dB SPL refer to?

the absolute pressure reference level for the dB.

What does dB HL refer to?

the reference to average normal hearing sensitivity

What does dB SL refer to?

to specify the intensity of stimuli presented to a given patient relative to the patient's threshold.

Pure-tone audiometers originated from what?

tuning forks

When do we use automatic audiometers?

For mass screenings, such as industrial hearing conservation programs

What can caused the ear canal collapse?

The use of supra-aural earphones

Why are insert headphones better for diagnostics?

They eliminate the problem of collapsed ear canals experienced with supra-aural earphones.

Why is proper earphone placement important?

It is required to obtain valid test results.

Why is it better to have the patient respond by raising his/her hand instead of using the handheld button?

The handheld button provides only binary (yes/no) information.

Additional information can be obtained about the subject by observing the amplitude and speed of hand/finger raising.

What is a short coming of the descending method?

a false-positive response (responding when the stimuli is no longer present)

What is a short coming of the ascending method?

a false-negative response (failing to respond even when the stimuli is still audible)

How does the Hughson-Westlake overcome the the shortcomings of the descending and ascending methods?

It uses techniques from both the ascending and descending methods.

Developed to reduce the influences of preservation and inhibition. This procedure uses an ascending technique to determine threshold. Each threshold search is preceded by a descending familiarization trail.

When do false-negative responses occur during testing?

When the patient is faking a hearing loss (pseudohypoacusis)

When do false-positive responses occur during testing?

When the patient has tinnitus, especially when the test frequency is near the tinnitus freq.

For these patients use a pulsed/warbled tone.

What tests that we use are automated?

ABR and OAEs

Overtime, it is likely that we will start using automated equipment for pure-tone testing.

What is the most effective way to prevent the spread of infection?


Mode of BC:

When the skull is set into motion with a BC vibrator, the structures of the ossicular chain are not rigidly attached, and there is a lag in their movement relative to the skull movement.

Mode of BC:

Inertial properties of the bones composing the skull causing them to vibrate in response to the BC oscillator. This method of stimulation dominates the low freq.

Mode of BC:

When the skull is set into motion w/ a BC vibrator, the compression of the bones of the skull gives rise to a distortion of the inner ear structures, which in turn produces electromechanical activity in the inner ear, giving rise to the sensation of hearing.

Why could the results of the Bing and Rinne tuning fork tests be contaminated?

Due to the crossover of the BC test signal to the NTE.

Bing purpose

assesses the presence of conductive hearing loss

Rinne propose

compares AC to BC sensitivity

Weber purpose

used for patients reporting unilateral hearing loss.

What can we replace standard tuning fork tests with?

Audiometric tuning fork tests by placing the bone oscillator on the patient's head and setting it to 35 to 45 dB HL

Why does BC have more variability that AC?

1. Variations in skull size and thickness of the skin and bone of the skull are uncontrollable factors

2. It takes more energy to drive the bone oscillator

3. Tactile responses will be obtained for BC stimulation at 250 Hz and 500 Hz at intensities b/e 25 and 55 dB HL

4. The IA for BC is 0 dB, therefore the signal is equally present in the NTE.

5. The effects of environmental noise are greater for BC threshold testing b/c thresholds are obtained w/out occlusion of the external ear canals.

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)

involves deficits in processing auditory info not attributed to impairment in peripheral hearing mechanism or intellect

Auditory Neuropathy

Aud. dysynchrony is a pathologic condition of the auditory sys. that involves a disruption of synchronous activity in the processes of aud. stimuli, most likely involving the 8th CN. Hearing sensitivity can be normal, or hearing loss in the mild-mod., or even severe, range can be present.

Normal cochlear function is present.

ABR is abnormal or elevated beyond wave.

Speech recognition is significantly worse.

Hearing Disability

Refers to the limitation on function imposed by a hearing loss

Hear Handicapped

a measure of effect that hearing loss has on psychosocial function


Individuals that have a severe to profound hearing loss, whose auditory sensitivity is so severely impaired that only a few or none of the prosodic and phonetic elements of speech can be recognized.

Hard of hearing

individuals w/ hearing loss that can identify enough of the distinguishing features of speech through hearing alone to permit at least partial recognition of spoken lang.

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