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benefits of improving muscular fitness

-lower risk of all-cause mortality
-fewer CVD events
-lower risk of developing functional limitation
-improvements in body composition
-blood glucose levels
-insulin sensitivity
-blood pressure in persons with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension
-may prove to be effective to prevent and treat the "metabolic syndrome"
-effectively increases bone mass (bone mineral density and content) and bone strength of the specific bones stressed and may serve as a valuable measure to prevent, slow-or even reverse-the loss of bone mass in people w/ osteoporosis)
-may reduce the chance of developing musculoskeletal disorder
-in persons w/ osteoarthritis, resistance training can reduce pain and disability

mental health benefits

-may prevent and improve depression and anxiety
-increase "energy" levels
-decrease fatigue
-improve self esteem/ self efficacy

muscle strength

maximal force expressed as a 1 RM (repetition max)

muscle endurance

repeated contractions at sub max force to fatigue, expressed as a % RM

work

force x distance

power

force x distance divided by time

load

absolute weight lifted

reversibility

loss of the effects of training

sets

repetitions performed one after another

volume

sets x repetitions x load

intensity

power output in a workout session

periodization

a systematic variation in volume

overload

adding greater than normal stimulus

specificity

you get good at what you do

maximal voluntary muscular contraction

the last repetition in a set to "failure"

endurance

(intensity level)
-40-60% 1 RM
-20+ reps

Strength

(intensity level)
-80% or higher
-2-6 reps

General population intensity levels

-60-80% 1RM
-8-12 reps

type 1 muscle fibers

endurance
-low intensities
-high durations

type IIB muscle fibers

-strength and power
-high intensities
-low durations
(creates significant hypertrophy)

hypertrophy

gaining of size of the cross sectional area of the existing muscle fibers, not an increase in their number

reversibility

any improvements in physical fitness due to physical activity is entirely reversible, in other words, "use it or lose it"

atrophy

-detraining can cause this effect
-a decrease in strength,
-a reduction in fxn and performance averages 10% in 2 weeks, 30% in 4 weeks

sets

-are repetitions performed one after another.
-multiple set programs have been found to be superior for strength, power, hypertrophy, and high intensity endurance improvements w/ 2 to 4 sets being suggested
-but even a single set may significantly improve strength and size in novice exercisers

volume

-a vital part of manipulating acute program variables to reduce physiological "staleness"

intensity

refers to the amount of work required to achieve the activity, and is proportional to the mass of the weights being lifted

periodization

-refers to systematic variations in the prescribed volume and intensity during different phases of a resistance training program
-4 phases: Hypertrophy, Strength/Power, Peaking, Recovery
-microcycles make up mesocycles which make up macrocycles throughout the year

high loads

-with large muscle groups require longer rest periods of at least 3-5 min btw sets relative to the primary energy system being used, the ATP-CP system

lower loads

-with large muscle groups require shorter rest periods of 2-3 min btw sets

light loads

-require even less rest btw sets of 1-2 min relative to the energy systems being used, Glycolytic and the ATP-CP system

overload

-adding greater than normal stimulus
-increases the resistance or actual weight lifted
-increase the number of repetitions
-increase the number of sets
-decrease the rest periods btw sets
-add or change the exercise selections

volitional fatigue

the inability to move a resistance through a ROM w/ proper form

maximal voluntary muscular contraction

-usually considered safe, provided that good technique is maintained
-terminate the repetitions when form is broken

free weights

-mimic real life transfer
-require more agility, coordination, balance
-utilize synergist muscles
-fit all clients
-are mutliplanar
-allow more power moves
-have a greater need for spotters
-can be more intimidating
-may be more challenging for beginners
-cost per pound

machines

-have less need for spotters
-may be less intimidating
-isolate muscles
-create a fixed ROM
-do not fit all clients
-may allow for a quicker workout
-may be easier to teach
-cost

fxnal exercise

-(sometimes called neuromotor fitness training) is recommended for 2 or 3 days per week
-exercises should involve motor skills (balance, agility, coordination, gait), proprioceptive exercise training and multifaceted activities (tai chi and yoga) to improve physical fxn and prevent falls in older adults
-20-30 min per day is appropriate for fxnal exercise

core training

-distinct from strength training
-specifically emphasizes conditioning of the middle-body muscles, including the pelvis, lower back, hips an abdomen-all of which provide needed support for the spine

functional fitness

-this is a trend toward using strength training to improve balance and ease of daily living
-functional fitness and special fitness programs for older adults are closely related

circuit training

uses a number of weight training exercise sets separated by short intervals.
-the cardiovascular effort to recover from each set serves a function similar to an aerobic exercise, but this is not the same as saying that a weight training set is itself an aerobic process

drop sets

-sets that do not end at the point of momentary muscular failure, but continue w/ progressively lighter weights

pyramid sets

-weight training sets in which the progression is from lighter weights w/ a greater number of repetitions in the first set, to heavier weights w/ fewer repetitions in subsequent sets
-a reverse pyramid is the opposite in which the heavier weights are used at the beginning and progressively lightened

ascending/descending triangle

-combines pyramids and drop sets, working up to higher weights w/ low reps and then back down to lower weights and high reps

giant sets

-a form of training that targets one muscle group (e.g., the triceps) w/ four separate exercises performed in quick succession, often to failure and sometimes w/ the reduction of weight halfway through a set once muscle fatigue sets in.
-this form of intense training 'shocks' the muscles and as such, is usually performed by experienced trainers and should be used infrequently

supersets

-combines tow or more exercises w/ similar motions to maximize the amount of work of an individual muscle or group of muscles
-the exercises are performed w/ no rest period btw the exercises
-an example would be doing bench press, which predominantly works the pectoralis and triceps muscles, and then moving to an exercise that works just the triceps such as the triceps extension or pushdown

push-pull supersets

-similar to regular supersets, but exercises are chosen which work opposing muscle groups
-this is especially popular when applied to arm exercises, for example by combining biceps curls with the triceps pushdown
-other examples include the shoulder press and lat pulldown combination, and the bench press and wide grip row combination

pre-exhaustion

-combines an isolation exercise w/ a compound exercise for the same muscle group
-the isolation exercise first exhausts the muscle group, and then the compound exercise use the muscle groups supporting muscles to push it further than would otherwise be possible
-for example, the triceps muscles normally help the pectorals perform their fxn, but in the bench press the weaker triceps often fails first, which limits the impact on the pectorals. By preceding the bench press w/ the pec fly, the pectorals can be pre-exhausted so that both muscles fail at the same time, and both benefit equally from the exercise

cheat reps

-a deliberate compromise of form to maximize reps.
-cheating has the advantage that it can be done w/o a training partner, but compromises safety
-a typical example of cheat reps occurs during biceps curls when, beginning with the load at the waist, the exerciser swings the barbell or dumbbell forward and up during the concentric phase utilizing momentum to assist the biceps muscles in moving the load to a shortened muscle position
-momentum assistance during the concentric phase allows movement of greater loads during the more difficult concentric phase

weight stripping

-a technique used after failure w/ a normal resistance in certain exercises, particularly w/ easily adjustable machines, whereby the weight trainer or a partner gradually reduces the resistance after a full set is taken to failure
-w/ each reduction in resistance as many as possible reps are completed and the resistance is then reduced again

negative reps

performed w/ much heavier weights on the eccentric phase by taking two seconds to lift each weight and four seconds to lower it

super slow

-slow repetitions are performed w/ lighter weights
-the lifting and lowering phases of each repetition take 10 seconds or more

agonist

responsible for the movement you are seeing
-they are the ones in agony

antagonists

oppose their agonist partner

synergists

-assist the prime movers but are not primarily responsible for the movement

biceps

triceps

pectoralis major

deltoids (rear)

pectoralis minor

mid trapezius

upper trapezius

lower trapezius

deltoids

latissimus dorsi

rectus abdominus

erector spinae

iliopsoas

gluteus maximus

quadriceps

hamstrings

tibialis anterior

gastrocnemius/soleus

hip adductors

hi abductors

obliques (internal)

obliques (external)

concentric muscle contraction

-muscle force overcomes the resistance and the muscle shortens (often thought of as the "contraction" phase)
-this is the "work" phase not always the up phase

Eccentric muscle contraction

-the resistance is greater than the muscle force and the muscle is lengthening
-not always the lowering phase
-consider the mode

bench press

primary movers
-pectorals
-triceps
Joint Action
-horizontal shoulder adduction
-elbow extension
Plane
-transverse

Seated Pulley Row

Primary Movers
-latissimus dorsi
-biceps
Joint Action
-shoulder extension
-elbow flexion
Plane
-Sagittal

Shruggs

Primary Movers
-upper trapezius
Joint Action
-shoulder girdle elevation
Plane
-frontal

Overhead Press

Primary Movers
-deltoids
-triceps
Joint Actions
-shoulder abduction
-elbow extension
Plane
-frontal

Bent Over Flies

Primary Movers
-deltoids (rear)
-mid traps
-rhomboids
Joint Actions
-horizontal shoulder abduction
-scapular adduction (retraction)
Plane
-transverse

Ab crunches

Primary Movers
-rectus abdominus
Joint Actions
-spinal flexion
Plane
-sagittal

Ab Twists

Primary Movers
-obliques
Joint Actions
-spinal rotation
Plane
-transverse

Back Extensions

Primary Movers
-erector spinae
Joint Action
-spinal extension
Plane
-sagittal

Lateral Raise

Primary Movers
-deltoid (medial)
Joint Actions
-shoulder abduction
Plane
-frontal

squat

Primary Movers
-gluteal muscles
-quadriceps
Joint Actions
-hip extension
-knee extension
Plane
-sagittal

leg extension

Primary Movers
-quadriceps
Joint Actions
-knee extension
Plane
-sagittal

leg curl

Primary Movers
-hamstrings
Joint Action
-knee flexion
Plane
-sagittal

calf raises

Primary Movers
-gastrocnemius
Joint Action
-plantarflexion
Plane
-sagittal

cable hip abduction

Primary Movers
-glueteus medius
-tensor fascia latae
Joint Actions
-hip abduction
Plane
-frontal

cable hip adduction

Primary Movers
-hip adductors
Joint Action
-hip adduction
Plane
-frontal

toe raises

Primary Movers
-tibialis anterior
Joint Action
-dorsiflexion
Plane
-sagittal

biceps curls

Primary Movers
-biceps brachii
Joint Action
-elbow flexion
Plane
-sagittal

triceps kickbacks

Primary Movers
-triceps brachii
Joint Action
-elbow extension
Plane
-sagittal

Rotator Cuff

Primary Movers
-Supraspinatus
-Infraspinatus
-Teres Minor
-Subscapularis
Joint Action
-Shoulder abduction
-external rotation
-external rotation
-internal rotation
Plane
-transverse

dynamic constant resistance

-free weights, kettelbells, medicine balls, calisthenics
-devices that do not attempt to vary the resistance (load)

dynamic variable resistance

-DVR equipment utilizes a cam, pulley, cable or lever
-purpose is to manipulate the strength curve for a more maximal force
-it is not a perfected science

valsalva maneuver

-a forceful closing of the epiglottis causing dramatic elevations in intrathoracic pressure

spotting

-ask permission to touch
-verbally communicate and physically assist
-know the # of repetitions being attempted
-request additional spotters when necessary
-carefully monitor the lifter at all times
-stop incorrect form
-teach the lifter how to get away from an unmanageable lift

front missed lift

-push bar away and jump back

behind the head missed lifts

-release the bar behind and jump forward

five-point body contact position

-head is placed firmly on the bench or back pad
-shoulder and upper back are placed firmly and evenly on the bench or back pad
-buttocks is placed evenly on the bench or seat
-right foot is flat on the floor
-left foot is flat on the floor

spotting overhead exercises and those with the bar on the back or front shoulders

-ideally, to promote the safety of the lifter, the spotters, and others nearby, overhead exercises and those involving the bar on the back or front shoulders should be performed inside a power rack w/ the crossbars in place at an appropriate height

weight belts

-typically an athlete should wear a weight belt when performing exercises that place stress on the lower back and during sets that involve near-maximal or maximal loads
-is NOT needed for exercises that do not stress the lower back, or for those that do stress the lower back but involve light loads

spotting machines

-before performing machine exercises, adjust seat and pads to position the body joint primarily involved in the exercise in alignment w/ the machine's axis of rotation

correct dumbbell spotting location

spot should be at the wrists

leg press

concentric phase
-legs are fully extended
eccentric phase
-legs are flexed at 90 degree angle
Muscles Used
-gluteal muscles
-quadriceps
Joint Action
-hip extension
-knee extension
Plane
-sagittal

squat smith machine

concentric phase
-standing upright, bar on shoulders (rear)
eccentric phase
-squat position
Muscles used
-gluteal muscles
-quadriceps
Joint Actions
-hip extension
-knee extension
Plane
-sagittal

hack squat

concentric phase
-knees fully extended
eccentric phase
-knees flexed at 90 degrees
Muscles Used
-gluteal muscles
-quadriceps
Joint Actions
-hip extension
-knee extension
Plane
-sagittal

leg extensions

concentric phase
-knee extension
eccentric phase
-knee flexion
Muscles Used
-quadriceps
Joint Action
-knee extension
Plane
-sagittal

hamstring curls

concentric phase
-knee flexion
eccentric phase
-knee extension
Muscles Used
-hamstrings
Joint Action
-knee flexion
Plane
-sagittal

bench press

concentric phase
-arms fully extended with bar in hands
eccentric phase
-arms flexed at a 90 degree angle
Muscles Used
-pectorals
-triceps
Joint Action
-horizontal shoulder adduction
-elbow extension
Plane
-transverse

shoulder press

concentric phase
-arms fully extended holding the bar overhead
eccentric phase
-arms flexed at 90 degree angle, bar just under chin
Muscles Used
-deltoids
-triceps
Joint Action
-shoulder abduction
-elbow extension
Plane
-frontal

lat pull down

concentric phase
-arms flexed at more than 90 degrees, bar under chin
eccentric phase
-arms fully extended over head
Muscles Used
-latissimus dorsi
-biceps
Joint Actions
-shoulder adduction
-elbow flexion
Plane
-frontal

open kinetic chain movement

-the distal end is moving

closed kinetic chain movement

the distal end is fixed
(ex. a pull up for the lats)

back extension

concentric phase
-back is in neutral spine
eccentric phase
-trunk flexion
Muscles Used
-erector spinae
Joint Action
-spinal extension
Plane
-sagittal

triceps pushdown

eccentric phase
-arms at 90 degrees
concentric phase
-arms fully extended downward
Muscles Used
-triceps
Joint Action
-elbow extension
Plane
-sagittal

biceps curls

eccentric phase
-arms fully extended downward at your side
concentric phase
-arms flexed at more than 90 degrees
Muscles Used
-biceps
Joint Action
-elbow flexion
Plane
-sagittal

abdominal curl

concentric phase
-trunk flexion
eccentric phase
-trunk extension
Muscles used
-rectus abdominus
Joint Action
-spinal flexion
Plane
-sagittal

YMCA bench press test

-barbell load: men 80 lbs/ Women 35lbs
-metronome set to 60 bpm (30 repetitions/minute)
-participant lies on bench, feet on floor, spotter ready
-start w/ bar in down position (weight near chest)
-perform full repetitions until fatigue or until subject breaks the cadence
-count ma number of consecutive repetitions and consult norms

curl up test

-shoes are on
-participant assumes a supine position on a mat w/ knees bent at 90 degrees
-the arms are at the side, palms facing down w/ the middle fingers touching a piece of masking tape
- a second piece of tape is placed 10cm away
-a metronome is set to 50 bpm, and the individual does slow controlled curl-ups to lift shoulder blade off the mat (trunk makes 30 degree angle with the mat), in time w/ the metronome at a rate of 25 per minute.
-the test is performed for 1 min.
-the lower back should be flattened before each curl up

push-up test

-males start in the standard "down" position (hands pointing forward and under the shoulder, back straight, head up, using the toes as the pivot point)
-females start in the modified down position of "knee push-up" (legs together, lower legs in contact w/ mat w/ ankles plantar-flexed, back straight, hands shoulder width apart, head up, using the knees as the pivot point)
-the subject must raise the body by straightening the elbows and returns to the "down" position, until the chin touches the mat
-the stomach should not touch the mat
-for both men and women, the subject's back must be straight at all times and the subject must push up to a straight arm position
-the maximal number of push-ups performed consecutively w/o rest is counted as the score
-the test is stopped when the client strains forcibly or is unable to maintain the appropriate technique w/in two repetitions

programming considerations

-large muscles worked before small
-more intense exercises before less intense
-multi joint (compound) before single joint (isolation)
-alternating push/pull exercises
-alternating upper body/ lower body
-explosive lifts before basic lifts
-weaker muscles before stronger muscles
-unilateral and bilateral
-closed chain vs. open chain

progression

-2-10% increases in load should be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number
-2-3 times per week for novice training, 3-4 per week for intermediate, and 4-5 per week for advanced training

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