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115 True/False questions

  1. bicepstriceps

          

  2. endurance(intensity level)
    -40-60% 1 RM
    -20+ reps

          

  3. spotting overhead exercises and those with the bar on the back or front shouldersthe distal end is fixed
    (ex. a pull up for the lats)

          

  4. back extensionconcentric phase
    -knee extension
    eccentric phase
    -knee flexion
    Muscles Used
    -quadriceps
    Joint Action
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  5. atrophy(intensity level)
    -80% or higher
    -2-6 reps

          

  6. Seated Pulley Rowprimary movers
    -pectorals
    -triceps
    Joint Action
    -horizontal shoulder adduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -transverse

          

  7. giant sets-sets that do not end at the point of momentary muscular failure, but continue w/ progressively lighter weights

          

  8. quadricepstriceps

          

  9. machinestriceps

          

  10. bench pressprimary movers
    -pectorals
    -triceps
    Joint Action
    -horizontal shoulder adduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -transverse

          

  11. work-are repetitions performed one after another.
    -multiple set programs have been found to be superior for strength, power, hypertrophy, and high intensity endurance improvements w/ 2 to 4 sets being suggested
    -but even a single set may significantly improve strength and size in novice exercisers

          

  12. Rotator CuffPrimary Movers
    -hamstrings
    Joint Action
    -knee flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  13. leg extensionconcentric phase
    -knee extension
    eccentric phase
    -knee flexion
    Muscles Used
    -quadriceps
    Joint Action
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  14. lower loadsconcentric phase
    -legs are fully extended
    eccentric phase
    -legs are flexed at 90 degree angle
    Muscles Used
    -gluteal muscles
    -quadriceps
    Joint Action
    -hip extension
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  15. biceps curlsPrimary Movers
    -hamstrings
    Joint Action
    -knee flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  16. pre-exhaustionPrimary Movers
    -quadriceps
    Joint Actions
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  17. leg pressconcentric phase
    -legs are fully extended
    eccentric phase
    -legs are flexed at 90 degree angle
    Muscles Used
    -gluteal muscles
    -quadriceps
    Joint Action
    -hip extension
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  18. periodization-refers to systematic variations in the prescribed volume and intensity during different phases of a resistance training program
    -4 phases: Hypertrophy, Strength/Power, Peaking, Recovery
    -microcycles make up mesocycles which make up macrocycles throughout the year

          

  19. lat pull downconcentric phase
    -arms flexed at more than 90 degrees, bar under chin
    eccentric phase
    -arms fully extended over head
    Muscles Used
    -latissimus dorsi
    -biceps
    Joint Actions
    -shoulder adduction
    -elbow flexion
    Plane
    -frontal

          

  20. core training-distinct from strength training
    -specifically emphasizes conditioning of the middle-body muscles, including the pelvis, lower back, hips an abdomen-all of which provide needed support for the spine

          

  21. hypertrophy-assist the prime movers but are not primarily responsible for the movement

          

  22. Lateral Raise-with large muscle groups require shorter rest periods of 2-3 min btw sets

          

  23. triceps kickbacksPrimary Movers
    -triceps brachii
    Joint Action
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  24. progressionforce x distance divided by time

          

  25. Overhead Pressconcentric phase
    -arms fully extended with bar in hands
    eccentric phase
    -arms flexed at a 90 degree angle
    Muscles Used
    -pectorals
    -triceps
    Joint Action
    -horizontal shoulder adduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -transverse

          

  26. hack squatPrimary Movers
    -gluteal muscles
    -quadriceps
    Joint Actions
    -hip extension
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  27. bench pressconcentric phase
    -arms fully extended with bar in hands
    eccentric phase
    -arms flexed at a 90 degree angle
    Muscles Used
    -pectorals
    -triceps
    Joint Action
    -horizontal shoulder adduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -transverse

          

  28. calf raiseslatissimus dorsi

          

  29. type 1 muscle fibersendurance
    -low intensities
    -high durations

          

  30. front missed lift-a form of training that targets one muscle group (e.g., the triceps) w/ four separate exercises performed in quick succession, often to failure and sometimes w/ the reduction of weight halfway through a set once muscle fatigue sets in.
    -this form of intense training 'shocks' the muscles and as such, is usually performed by experienced trainers and should be used infrequently

          

  31. cheat repsPrimary Movers
    -deltoids
    -triceps
    Joint Actions
    -shoulder abduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -frontal

          

  32. upper trapeziusPrimary Movers
    -tibialis anterior
    Joint Action
    -dorsiflexion
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  33. Strength(intensity level)
    -80% or higher
    -2-6 reps

          

  34. reversibilityyou get good at what you do

          

  35. hip adductors-with large muscle groups require longer rest periods of at least 3-5 min btw sets relative to the primary energy system being used, the ATP-CP system

          

  36. tibialis anterior-refers to systematic variations in the prescribed volume and intensity during different phases of a resistance training program
    -4 phases: Hypertrophy, Strength/Power, Peaking, Recovery
    -microcycles make up mesocycles which make up macrocycles throughout the year

          

  37. leg extensionsconcentric phase
    -legs are fully extended
    eccentric phase
    -legs are flexed at 90 degree angle
    Muscles Used
    -gluteal muscles
    -quadriceps
    Joint Action
    -hip extension
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  38. agonistresponsible for the movement you are seeing
    -they are the ones in agony

          

  39. squat smith machine-have less need for spotters
    -may be less intimidating
    -isolate muscles
    -create a fixed ROM
    -do not fit all clients
    -may allow for a quicker workout
    -may be easier to teach
    -cost

          

  40. Back Extensionsconcentric phase
    -back is in neutral spine
    eccentric phase
    -trunk flexion
    Muscles Used
    -erector spinae
    Joint Action
    -spinal extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  41. biceps curlseccentric phase
    -arms fully extended downward at your side
    concentric phase
    -arms flexed at more than 90 degrees
    Muscles Used
    -biceps
    Joint Action
    -elbow flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  42. closed kinetic chain movementthe distal end is fixed
    (ex. a pull up for the lats)

          

  43. high loads-require even less rest btw sets of 1-2 min relative to the energy systems being used, Glycolytic and the ATP-CP system

          

  44. muscle endurancerepeated contractions at sub max force to fatigue, expressed as a % RM

          

  45. circuit training-distinct from strength training
    -specifically emphasizes conditioning of the middle-body muscles, including the pelvis, lower back, hips an abdomen-all of which provide needed support for the spine

          

  46. valsalva maneuver-a forceful closing of the epiglottis causing dramatic elevations in intrathoracic pressure

          

  47. specificityrefers to the amount of work required to achieve the activity, and is proportional to the mass of the weights being lifted

          

  48. abdominal curlconcentric phase
    -knee flexion
    eccentric phase
    -knee extension
    Muscles Used
    -hamstrings
    Joint Action
    -knee flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  49. muscle strength(intensity level)
    -80% or higher
    -2-6 reps

          

  50. iliopsoasgluteus maximus

          

  51. overload-with large muscle groups require shorter rest periods of 2-3 min btw sets

          

  52. push-pull supersets-similar to regular supersets, but exercises are chosen which work opposing muscle groups
    -this is especially popular when applied to arm exercises, for example by combining biceps curls with the triceps pushdown
    -other examples include the shoulder press and lat pulldown combination, and the bench press and wide grip row combination

          

  53. intensitypower output in a workout session

          

  54. loadforce x distance

          

  55. programming considerations-weight training sets in which the progression is from lighter weights w/ a greater number of repetitions in the first set, to heavier weights w/ fewer repetitions in subsequent sets
    -a reverse pyramid is the opposite in which the heavier weights are used at the beginning and progressively lightened

          

  56. Ab Twistsresponsible for the movement you are seeing
    -they are the ones in agony

          

  57. reversibilityany improvements in physical fitness due to physical activity is entirely reversible, in other words, "use it or lose it"

          

  58. functional fitnessPrimary Movers
    -deltoids (rear)
    -mid traps
    -rhomboids
    Joint Actions
    -horizontal shoulder abduction
    -scapular adduction (retraction)
    Plane
    -transverse

          

  59. concentric muscle contraction-muscle force overcomes the resistance and the muscle shortens (often thought of as the "contraction" phase)
    -this is the "work" phase not always the up phase

          

  60. triceps pushdowneccentric phase
    -arms fully extended downward at your side
    concentric phase
    -arms flexed at more than 90 degrees
    Muscles Used
    -biceps
    Joint Action
    -elbow flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  61. dynamic constant resistance-free weights, kettelbells, medicine balls, calisthenics
    -devices that do not attempt to vary the resistance (load)

          

  62. cable hip abductionPrimary Movers
    -glueteus medius
    -tensor fascia latae
    Joint Actions
    -hip abduction
    Plane
    -frontal

          

  63. push-up test-a deliberate compromise of form to maximize reps.
    -cheating has the advantage that it can be done w/o a training partner, but compromises safety
    -a typical example of cheat reps occurs during biceps curls when, beginning with the load at the waist, the exerciser swings the barbell or dumbbell forward and up during the concentric phase utilizing momentum to assist the biceps muscles in moving the load to a shortened muscle position
    -momentum assistance during the concentric phase allows movement of greater loads during the more difficult concentric phase

          

  64. powerforce x distance

          

  65. Ab crunches(intensity level)
    -40-60% 1 RM
    -20+ reps

          

  66. spotting machines-have less need for spotters
    -may be less intimidating
    -isolate muscles
    -create a fixed ROM
    -do not fit all clients
    -may allow for a quicker workout
    -may be easier to teach
    -cost

          

  67. drop sets-a form of training that targets one muscle group (e.g., the triceps) w/ four separate exercises performed in quick succession, often to failure and sometimes w/ the reduction of weight halfway through a set once muscle fatigue sets in.
    -this form of intense training 'shocks' the muscles and as such, is usually performed by experienced trainers and should be used infrequently

          

  68. Bent Over FliesPrimary Movers
    -deltoids (rear)
    -mid traps
    -rhomboids
    Joint Actions
    -horizontal shoulder abduction
    -scapular adduction (retraction)
    Plane
    -transverse

          

  69. type IIB muscle fibers-before performing machine exercises, adjust seat and pads to position the body joint primarily involved in the exercise in alignment w/ the machine's axis of rotation

          

  70. spottingrepetitions performed one after another

          

  71. toe raisesPrimary Movers
    -obliques
    Joint Actions
    -spinal rotation
    Plane
    -transverse

          

  72. ShruggsPrimary Movers
    -upper trapezius
    Joint Action
    -shoulder girdle elevation
    Plane
    -frontal

          

  73. antagonists-sets that do not end at the point of momentary muscular failure, but continue w/ progressively lighter weights

          

  74. five-point body contact position-head is placed firmly on the bench or back pad
    -shoulder and upper back are placed firmly and evenly on the bench or back pad
    -buttocks is placed evenly on the bench or seat
    -right foot is flat on the floor
    -left foot is flat on the floor

          

  75. rectus abdominuserector spinae

          

  76. shoulder pressconcentric phase
    -arms fully extended holding the bar overhead
    eccentric phase
    -arms flexed at 90 degree angle, bar just under chin
    Muscles Used
    -deltoids
    -triceps
    Joint Action
    -shoulder abduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -frontal

          

  77. hamstring curlsconcentric phase
    -knee flexion
    eccentric phase
    -knee extension
    Muscles Used
    -hamstrings
    Joint Action
    -knee flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  78. cable hip adductionPrimary Movers
    -glueteus medius
    -tensor fascia latae
    Joint Actions
    -hip abduction
    Plane
    -frontal

          

  79. volitional fatiguePrimary Movers
    -deltoid (medial)
    Joint Actions
    -shoulder abduction
    Plane
    -frontal

          

  80. correct dumbbell spotting location-muscle force overcomes the resistance and the muscle shortens (often thought of as the "contraction" phase)
    -this is the "work" phase not always the up phase

          

  81. supersetsrepetitions performed one after another

          

  82. volumesets x repetitions x load

          

  83. pectoralis majordeltoids (rear)

          

  84. setsabsolute weight lifted

          

  85. obliques (internal)obliques (external)

          

  86. negative repsperformed w/ much heavier weights on the eccentric phase by taking two seconds to lift each weight and four seconds to lower it

          

  87. synergistsPrimary Movers
    -tibialis anterior
    Joint Action
    -dorsiflexion
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  88. fxnal exercisePrimary Movers
    -deltoid (medial)
    Joint Actions
    -shoulder abduction
    Plane
    -frontal

          

  89. squatPrimary Movers
    -gluteal muscles
    -quadriceps
    Joint Actions
    -hip extension
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal

          

  90. setsrepetitions performed one after another

          

  91. curl up test-a vital part of manipulating acute program variables to reduce physiological "staleness"

          

  92. Eccentric muscle contraction-the resistance is greater than the muscle force and the muscle is lengthening
    -not always the lowering phase
    -consider the mode

          

  93. weight belts-sets that do not end at the point of momentary muscular failure, but continue w/ progressively lighter weights

          

  94. dynamic variable resistance-DVR equipment utilizes a cam, pulley, cable or lever
    -purpose is to manipulate the strength curve for a more maximal force
    -it is not a perfected science

          

  95. weight stripping-typically an athlete should wear a weight belt when performing exercises that place stress on the lower back and during sets that involve near-maximal or maximal loads
    -is NOT needed for exercises that do not stress the lower back, or for those that do stress the lower back but involve light loads

          

  96. maximal voluntary muscular contractionthe last repetition in a set to "failure"

          

  97. ascending/descending triangle-combines pyramids and drop sets, working up to higher weights w/ low reps and then back down to lower weights and high reps

          

  98. maximal voluntary muscular contraction-usually considered safe, provided that good technique is maintained
    -terminate the repetitions when form is broken

          

  99. benefits of improving muscular fitness-strength and power
    -high intensities
    -low durations
    (creates significant hypertrophy)

          

  100. free weights-mimic real life transfer
    -require more agility, coordination, balance
    -utilize synergist muscles
    -fit all clients
    -are mutliplanar
    -allow more power moves
    -have a greater need for spotters
    -can be more intimidating
    -may be more challenging for beginners
    -cost per pound

          

  101. pectoralis minormid trapezius

          

  102. intensity-combines tow or more exercises w/ similar motions to maximize the amount of work of an individual muscle or group of muscles
    -the exercises are performed w/ no rest period btw the exercises
    -an example would be doing bench press, which predominantly works the pectoralis and triceps muscles, and then moving to an exercise that works just the triceps such as the triceps extension or pushdown

          

  103. open kinetic chain movementthe distal end is fixed
    (ex. a pull up for the lats)

          

  104. super slowadding greater than normal stimulus

          

  105. General population intensity levels-may prevent and improve depression and anxiety
    -increase "energy" levels
    -decrease fatigue
    -improve self esteem/ self efficacy

          

  106. volumeabsolute weight lifted

          

  107. behind the head missed lifts-release the bar behind and jump forward

          

  108. YMCA bench press testPrimary Movers
    -deltoids
    -triceps
    Joint Actions
    -shoulder abduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -frontal

          

  109. mental health benefits-may prevent and improve depression and anxiety
    -increase "energy" levels
    -decrease fatigue
    -improve self esteem/ self efficacy

          

  110. overload-with large muscle groups require shorter rest periods of 2-3 min btw sets

          

  111. deltoidslatissimus dorsi

          

  112. light loads-require even less rest btw sets of 1-2 min relative to the energy systems being used, Glycolytic and the ATP-CP system

          

  113. pyramid sets-weight training sets in which the progression is from lighter weights w/ a greater number of repetitions in the first set, to heavier weights w/ fewer repetitions in subsequent sets
    -a reverse pyramid is the opposite in which the heavier weights are used at the beginning and progressively lightened

          

  114. periodization-combines an isolation exercise w/ a compound exercise for the same muscle group
    -the isolation exercise first exhausts the muscle group, and then the compound exercise use the muscle groups supporting muscles to push it further than would otherwise be possible
    -for example, the triceps muscles normally help the pectorals perform their fxn, but in the bench press the weaker triceps often fails first, which limits the impact on the pectorals. By preceding the bench press w/ the pec fly, the pectorals can be pre-exhausted so that both muscles fail at the same time, and both benefit equally from the exercise

          

  115. leg curlPrimary Movers
    -hamstrings
    Joint Action
    -knee flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal