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115 Multiple choice questions

  1. -ask permission to touch
    -verbally communicate and physically assist
    -know the # of repetitions being attempted
    -request additional spotters when necessary
    -carefully monitor the lifter at all times
    -stop incorrect form
    -teach the lifter how to get away from an unmanageable lift
  2. eccentric phase
    -arms at 90 degrees
    concentric phase
    -arms fully extended downward
    Muscles Used
    -triceps
    Joint Action
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  3. -are repetitions performed one after another.
    -multiple set programs have been found to be superior for strength, power, hypertrophy, and high intensity endurance improvements w/ 2 to 4 sets being suggested
    -but even a single set may significantly improve strength and size in novice exercisers
  4. Primary Movers
    -upper trapezius
    Joint Action
    -shoulder girdle elevation
    Plane
    -frontal
  5. Primary Movers
    -quadriceps
    Joint Actions
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  6. deltoids (rear)
  7. Primary Movers
    -gluteal muscles
    -quadriceps
    Joint Actions
    -hip extension
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  8. erector spinae
  9. -have less need for spotters
    -may be less intimidating
    -isolate muscles
    -create a fixed ROM
    -do not fit all clients
    -may allow for a quicker workout
    -may be easier to teach
    -cost
  10. gastrocnemius/soleus
  11. gaining of size of the cross sectional area of the existing muscle fibers, not an increase in their number
  12. concentric phase
    -trunk flexion
    eccentric phase
    -trunk extension
    Muscles used
    -rectus abdominus
    Joint Action
    -spinal flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal
  13. Primary Movers
    -deltoid (medial)
    Joint Actions
    -shoulder abduction
    Plane
    -frontal
  14. adding greater than normal stimulus
  15. absolute weight lifted
  16. -with large muscle groups require longer rest periods of at least 3-5 min btw sets relative to the primary energy system being used, the ATP-CP system
  17. -a forceful closing of the epiglottis causing dramatic elevations in intrathoracic pressure
  18. concentric phase
    -knees fully extended
    eccentric phase
    -knees flexed at 90 degrees
    Muscles Used
    -gluteal muscles
    -quadriceps
    Joint Actions
    -hip extension
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  19. repetitions performed one after another
  20. Primary Movers
    -hamstrings
    Joint Action
    -knee flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal
  21. -combines an isolation exercise w/ a compound exercise for the same muscle group
    -the isolation exercise first exhausts the muscle group, and then the compound exercise use the muscle groups supporting muscles to push it further than would otherwise be possible
    -for example, the triceps muscles normally help the pectorals perform their fxn, but in the bench press the weaker triceps often fails first, which limits the impact on the pectorals. By preceding the bench press w/ the pec fly, the pectorals can be pre-exhausted so that both muscles fail at the same time, and both benefit equally from the exercise
  22. -barbell load: men 80 lbs/ Women 35lbs
    -metronome set to 60 bpm (30 repetitions/minute)
    -participant lies on bench, feet on floor, spotter ready
    -start w/ bar in down position (weight near chest)
    -perform full repetitions until fatigue or until subject breaks the cadence
    -count ma number of consecutive repetitions and consult norms
  23. concentric phase
    -legs are fully extended
    eccentric phase
    -legs are flexed at 90 degree angle
    Muscles Used
    -gluteal muscles
    -quadriceps
    Joint Action
    -hip extension
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  24. (intensity level)
    -40-60% 1 RM
    -20+ reps
  25. -adding greater than normal stimulus
    -increases the resistance or actual weight lifted
    -increase the number of repetitions
    -increase the number of sets
    -decrease the rest periods btw sets
    -add or change the exercise selections
  26. -shoes are on
    -participant assumes a supine position on a mat w/ knees bent at 90 degrees
    -the arms are at the side, palms facing down w/ the middle fingers touching a piece of masking tape
    - a second piece of tape is placed 10cm away
    -a metronome is set to 50 bpm, and the individual does slow controlled curl-ups to lift shoulder blade off the mat (trunk makes 30 degree angle with the mat), in time w/ the metronome at a rate of 25 per minute.
    -the test is performed for 1 min.
    -the lower back should be flattened before each curl up
  27. Primary Movers
    -glueteus medius
    -tensor fascia latae
    Joint Actions
    -hip abduction
    Plane
    -frontal
  28. -the resistance is greater than the muscle force and the muscle is lengthening
    -not always the lowering phase
    -consider the mode
  29. -assist the prime movers but are not primarily responsible for the movement
  30. power output in a workout session
  31. -muscle force overcomes the resistance and the muscle shortens (often thought of as the "contraction" phase)
    -this is the "work" phase not always the up phase
  32. -ideally, to promote the safety of the lifter, the spotters, and others nearby, overhead exercises and those involving the bar on the back or front shoulders should be performed inside a power rack w/ the crossbars in place at an appropriate height
  33. concentric phase
    -knee flexion
    eccentric phase
    -knee extension
    Muscles Used
    -hamstrings
    Joint Action
    -knee flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal
  34. mid trapezius
  35. -mimic real life transfer
    -require more agility, coordination, balance
    -utilize synergist muscles
    -fit all clients
    -are mutliplanar
    -allow more power moves
    -have a greater need for spotters
    -can be more intimidating
    -may be more challenging for beginners
    -cost per pound
  36. latissimus dorsi
  37. Primary Movers
    -gastrocnemius
    Joint Action
    -plantarflexion
    Plane
    -sagittal
  38. -may prevent and improve depression and anxiety
    -increase "energy" levels
    -decrease fatigue
    -improve self esteem/ self efficacy
  39. hamstrings
  40. -lower risk of all-cause mortality
    -fewer CVD events
    -lower risk of developing functional limitation
    -improvements in body composition
    -blood glucose levels
    -insulin sensitivity
    -blood pressure in persons with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension
    -may prove to be effective to prevent and treat the "metabolic syndrome"
    -effectively increases bone mass (bone mineral density and content) and bone strength of the specific bones stressed and may serve as a valuable measure to prevent, slow-or even reverse-the loss of bone mass in people w/ osteoporosis)
    -may reduce the chance of developing musculoskeletal disorder
    -in persons w/ osteoarthritis, resistance training can reduce pain and disability
  41. concentric phase
    -back is in neutral spine
    eccentric phase
    -trunk flexion
    Muscles Used
    -erector spinae
    Joint Action
    -spinal extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  42. concentric phase
    -arms fully extended holding the bar overhead
    eccentric phase
    -arms flexed at 90 degree angle, bar just under chin
    Muscles Used
    -deltoids
    -triceps
    Joint Action
    -shoulder abduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -frontal
  43. -before performing machine exercises, adjust seat and pads to position the body joint primarily involved in the exercise in alignment w/ the machine's axis of rotation
  44. the last repetition in a set to "failure"
  45. force x distance divided by time
  46. lower trapezius
  47. Primary Movers
    -tibialis anterior
    Joint Action
    -dorsiflexion
    Plane
    -sagittal
  48. Primary Movers
    -hip adductors
    Joint Action
    -hip adduction
    Plane
    -frontal
  49. spot should be at the wrists
  50. you get good at what you do
  51. -60-80% 1RM
    -8-12 reps
  52. Primary Movers
    -triceps brachii
    Joint Action
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  53. -detraining can cause this effect
    -a decrease in strength,
    -a reduction in fxn and performance averages 10% in 2 weeks, 30% in 4 weeks
  54. -weight training sets in which the progression is from lighter weights w/ a greater number of repetitions in the first set, to heavier weights w/ fewer repetitions in subsequent sets
    -a reverse pyramid is the opposite in which the heavier weights are used at the beginning and progressively lightened
  55. the inability to move a resistance through a ROM w/ proper form
  56. -large muscles worked before small
    -more intense exercises before less intense
    -multi joint (compound) before single joint (isolation)
    -alternating push/pull exercises
    -alternating upper body/ lower body
    -explosive lifts before basic lifts
    -weaker muscles before stronger muscles
    -unilateral and bilateral
    -closed chain vs. open chain
  57. sets x repetitions x load
  58. -a form of training that targets one muscle group (e.g., the triceps) w/ four separate exercises performed in quick succession, often to failure and sometimes w/ the reduction of weight halfway through a set once muscle fatigue sets in.
    -this form of intense training 'shocks' the muscles and as such, is usually performed by experienced trainers and should be used infrequently
  59. concentric phase
    -standing upright, bar on shoulders (rear)
    eccentric phase
    -squat position
    Muscles used
    -gluteal muscles
    -quadriceps
    Joint Actions
    -hip extension
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  60. -refers to systematic variations in the prescribed volume and intensity during different phases of a resistance training program
    -4 phases: Hypertrophy, Strength/Power, Peaking, Recovery
    -microcycles make up mesocycles which make up macrocycles throughout the year
  61. -strength and power
    -high intensities
    -low durations
    (creates significant hypertrophy)
  62. concentric phase
    -knee extension
    eccentric phase
    -knee flexion
    Muscles Used
    -quadriceps
    Joint Action
    -knee extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  63. -2-10% increases in load should be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number
    -2-3 times per week for novice training, 3-4 per week for intermediate, and 4-5 per week for advanced training
  64. oppose their agonist partner
  65. Primary Movers
    -biceps brachii
    Joint Action
    -elbow flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal
  66. eccentric phase
    -arms fully extended downward at your side
    concentric phase
    -arms flexed at more than 90 degrees
    Muscles Used
    -biceps
    Joint Action
    -elbow flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal
  67. performed w/ much heavier weights on the eccentric phase by taking two seconds to lift each weight and four seconds to lower it
  68. -free weights, kettelbells, medicine balls, calisthenics
    -devices that do not attempt to vary the resistance (load)
  69. Primary Movers
    -Supraspinatus
    -Infraspinatus
    -Teres Minor
    -Subscapularis
    Joint Action
    -Shoulder abduction
    -external rotation
    -external rotation
    -internal rotation
    Plane
    -transverse
  70. -(sometimes called neuromotor fitness training) is recommended for 2 or 3 days per week
    -exercises should involve motor skills (balance, agility, coordination, gait), proprioceptive exercise training and multifaceted activities (tai chi and yoga) to improve physical fxn and prevent falls in older adults
    -20-30 min per day is appropriate for fxnal exercise
  71. gluteus maximus
  72. Primary Movers
    -rectus abdominus
    Joint Actions
    -spinal flexion
    Plane
    -sagittal
  73. hi abductors
  74. Primary Movers
    -obliques
    Joint Actions
    -spinal rotation
    Plane
    -transverse
  75. -combines tow or more exercises w/ similar motions to maximize the amount of work of an individual muscle or group of muscles
    -the exercises are performed w/ no rest period btw the exercises
    -an example would be doing bench press, which predominantly works the pectoralis and triceps muscles, and then moving to an exercise that works just the triceps such as the triceps extension or pushdown
  76. -with large muscle groups require shorter rest periods of 2-3 min btw sets
  77. -require even less rest btw sets of 1-2 min relative to the energy systems being used, Glycolytic and the ATP-CP system
  78. -push bar away and jump back
  79. -usually considered safe, provided that good technique is maintained
    -terminate the repetitions when form is broken
  80. maximal force expressed as a 1 RM (repetition max)
  81. Primary Movers
    -deltoids
    -triceps
    Joint Actions
    -shoulder abduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -frontal
  82. -typically an athlete should wear a weight belt when performing exercises that place stress on the lower back and during sets that involve near-maximal or maximal loads
    -is NOT needed for exercises that do not stress the lower back, or for those that do stress the lower back but involve light loads
  83. endurance
    -low intensities
    -high durations
  84. triceps
  85. responsible for the movement you are seeing
    -they are the ones in agony
  86. Primary Movers
    -deltoids (rear)
    -mid traps
    -rhomboids
    Joint Actions
    -horizontal shoulder abduction
    -scapular adduction (retraction)
    Plane
    -transverse
  87. -distinct from strength training
    -specifically emphasizes conditioning of the middle-body muscles, including the pelvis, lower back, hips an abdomen-all of which provide needed support for the spine
  88. -the distal end is moving
  89. uses a number of weight training exercise sets separated by short intervals.
    -the cardiovascular effort to recover from each set serves a function similar to an aerobic exercise, but this is not the same as saying that a weight training set is itself an aerobic process
  90. concentric phase
    -arms fully extended with bar in hands
    eccentric phase
    -arms flexed at a 90 degree angle
    Muscles Used
    -pectorals
    -triceps
    Joint Action
    -horizontal shoulder adduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -transverse
  91. repeated contractions at sub max force to fatigue, expressed as a % RM
  92. -a deliberate compromise of form to maximize reps.
    -cheating has the advantage that it can be done w/o a training partner, but compromises safety
    -a typical example of cheat reps occurs during biceps curls when, beginning with the load at the waist, the exerciser swings the barbell or dumbbell forward and up during the concentric phase utilizing momentum to assist the biceps muscles in moving the load to a shortened muscle position
    -momentum assistance during the concentric phase allows movement of greater loads during the more difficult concentric phase
  93. the distal end is fixed
    (ex. a pull up for the lats)
  94. -a technique used after failure w/ a normal resistance in certain exercises, particularly w/ easily adjustable machines, whereby the weight trainer or a partner gradually reduces the resistance after a full set is taken to failure
    -w/ each reduction in resistance as many as possible reps are completed and the resistance is then reduced again
  95. loss of the effects of training
  96. -sets that do not end at the point of momentary muscular failure, but continue w/ progressively lighter weights
  97. (intensity level)
    -80% or higher
    -2-6 reps
  98. any improvements in physical fitness due to physical activity is entirely reversible, in other words, "use it or lose it"
  99. force x distance
  100. Primary Movers
    -erector spinae
    Joint Action
    -spinal extension
    Plane
    -sagittal
  101. primary movers
    -pectorals
    -triceps
    Joint Action
    -horizontal shoulder adduction
    -elbow extension
    Plane
    -transverse
  102. -DVR equipment utilizes a cam, pulley, cable or lever
    -purpose is to manipulate the strength curve for a more maximal force
    -it is not a perfected science
  103. -combines pyramids and drop sets, working up to higher weights w/ low reps and then back down to lower weights and high reps
  104. -slow repetitions are performed w/ lighter weights
    -the lifting and lowering phases of each repetition take 10 seconds or more
  105. obliques (external)
  106. a systematic variation in volume
  107. concentric phase
    -arms flexed at more than 90 degrees, bar under chin
    eccentric phase
    -arms fully extended over head
    Muscles Used
    -latissimus dorsi
    -biceps
    Joint Actions
    -shoulder adduction
    -elbow flexion
    Plane
    -frontal
  108. -this is a trend toward using strength training to improve balance and ease of daily living
    -functional fitness and special fitness programs for older adults are closely related
  109. Primary Movers
    -latissimus dorsi
    -biceps
    Joint Action
    -shoulder extension
    -elbow flexion
    Plane
    -Sagittal
  110. -head is placed firmly on the bench or back pad
    -shoulder and upper back are placed firmly and evenly on the bench or back pad
    -buttocks is placed evenly on the bench or seat
    -right foot is flat on the floor
    -left foot is flat on the floor
  111. -release the bar behind and jump forward
  112. -a vital part of manipulating acute program variables to reduce physiological "staleness"
  113. -males start in the standard "down" position (hands pointing forward and under the shoulder, back straight, head up, using the toes as the pivot point)
    -females start in the modified down position of "knee push-up" (legs together, lower legs in contact w/ mat w/ ankles plantar-flexed, back straight, hands shoulder width apart, head up, using the knees as the pivot point)
    -the subject must raise the body by straightening the elbows and returns to the "down" position, until the chin touches the mat
    -the stomach should not touch the mat
    -for both men and women, the subject's back must be straight at all times and the subject must push up to a straight arm position
    -the maximal number of push-ups performed consecutively w/o rest is counted as the score
    -the test is stopped when the client strains forcibly or is unable to maintain the appropriate technique w/in two repetitions
  114. -similar to regular supersets, but exercises are chosen which work opposing muscle groups
    -this is especially popular when applied to arm exercises, for example by combining biceps curls with the triceps pushdown
    -other examples include the shoulder press and lat pulldown combination, and the bench press and wide grip row combination
  115. refers to the amount of work required to achieve the activity, and is proportional to the mass of the weights being lifted