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250 Multiple choice questions

  1. visual learner:
    Auditory Learner
    Kinesthetic Learner
  2. Carbo= 4; fats=9; protein=4; alcohol=7
  3. Diagonal fold
    Anterior axillary line immediately superior to the iliac crest
    in line with the natural angle of the iliac crest taken
  4. Acute-onset muscle soreness; muscle fatigue and discomfort dimininishes when exercise stops
  5. front/ back
  6. Vertical fold
    Anterior midline of the thigh
    Midway between the proximal border of the patella (upper knee) and the inguinal crease (hip)
  7. smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell; composed of 2 types of muscle protein,
    -actin "thin filament", which contains troponin and tropomyosin
    -myosin "thick filament" : contains many cross bridges
  9. HDL greater than 60 mg/dL
  10. primarly for balance;see saw, head on cervical vertebrea
  11. curves of the cervical and lumbar region
  12. Vertical fold
    maximum circumference of calf on the midline of medial border
  13. difference between oxygen content of arterial and venous blood
  14. one side
  15. within 6 months
  16. movement away/into from midline
  17. have aerobic and anaerobic capabilities and refered to as intermediate fibers, continuum fibers, fast oxidative glycolitic fibers
  18. Fibrous joints connect bones without allowing any movement. The bones of your skull and pelvis are held together by fibrous joints.
  19. closer to trunk/further from trunk
  20. increases the capacity of the heart, lungs, and blood carrying vessels to deliver oxygen; also called aerobic fitness
  21. vertical fold
    Midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum
  22. have clients min. factors that influence heart rate including:
    -non prescription heart rate altering meds
    -large meals
    -test anxiety
  23. amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle in one beat
  24. 25-30 seconds of high intesity work (spints, weight lifting)
  25. the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
  26. above, toward the head
  27. -caused by mechanical stress and destruction of hyaline cartilage in the joints
    -many degrees of severity
    -degenerative arthritis
  28. increase in joint angle
  29. sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar
  30. (RICES) rest (prevents further injury, ice (reduces pain, swelling, and initiates inflammatory response) compression (reduces swelling and bleeding) elevation (controls edema and decreases blood flow) stabilization (assists in muscle relaxation, diminishing spasm
  31. spinal rotation and lateral flexion
  32. sedentary individuals will demonstrate significicant improvements in fitness early in training program
  33. trachea, bronchi, bronchiloes, alveoli...puts oxygen into blood
  34. mineral reservior, internal skeleton (levers)
  35. The Right Atrium, receives "used blood" from the body. Blood will be pushed through the tricuspid valve to the
    Right Ventricle, the chamber which will pump to the lungs through the pulmonic valve to the
    Pulmonary Arteries, providing blood to both lungs. Blood is circulated through the lungs where carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen added. It returns through the
    Pulmonary Veins, which empty into the
    Left Atrium, a chamber which will push the Mitral Valve open. Blood then passes into the
    Left Ventricle. As it pumps, the pressure will close the mitral valve and open the aortic valve, with blood passing through to the
    Aorta, where it will be delivered to the rest of the body.
  36. connective tissue that connects bone to bone
  37. A ball and socket joint allows for radial movment in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. (Like a door knob)
  38. Hip Extension
    Hip Flexion
  39. Hips/Waist (ex. 45" waist and 36" hips... 36/45=.8)
    ratios above .86 for women and .95 for men indicate abdominal adiposity
  40. same Side
  41. (FITTE) Frequency, Intensity, Time/Duration, Type/Mode, Enjoyment
  42. 45 men, 55 women
  43. cognitive phase:learn general skill concepts
    associative phase: practice and refine
    automatic phase: skill is developed and consistent
  44. muscle fibers creating cross bridges while shortening in length against the pull of gravity F>R
  45. toward the front
  46. reduces angina/chest pain
  47. Enlargement of muscle
  48. scapula toward (add) and away from midline (abd)
  49. the upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.
  50. highest rate and amount of oxygen achieved at maximal physical exertion
  51. refers to a joint's range of mobility (ROM)
  52. Macrocycle: largest cycle
    Mesocycle: next largest (4 - 6 in yr)
    Microcycle: smallest cycles (1 - 4 wks)

    Linear v Non Linear
    Linear changes intensity every 4- 6 wks
    -hypertrophy (high vol,short rest)
    -Strength/power (reduced vol,increase load/rest)
    -Peaking (low vol/high load/rest)
    -Recovery (active rest)
    Non Linear changes every day within a 4- 6 wk period
  53. Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between a tendon and skin, or between a tendon and bone
  54. tendonitis, fasciitis, bursitis, osteoarthritis
  55. muscle fibers change length and joint angles; Work= force x distance; can concentric or eccentric
  56. elbow flexion
    elbow extension
  57. distribution of the cardiac output
  58. chest press
  59. -shoulder abduction/ext rotation/int. rotation
  60. decrease in the mass of the muscle;Muscle atrophy results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), renal failure, starvation
  61. both sides
  62. further from the midline
  63. 1-2 min of high intensity work 400-800m distance sprint
  64. An arrhythmia is a disorder of the heart rate (pulse) or heart rhythm, such as beating too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.
  65. lying face up
  66. Physical Activity Readiness identifies people who should not be tested in a field setting. Proceed with caution if a client answers yes to one or more questions. May require physician clearance
  68. Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only a little movment, such as in the spine or ribs.
  69. white fibrous tissue that cushions surfaces and prevents friction (cushions bones)
  70. total # of times the heart contracts in one minute, increases with work-rate during exercise
  71. lying face down
  72. fuels activities lasting more than 2-3 min. Capacity is limited only by oxygen and fuel avail. to the cell
  73. men- 22%
  74. affects behavior
  75. connective tissue that connects muscles to bone
  76. a series of quick but gentle bouncing or bobbing motions designed to stretch your muscles
  77. cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
  78. voluntary and made up of striated fibers
  79. 1. red, hot dry skin 2. rapid weak pulse, shallow breathing 3. changes in the level of consciousness 4. vomiting 5. body temp will be very high as high as 105
  80. equivalent to losing 1 lb of fat 3500cal
  81. greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL up to 126
  82. -stress management
    -MET capacity
    -increased resting metabolism
    -osteoporosis prevention/management
    -injury prevention/rehab
  83. major bone of arm
  84. Stretch muscle statically, contract and stretch muscle statically beyond initial static stretch
  85. planter flexion
  86. below/ above
  87. curves of the thoracic and sacral regions
  88. the lower part of the that heart receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium and pumps it through the aortic valve to the entire body via the aorta, including to the heart muscle itself through the coronary arteries.
  89. standing toe touches, barre streches, hurdler strech, neck circles, yoga plough, knee hyperflexion
  90. muscle responsible for producing joint movement
    ex. bicep during curl
  91. The upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood from the body via the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava and pumps it through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.
  92. inflammation of a joint
    -flex training recommended
  93. amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and eating disorders; when left untreated they damage the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems
  94. the trait of neglecting responsibilities and lacking concern
  95. less than 40 mg/dL
  96. actin and myosin contractile proteins increase in number and add to muscular strength as well as a small increase in the size of the muscle
  97. a. cool, moist pale, ashen, or flushed skin b. headache, nausea, dizziness, c. weakness, exhaustion d. heavy sweating e. body temp will be near normal
  98. scoliosis
  99. aka max heart rate reserve method;
    training HR = (max HR - resting HR) X target intensity (40/50-85%) + resting HR
  100. -resting heart rate decreases by approx 10 - 15 bpm
    -SV increases both at rest and during exercise
    -Resting SBP/DBP may decrease (if prev elevated)
  101. Right atrium
    Right ventricle
    Left atrium
    Left ventricle
  102. knee extension
    knee flexion
  103. myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or sudden death to a 1st degree family member when >55 male, >65 female
  104. Fasting Blood Glucose for Diabetes diagnosis
  105. a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
  106. -scapular retraction(add)
    -scapular protraction(abd)
  107. not fat tissue: muscle, bone, skin etc
  108. turning the sole of the foot away from the midline
  109. heart problem resulting from the mitral valve not regulating the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart
  110. abs
  111. delayed onset muscle soreness;muscle discomfort 24-36 hr after exercise
  112. Men 45 or older
    Women 55 or older
    and Those who meet the threshold for two or more positive risk factor are considered moderate risk; can participate in moderate(40%-60%) but need prior medical testing for vigorous (>60% VO2R) exercise
  113. where two bones meet (fulcrum and axis)
  114. may elevate HR,BP and respiratory response
  115. Stretching that involves moving the joints through their full range of motion to mimic a movement used in a sport or exercise to increase joint flexibility, core temp and circulation
  116. the events that occur b/w actin and myosin during muscle contraction and relaxation

    -when nerve impulse is received, the cross bridges of myosin will put the actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere and tension is created
  117. Cardiac, peripheral vascular, or cerebrovascular disease
    Chronic OPD, asthma, interstitial lung disease, or cystic fibrosis
    Diabetes type 1 or 2, thyroid disorders, renal, or liver disease
  118. -shoulder horizontal adduction
    -shoulder horizontal abduction
  119. a. stop exercise immediately and place person ina comfortable sitting or lying position, b. 911, monitor HR, and be prepared to begin CPR, c. Automated External Defibrillator AED may be used if cardiac arrest
  120. the height to weight ratio can be misleading because it does not consider body type
  121. makes a division into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
  122. HRR = HRmax − HRrest
  123. Frequency(2-3x a week),
    Intensity (2 to 4 sets of 8-12 reps w/ 2-3 mins b/w sets)
    Time no longer then 60 mins,
    Type (various resistance equipment),
  124. variable force w. accommodating speed
  125. elastic tissue with contractile properties (pulley)
  126. elevated HR, SV, Cardiac output, BP, Blood Flow, Arteriovenous oxygen difference, pulmonary ventilation and oxygen consumption
  127. Lgreater than 130 mg/dL
  128. lower than, toward the feet
  129. less than 30 min/day, 3 days/week, for at least 3 months
  130. inflammation of a tendon
  131. movement done for improvement in one or more components of fitness
  132. the amount of force a muscle can exert in a single all-out effort (1 Rep Mas/1RM)
  133. closer to the midline
  134. small veins that drain blood from the capillaries and then join to form a vein
  135. vertical fold
    posterior midline of middle right arm, halfway b/w the acromion(shoulder) and olecranon(elbow) processes
  136. inflammation of the fascia; fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together
  137. a. chest pain, b. pressure discomfort in the chest, c.left jaw, neck or shoulder-may radiate distally, d. shortness of breath and lightheadedness, e. back pain, which may be experienced by some women
  138. The body adapts to specific exercise training stimulus with specific physical and physiological adaptations.
  139. sagittal plane, frontal plane, transverse plane
  140. cardiac muscle tissue is involuntary, it is the tissue of the heart
  141. exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature
  142. 1. fat, oils & sweets: use sparingly
    2. milk, yogurt &cheese 2-3 servings;
    3. meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, nuts, eggs: 2-3 servings;
    4. fruits: 3-5 serv;
    5. veggies: 3-5 serv.
    6. bread, cereal, rice, & pasta: 6-11 serv
  143. blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
  144. chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints
  145. fat deposited in the abdom. area is more highly correlated to heart disease
  146. refers to th ratio of lean body mass compared to fat mass
  147. vertical fold
    2cm right of belly button
  148. Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
  149. transverse plane rotation towards/away from midline
  150. Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely
  151. located between the left atrium and left ventricle; prevents blood from flowing back into the LA after it has entered the LV
  152. reduces...
    -cardiovascular disease
    -risk of stroke
    -reduces high blood pressure
    -risk of colon cancer, lowers

    -healthy body
  153. exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature
  154. rotary force
  155. any interaction b/w 2 objects producing a change in magnitude or direction of motion
  156. 12" step
    96 bpm
    locate radial pulse first
    client steps up up down down for 3 mins @ 96bpm with no talking
    check pulse within 5 secs after test
  157. may extend endurance in moderate aerobic exercise
  158. In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Midcarpal and midtarsal joints are gliding joints
  159. involuntary muscle tissue that lines the arterial walls and organs of the body
  160. a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body
    Radial: thumb side of forearm
    Brachial: groove formed b/w tricep and bicep
    Carotid: anterior portion of the neck
  161. primarly for power; wheel borrw, plater flexion during walking
  162. active: muscle is actively moved through ROM
    passive:muscle is actively moved through ROM by partner/device
  163. relaxes bronchial passageways
  164. makes a division into right and left portions
  165. rotational movement, results in the palm facing upward/downward
  166. -spinal extension/flexion
  167. Pre-contemplation: not ready to exercise
    Contemplation: thinking about behavior change
    Preparation:doing something related to exercise, but not meeting the guidelines
    Action: meeting set criteria of at least 6 months
    Maintenance: met criteria of 6 months, and continuing
  168. the disorder of self-induced starvation
  169. inflammation of synovial membrane, which then cause the body to initiate autoimmune response
  170. volume of sarcoplasmic fluid in the muscle cell increases with no accompanying increase in muscular strength
  171. prevents system of allergic response
  172. -transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available

    -glycolysis doesnt use oxygen and is considered anaerobic

    -The burning sensation in muscles during hard exercise can be attributed to the production of hydrogen ions which form lactic acid along with lactate
  173. narrowing of airways brought about by allergens and stressors
    -avoid outdoor exercise in cold and high pollen or pollution
  174. turning the sole of the foot toward the midline
  175. midline of the chest
  176. range of motion; shovel, exbow flexion; we use this the most
  177. movement around a longitudinal axis, either toward or away from the midline
  178. reduces blood sugar
  179. A saddle joint allows movement back and forth and up and down, bot does not allow for rotation like a ball and socket joint.
  180. situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle; controls the flow of blood from RA to RV
  181. lets person know there is a risk to exercise
  182. decrease in joint angle (spine side bend, love handles)
  183. toward the back
  184. reduces high blood pressure
  185. serves as the main axial support for the body
  186. Ellipsoid joints are similar to a ball and socket joint. They allow the same type of movment to a lesser magnitude. The wrist is an ellipsoid joint.
  187. hyperkyphosis and hyperlordosis
  188. increased body weight, in relation to height when compared to some standard of acceptable or desirable weight
  189. the row
  190. men/women w/ 1 or less CVD; can participate in moderate(40%-60%) and vigorous (>60% VO2R) exercise w/o prior medical testing
  191. -heart disease
    -certain cancers
  192. Force x distance = work
  193. 60% = 17
    80%= 8
  194. Should include appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity
  195. manubrium, body, xiphoid process
  196. excessivly high amounts of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass
  197. -shoulder adduction
    -shoulder abduction
  198. body mass of greater then or equal to 30kg/m2; waist girthgreater than 102 cm for men and 88 cm for women
  199. diagonal fold
    half the distance b/w anterior axillary line and nipple (men)
    1/3rd the distance b/w anterior axillary line and nipple (women)
  200. the amount of blood pumped from the heart in one minute
  201. principles of physics related to energy and force as they apply to the human body
  202. dehydrating-may impair exercise tolerance and increase risk of heart injury
  203. makes a division into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions
  204. Skin Fold Caliper
    -Circumference (waist/hip)
    -Infra-red (x-ray)
    -BMI (mass(lb) x 703/ ((height(in))^2
    -bioelectrical Impedence
    -Hydro-static under water weighing
  205. further from the trunk
  206. Appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity serving to enhance venous return and decrease the chance of postexercise hypotension during recovery
  207. a group of characteristics a person achieves/possesses related to physical activity and cardiorepiratory, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, body composition
  208. Diagonal fold
    1 to 2 cm below the inferior angle of the scapula
  209. muscles involved in stabilizing, fixating or assisting at the joint
  210. the lower part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium and pumps it through the pulmonary valve into the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
  211. anaerobic in nature. refered as fast glycolitic fibers
  212. the study of human movement
  213. closer to midline/further from midline
  214. -greater then normal demand is placed upon muscles,
    -to enhance the muscular fitness, the system must be progressively overloaded
    -tension required for strength gain is about 60% - 80% of 1RM
    -fleck and kraemer recommend 75 - 90%

    Progression involves increasing/changing one or more of the exercise training components to promote adaptations
  215. slow twitch, slow oxidative and red twitch fibers (aerobic)
  216. -Supine position should be avoided after 1st trimester
    -low/mod intensity
    -proper clothing and hydration to prevent overheating
  217. the psychologically addictive cycle of binging/purging
  218. systolic greater than or equal to 140; diastolic greater then or equal to 90; confirmed by 2 separate occasions or on hypertension meds
  219. decrease joint angle (elbow curl)
  220. widens blood vessal
  221. Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavaties between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid.
  222. bodily (musculoskeletal movement leading to caloric expenditure
  223. Social: support systems
    Physical: physical/phyiological well-being
    Intellectual: Open to Learn
    Emotional:Coping Skills
    Spiritual:living in harmony
  224. vertical
    1 cm above mark of tricep on belly of bicep
  225. -reduces muscle tension
    -promotes relaxation
    -muscle contractions become easier/smoother
    -improves ease of movement
  226. Pivot joints allow rotation arround an axis. The neck and forearms have pivot joints. In the neck the occipital bone spins over the top of the axis. In the forearms the radius and ulna twist arround each other.
  227. opposing muscle to the prime mover
  228. nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx ...filters air
  229. the total amount of weight that is measured as fat tissue
  230. the smallest arteries that connect with the capillaries which allow the exchange of blood and other nutrients with various tissue
  231. (men)chest, abs, thigh
    (women) triceps, suprailium, thigh
  232. cervical curve, thoracic curve, lumbar curve,
    sacral curve
  233. tension is created within the muscle fiber, but the fiber change length and there is no change in joint angle F=R
  234. vol of air exchanged per minute
  235. stimulus for vol. physical activity initiates in the brain and is then transformed into a movement pattern
  236. prevents/controls abnormal heart rhythms
  237. 1.resting mesurements (BP/HR/Body Fat/height/weight)
    2.cardio test
    3.muscular endurance
  238. opposite side
  239. SITS
    Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis
  240. approx. 3-6 ounces of water every 1-2 miles of the race
  241. muscle fibers creating cross bridges while returning to resting length while going with gravity R>F
  242. greater than 200 mg/dL
  243. Carbs: 55%-60%
    Fat: 25%- 30%
    Protein: 10% - 15%
    6oz of grains (3oz of whole-grain), 2.5 cups veggies, 2 cups fruits, 3 cups milk
  244. carotid, brachial, radial, femoral
  245. 500-1000 cal daily to lose 1-2 lbs. per wk; same to increase
  246. refers to a muscle's ability to perform repeated contractions or hold static contractions
  247. reduces resting and exercise heart rate and blood pressure
  248. extension beyond normal degree of extension
  249. arterial pressure providing force for blood flow (systolic and diastolic pressure)
  250. Malpractice is a type of negligence committed by a professional and Negligence is failure to exercise due care