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608 True/False questions

  1. Bonesa blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body
    Radial: thumb side of forearm
    Brachial: groove formed b/w tricep and bicep
    Carotid: anterior portion of the neck

          

  2. INVERSIONturning the sole of the foot toward the midline

          

  3. What trimester should a women not lie in Supine position40% to 60%

          

  4. anti-anginalopposing muscle to the prime mover

          

  5. Multijoint exercisesExercises that involve 2 or more primary joints and receive priority when one is selecting exercises because of their direct application to the sport.

          

  6. Hinge Joint
    Elbow Joint Type

          

  7. What are the 5 behavioral processes of change?calculates RMR

    PA correction factors include:
    1) sedentary: RMR * 1.4
    2) Moderately active: RMR * 1.6
    3) Highly Active: RMR * 1.8

          

  8. What muscles extend the hip?
    Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosis); glut max

          

  9. Risk stratifications (low)men/women w/ 1 or less CVD; can participate in moderate(40%-60%) and vigorous (>60% VO2R) exercise w/o prior medical testing

          

  10. overweightincreased body weight, in relation to height when compared to some standard of acceptable or desirable weight

          

  11. Health Behavior Modelthe smallest arteries that connect with the capillaries which allow the exchange of blood and other nutrients with various tissue

          

  12. What is recommended exercise for those with type 2 diabetesPhysical activity 3 to 7 days a week
    exercise v02 40% to 59%

          

  13. Exercisemovement done for improvement in one or more components of fitness

          

  14. What are the waist girth limits for men and women?fruity breath
    blurred vision
    extreme thirst

          

  15. Contralateralopposite side

          

  16. What muscles laterally rotate the shoulder?
    Infraspinatus, teres minor

          

  17. List two important cognitive restructuring techniques1) relapse prevention strategies
    2) elimination of 'all-or-none' thinking

          

  18. synergistsconnective tissue that connects bone to bone

          

  19. saddle joint

          

  20. Acute program variablesthe smallest arteries that connect with the capillaries which allow the exchange of blood and other nutrients with various tissue

          

  21. Sit and reach other namefat deposited in the abdom. area is more highly correlated to heart disease

          

  22. isometric/static contractiontension is created within the muscle fiber, but the fiber change length and there is no change in joint angle F=R

          

  23. What medical values (BP, glucose,etc) are contraindicative of exercise training?BP = >200/105
    Glucose = >250 w/ketones or >300 w/out ketones

          

  24. What is the agonist when doing a hip extentionirregular exercise

          

  25. greater than or equal to 126 mg/dLless than 40 mg/dL

          

  26. Ellipsoid joints
    Ellipsoid joints are similar to a ball and socket joint. They allow the same type of movment to a lesser magnitude. The wrist is an ellipsoid joint.

          

  27. What is the equation for power
    3.5 + 483 / T

          

  28. Stages of changePrecontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance

          

  29. Second Class Lever
    primarly for balance;see saw, head on cervical vertebrea

          

  30. Describe the developmental cardiopulmonary changes in children- higher RHR and ExHR due to lower SV, hemoglobin and relative Q
    - VO2 max remains relatively unchanged throughout childhood and adolescence
    - lower BP
    -absolute VO2max (L/min) increases substantially through childhood but relative VO2max plateaus in boys during puberty and declines in girls
    -V02max is NOT related to endurance fitness in children and preadolescents

          

  31. How do you spot a lungehands close to hips / waist or torso

          

  32. cable pulldown
    shoulder adduction ,

          

  33. Exercise Program Components(FITTE) Frequency, Intensity, Time/Duration, Type/Mode, Enjoyment

          

  34. testing preliminaries
    Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.

          

  35. What stretches should you not doHR, BP, Body comp, cardio, muscular, flexibility

          

  36. What type of activity would use type 2 fibersIncrease amount of resistance that can be overcome by application of force

          

  37. autonomic neuropathyManifested by the absence of sweating (anhydrosis) dry skin causes cracks fissures.

          

  38. ISOTONIC MUSCLE REACTIONactive: muscle is actively moved through ROM
    passive:muscle is actively moved through ROM by partner/device

          

  39. What does weakness of dorsiflexors lead tofoot dropping during heel strike

          

  40. How does long-term training affect bioenergetics?tension is created within the muscle fiber, but the fiber change length and there is no change in joint angle F=R

          

  41. major joint action for
    -obliques

    -shoulder horizontal adduction
    -shoulder horizontal abduction

          

  42. heart chambers
    Right atrium
    Right ventricle
    Left atrium
    Left ventricle

          

  43. eccentricmuscle fibers creating cross bridges while returning to resting length while going with gravity R>F

          

  44. Signals of heat strokefat deposited in the abdom. area is more highly correlated to heart disease

          

  45. TRANSVERSE PLANEmakes a division into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions

          

  46. Empiricalsmall arteries from the heart rich in oxygen

          

  47. Artery
    Physical Activity Readiness identifies people who should not be tested in a field setting. Proceed with caution if a client answers yes to one or more questions. May require physician clearance

          

  48. supinesmallest contractile unit of a muscle cell; composed of 2 types of muscle protein,
    -actin "thin filament", which contains troponin and tropomyosin
    -myosin "thick filament" : contains many cross bridges

          

  49. What is the recommendation for child exerciseMen 3 to 5 women 8 to 12

          

  50. skinfold midaxillary
    vertical fold
    Midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum

          

  51. malpracticemovement done for improvement in one or more components of fitness

          

  52. What is the fuction of the perimysium?irregular exercise

          

  53. Components of first PT visitPT and Client agreement
    Health/ Medical History PARQ
    Medical clearance form
    Informed consent
    Client Goals
    Health and Fitness Assessment
    Assessment results

          

  54. caffineblood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

          

  55. tricuspid valvesituated between the right atrium and the right ventricle; controls the flow of blood from RA to RV

          

  56. What can be released due to stressAbdominal fat

          

  57. Risk factor for Dyslipidemia LDLtoward the front

          

  58. What muscles abduct the shoulder?
    Middle deltoid and supraspinatus

          

  59. THREE CARDINAL BODY PLANESsagittal plane, frontal plane, transverse plane

          

  60. SuprasspinitusPivot joints allow rotation arround an axis. The neck and forearms have pivot joints. In the neck the occipital bone spins over the top of the axis. In the forearms the radius and ulna twist arround each other.

          

  61. benefits of flexibility training-reduces muscle tension
    -promotes relaxation
    -muscle contractions become easier/smoother
    -improves ease of movement

          

  62. neuromuscular activationrelaxes bronchial passageways

          

  63. Commonly found abnormal curve in the frontal planeCarbo= 4; fats=9; protein=4; alcohol=7

          

  64. What is AFI
    CLOSER TO THE TRUNK

          

  65. SA nodemay extend endurance in moderate aerobic exercise

          

  66. What muscles protract the shoulder girdle?
    Lat. Dorsi, Pec major, Teres Major, Post. Delt

          

  67. type IIA fibershave aerobic and anaerobic capabilities and refered to as intermediate fibers, continuum fibers, fast oxidative glycolitic fibers

          

  68. Pronation (Foot Ankle)above, toward the head

          

  69. bulimia nervosa

          

  70. RF for Obesitythe upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.

          

  71. pelvic girdle jointsfor every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

          

  72. What muscles flex the shoulder?Ant. Delt., Pec Major

          

  73. What are the Long-term adaptations on blood composition?1) no increase in HRmax
    2) Significantly lower HRrest
    3) increased SV (~85mL at rest)

          

  74. Factors that determine flexibility1.resting mesurements (BP/HR/Body Fat/height/weight)
    2.cardio test
    3.muscular endurance
    4.flex

          

  75. 3 site skinfold locationsvertical fold
    2cm right of belly button

          

  76. abduction/adductionmovement away/into from midline

          

  77. What is the equation for BMICovers actin binding site at rest, attached to troponin

          

  78. Group CCardiovascular activities that require skill "swimming"

          

  79. Physical Activity
    Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavaties between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid.

          

  80. HYPERKYPHOSIS
    exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature

          

  81. How do you change an oxygen uptake to METS28/3.5 = 8 METS

          

  82. pulmonary ventilationA widening of the diameter of a blood vessel.

          

  83. skinfold suprailiumDiagonal fold
    Anterior axillary line immediately superior to the iliac crest
    in line with the natural angle of the iliac crest taken

          

  84. Define Hematocrit
    (physics) the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force

          

  85. Signals of heat exhaustion
    a. cool, moist pale, ashen, or flushed skin b. headache, nausea, dizziness, c. weakness, exhaustion d. heavy sweating e. body temp will be near normal

          

  86. pivot

          

  87. major joint action for
    -quads
    -hams
    -shoulder abduction/ext rotation/int. rotation

          

  88. Transtheoretical Model stages of changea series of quick but gentle bouncing or bobbing motions designed to stretch your muscles

          

  89. What muscles adduct the shoulder?Rhomboids, middle trap

          

  90. PeriodizationBest for high volume shorter rest

          

  91. origin and insertion
    Proximal attachment the insertion is distal

          

  92. What is ACSM recommendation fro resistance training1) Counter-conditioning (substituting alternatives)
    2) Helping relationships (enlisting social support)
    3) Reinforcement management (rewarding yourself)
    4) Self-liberation (committing yourself)
    5) Stimulus control (reminding yourself)

          

  93. upper respiratory system
    nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx ...filters air

          

  94. % of fat for increased risk
    Newton's 2nd law: an object will move in the direction of the force applied to it

          

  95. What is the ACSM's recommended energy expenditure per day?150-400 kcal

          

  96. guidelines for losing weight500-1000 cal daily to lose 1-2 lbs. per wk; same to increase

          

  97. type 1 fibersinflammation of a tendon

          

  98. What factor does not changes a CO increasesintensity of exercise

          

  99. RF for hypertensivesystolic greater than or equal to 140; diastolic greater then or equal to 90; confirmed by 2 separate occasions or on hypertension meds

          

  100. What is the conversion factor for rpm to m/min on a Tunturi or Bodyguard ergometer?multiply by 3

          

  101. Arrhythmiasdecrease in the mass of the muscle;Muscle atrophy results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), renal failure, starvation

          

  102. Describe the Theory of Planned Behaviorextends the theory of reasoned action by incorporating perceived behavioral control, which is determined by perceived power and control beliefs

          

  103. RF Age men, women45 men, 55 women

          

  104. Mitral valve prolapsecloser to midline/further from midline

          

  105. What are the 5 cognitive processes of change?1) Consciousness raising
    2) Dramatic relief (warning of risks)
    3) Environmental reevaluation
    4) Self-reevaluation
    5) Social liberation (increasing healthy opportunities)

          

  106. What kind of resistance training should people with hypertension avoid-stress management
    -MET capacity
    -increased resting metabolism
    -osteoporosis prevention/management
    -injury prevention/rehab

          

  107. What percentage is high for daily valueReturns pooled blood back to central circulation

          

  108. Describe CV responses to exercise in childreninvolves:
    1) observational learning (vicarious rewards)
    2) Behavioral capability (knowledge and skill)
    3) outcome expectations and expectancies
    4) Self-efficacy (confidence about performing a specific behavior)
    5) Self-control of performance (includes self-monitoring and goal-setting)
    6) Management of emotional arousal (e.g., cognitive restructuring, stress management, effective problem solving)
    7) Reinforcement (direct, vicarious, self)

          

  109. What is the conversion factor for rpm to m/min on a Monark leg ergometer?multiply by 6

          

  110. What is the conversion factor for inches to meters?divide by 6

          

  111. What is RE- AIMfurther from the midline

          

  112. skinfold abs
    Vertical fold
    maximum circumference of calf on the midline of medial border

          

  113. Variable resistance device
    Assending / Desending / Bell Shaped

          

  114. What can the wrist move in the sagital plane70-90 and 15-25 in abbuction and abduction

          

  115. Small Change modelStart with small changes

          

  116. What are the minimum caloric intakes for men and women?Men - >.95
    Women - >.86

          

  117. What is the major muscle of respiration40 to 60 %

          

  118. Type 2 diabetesA progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin.

          

  119. Law of AccelerationMacrocycle: largest cycle
    Mesocycle: next largest (4 - 6 in yr)
    Microcycle: smallest cycles (1 - 4 wks)

    Linear v Non Linear
    Linear changes intensity every 4- 6 wks
    -hypertrophy (high vol,short rest)
    -Strength/power (reduced vol,increase load/rest)
    -Peaking (low vol/high load/rest)
    -Recovery (active rest)
    Non Linear changes every day within a 4- 6 wk period

          

  120. the learning processcognitive phase:learn general skill concepts
    associative phase: practice and refine
    automatic phase: skill is developed and consistent

          

  121. What is the preferred walking speed of older adults relative to younger ones?Men 3 to 5 women 8 to 12

          

  122. Treatment for chest pain and heart attack symptomsa. stop exercise immediately and place person ina comfortable sitting or lying position, b. 911, monitor HR, and be prepared to begin CPR, c. Automated External Defibrillator AED may be used if cardiac arrest

          

  123. major joint action for
    -pec major
    -post deltoid
    knee extension
    knee flexion

          

  124. Describe Stroke Volume at rest and during exercise- volume of blood ejected from the LV with each contraction
    - 70 mL at rest, 100mL during ex in untrained men, 170mL in highly trained
    - increases with exercise intensity until 50% of VO2max

          

  125. What is the connective tissue surrounding muscle fibersIdentify clients that should not exercise
    Identify clients with increased risk
    Identify clients with increased risk for disease
    Identify clients with disease
    Identify clients with special needs

          

  126. Third Class LeverShovel
    Force between axis and resistance, but closer to resistance
    Force arm < Resistance Arm
    Most common level

          

  127. Inversion
    adducting the ankle

          

  128. psychotropicaffects behavior

          

  129. MEDIALcloser to the midline

          

  130. How many calories to increase muscle10 to 15 percent of the time

          

  131. What kind of joint is the sacroliciac jointplain

          

  132. MET EquationMETs your weight hours * .48= total calories burned

    Example: Jogging = 7 METs Running = 8 METs. So lets say you weight 150

    Running for 1 hour you will burn

    81501*.48= 576 calories.

    http://blue.utb.edu/mbailey/handouts/pdf/MetCalnew.pdf

          

  133. What are the cardiac adaptations to training?20-35% for adults, 20-35 young children (2-3)
    <10% saturated
    <300 cholesterol
    no fat <20%

          

  134. ligamentsconnective tissue that connects bone to bone

          

  135. RF Dyslipidemia Total Cholesterolless than 40 mg/dL

          

  136. Describe Ejection fraction (EF) at rest and during exercise- % of blood in ventricle during diastole actually pumped out during systole

    EF = SV/EDV

    - at rest, EF = 60% but can range from 50% - 75%

          

  137. horizontal abductionthe row

          

  138. KinesiologyAn inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, esp. the heart muscles.

          

  139. Where do you measure the sub scapular skinfoldone centimeter below the inferior angle of scapula

          

  140. D.O.M.Sdelayed onset muscle soreness;muscle discomfort 24-36 hr after exercise

          

  141. What intensity should you use during warm up and cool down40% to 60%

          

  142. What is 187 lbs in KG?For women >35 is at risk. For men >40 is at risk. Those that are both obese and at risk in their waist line are at a greater risk
    (Above the navel and below lower part of sternum)

          

  143. overuse/chronic muscle and joint injurytendonitis, fasciitis, bursitis, osteoarthritis

          

  144. PROXIMAL
    CLOSER TO THE TRUNK

          

  145. What do lunges useModel of public health Reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance

          

  146. Line of Gravity
    principles of physics related to energy and force as they apply to the human body

          

  147. rotator cuff muscles
    SITS
    Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis

          

  148. Manual resistanceUsing the PT's resistance

          

  149. ROTATION
    Physical Activity Readiness identifies people who should not be tested in a field setting. Proceed with caution if a client answers yes to one or more questions. May require physician clearance

          

  150. isokeneticinflammation of a tendon

          

  151. social learning theory
    the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.

          

  152. What is a goniometericstest the flexibility of joints
    range of motion
    muscle imbalance
    baseline information

          

  153. LATERALone side

          

  154. IliopsoasDehydroepiandrosterone. Marketed as an anabolic steroi

          

  155. arteriousclerosis-transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available

    -glycolysis doesnt use oxygen and is considered anaerobic

    -The burning sensation in muscles during hard exercise can be attributed to the production of hydrogen ions which form lactic acid along with lactate

          

  156. skinfold triceps
    vertical
    1 cm above mark of tricep on belly of bicep

          

  157. skeletal musclevoluntary and made up of striated fibers

          

  158. What produces the greatest DOMSShould include appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity

          

  159. When does HDL become a risk factor10 to 15 percent of the time

          

  160. Ball and socket jointCartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only a little movment, such as in the spine or ribs.

          

  161. Karvonen formulaaka max heart rate reserve method;
    training HR = (max HR - resting HR) X target intensity (40/50-85%) + resting HR

          

  162. Anaerobic Glycolysis/Lactic Acid System (anaerobic)a series of quick but gentle bouncing or bobbing motions designed to stretch your muscles

          

  163. major joint action for
    -biceps brachii
    -triceps brachii
    elbow flexion
    elbow extension

          

  164. posterior pelvic tilt
    Entire pelvis tilted backward in the frontal plane
    Hip extention and lumbar flexes

          

  165. SAIDSpecific Adaptation to Imposed Demands

          

  166. LORDOSIS "secondary curves"
    curves of the cervical and lumbar region

          

  167. Motivational interviewingscapula toward (add) and away from midline (abd)

          

  168. ATP-PC phosphagen system (anaerobic)Exhale concentric and inhale eccentric

          

  169. What is Agina pectorisshoulder flexion

          

  170. Describe the musculoskeletal changes that occur in older adulthood-HRmax decreases 6-10bpm per decade
    -RSV remains unchanged, but max SV decreases with age
    - these changes likely result from dec. compliance in the LV
    - capillary density decreases
    - LV hypertrophy --> inc. afterload/TPR
    - V02 max declines by 5-15% per decade after 25 (can be slowed by PA)
    -residual volume increases and vital capacity decreases
    - lung compliance increases
    -early LV diastolic function decreases
    -aging brings a 20% decreases in the work of respiratory muscles but a decrease in the strength of these muscles

          

  171. SUPERIOR (CRANIAL)above, toward the head

          

  172. ball and socketConsidered the pace maker of the heart; Usually beasts at 60-80 bpm; Beginning of electrical pathway by setting the pace so the rest of the heart can follo

          

  173. Fibrous joints
    Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely

          

  174. What muscle is in charge of quite breathing
    Adductors magnus, longus, brevis; gracialis, pectineus

          

  175. flexibilityA widening of the diameter of a blood vessel.

          

  176. Describe end-diastolic volume at rest and during exercise- % of blood in ventricle during diastole actually pumped out during systole

    EF = SV/EDV

    - at rest, EF = 60% but can range from 50% - 75%

          

  177. 1 inch = __ . ___ cm
    vertical fold
    Midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum

          

  178. What are some components of active listeningListening to spoken statements, observing non verbal cues, understanding anxiety, Identify statements that indicate learning opportunities

          

  179. beta-blocker
    Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell

          

  180. What are the post-exerices recommendations for CHO?1.0-1.5 g CHO/kg within 30-60 min

          

  181. What kind of rotation do wheel chair users useInternal rotation

          

  182. Golgi Tendon
    When a muscle has extensive tension it is detected by the Golgi Tendon organs which inhibits muscle flexion (Safety device to prevent muscle enjury

          

  183. POSTERIOR (DORSAL)A 3D point where the total weight of the body may be considered to be concentrated.

          

  184. VO2
    The amount of Oxygen you can breathe in AND use at the muscle cell to produce energy AND your ability to clear the CO2 from the cell and back to your lungs to exhale.

          

  185. What is a dumbell raiseshoulder flexion

          

  186. What can happen on a high protein diet
    Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosis); glut max

          

  187. VAK
    Distal segment of a joint deviates laterally.

          

  188. What is active and passive forceTension

          

  189. What do you need to subtract when figuring out caloriesFiber

          

  190. Frank Starlingthe upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.

          

  191. What is stretching most associated with
    O2 cost of activity plus rest;
    O2 cost of activity - rest

    All ACSM formulas are for gross VO2

          

  192. venulessmall veins that drain blood from the capillaries and then join to form a vein

          

  193. What happens if someone is over striding when runningdecreases running economy and increase breaking motion

          

  194. Group A, B, C, DA = walking
    B= Jogging
    C= Cross Country sking
    D= Vigorous

          

  195. bilateralfurther from the midline

          

  196. Name 4 ways to increase self-efficacy1) listing performance accomplishments
    2) observing through vicarious experience
    3) Using verbal persuasion
    4) Understanding psychological states

          

  197. cartilagea blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body
    Radial: thumb side of forearm
    Brachial: groove formed b/w tricep and bicep
    Carotid: anterior portion of the neck

          

  198. RF for cigarette smokingactive: muscle is actively moved through ROM
    passive:muscle is actively moved through ROM by partner/device

          

  199. Valgus
    Contain throporin and tropomyson

          

  200. Waist measurementlets person know there is a risk to exercise

          

  201. skinfold chest/pec
    diagonal fold
    half the distance b/w anterior axillary line and nipple (men)
    1/3rd the distance b/w anterior axillary line and nipple (women)

          

  202. What are the 7 relative contraindications for exercise testing?1) drop in SYS >10 mmHg w/out ischemia
    2) ST/QRS changes or marked axis shift
    3) Other arrythemias
    4) Fatigue, SOB, leg cramps, wheezing, claudication
    5) BBB or IV conduction
    6) Increasing chest pain
    7) Hypertensive response >250/115

          

  203. atrophyCardiovascular activities that require skill "swimming"

          

  204. vasodilatorwidens blood vessal

          

  205. What should people with Asthma avoidTension

          

  206. bicondylarmineral reservior, internal skeleton (levers)

          

  207. Warm up ConsiderationsShould include appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity

          

  208. How long should the initial conditioning phase betotal mets x 3.5 x kg /200

          

  209. STERNUMmidline of the chest

          

  210. Intensity for sedentary people
    nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx ...filters air

          

  211. peripheral adaptation is
    exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature

          

  212. Periodization
    Abducting the ankle

          

  213. What is overweight on the BMI scale?Increase amount of resistance that can be overcome by application of force

          

  214. What muscle flexes when walking up hill
    Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosis); glut max

          

  215. Kinesiologythe study of human movement

          

  216. 3 min step test
    adducting the ankle

          

  217. Hydration recommendations according to ACSMFIT VOLUME, PATTERN, PROGRESSION

          

  218. LungesKnee extention and hip abduction

          

  219. muscle endurancemuscle fibers creating cross bridges while shortening in length against the pull of gravity F>R

          

  220. What does sub maximal cardio assessment estimate the relationship ofheart rate and work load

          

  221. What does the ACSM recommend for exercise intensity64 to 70% and 94% of HR or between 40 to 60 and 89% of oxygen uptake reserve

          

  222. muscle tissueinvoluntary muscle tissue that lines the arterial walls and organs of the body

          

  223. Antihyperlipemicsreduces blood sugar

          

  224. medial/lateralsame Side

          

  225. What are the key points to know about strength training in children?-results in smaller absolute but equal relative gains
    -no greater risk of injury
    -focus on participation and technique rather than resistance
    - muscle hypertrophy not a cause of increased strength in preadolescents

          

  226. ACSM Recommendation for older adults training1 set 10-15 reps 8 to 10 exercises

          

  227. Par-Q
    Physical Activity Readiness identifies people who should not be tested in a field setting. Proceed with caution if a client answers yes to one or more questions. May require physician clearance

          

  228. What should you limit in plyotrainingbuild strength and power using eccentric loading a explosive movements

          

  229. What is the minimum VO2 needed for independent living?Glutus maximus and hamstrings

          

  230. What are the 5 stages of change in the TTM?1) Precontemplation
    2) Contemplation
    3) Preperation
    4) Action
    5) Maintenance (> 6 months)

          

  231. What muscles flex the hip?subraspinatus

          

  232. supination/ pronationHR * SV

          

  233. Define Mean arterial pressure (MAP)- % of blood volume composed of RBCs
    - 45 % in men (due to inc. testosterone)
    - 42 % in women

          

  234. skinfold calf
    Vertical fold
    maximum circumference of calf on the midline of medial border

          

  235. How do figure out secondsFibrous joints connect bones without allowing any movement. The bones of your skull and pelvis are held together by fibrous joints.

          

  236. hypoglycemicreduces blood sugar

          

  237. What are the steps to prescribing an exercise program1. obtain medical history
    2. have client preform risk factor assessment
    3. administer fitness test
    4. interpret data
    5 prescribe exercise

          

  238. Static stretchingactive: muscle is actively moved through ROM
    passive:muscle is actively moved through ROM by partner/device

          

  239. asthma
    Distal segment of a joint deviates medially.

          

  240. Arteriovenous Oxygen Differencedifference between oxygen content of arterial and venous blood

          

  241. unilateralone side

          

  242. A.O.M.SAcute-onset muscle soreness; muscle fatigue and discomfort dimininishes when exercise stops

          

  243. 1st class lever
    primarly for balance;see saw, head on cervical vertebrea

          

  244. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation PNFStretch muscle statically, contract and stretch muscle statically beyond initial static stretch

          

  245. Maximum Oxygen Consumptionhighest rate and amount of oxygen achieved at maximal physical exertion

          

  246. Empathy is being _________ and ___________effective and cognitive

          

  247. Muscle Spindles
    A saddle joint allows movement back and forth and up and down, bot does not allow for rotation like a ball and socket joint.

          

  248. AV nodeconnective tissue that connects muscles to bone

          

  249. How many calories should come from proteinLBS / HT INCH HT INCH 703

          

  250. What does the knee join flex in sagital planeW/T = Power

          

  251. RF Prediabetes fasting blood glucoseW/T = Power

          

  252. body mass index BMIthe height to weight ratio can be misleading because it does not consider body type

          

  253. EPOCrestoration of ATP after intense exercise

          

  254. Mechanical Workthe amount of energy transferred by a force
    Force - displacement

          

  255. 3rd class leverrange of motion; shovel, exbow flexion; we use this the most

          

  256. brochodilatorrelaxes bronchial passageways

          

  257. What does ACSM recommend for strength and enduranceFIT VOLUME, PATTERN, PROGRESSION

          

  258. major joint action for
    -erector spinae
    -abs

    -spinal extension/flexion

          

  259. extensionmetabolic equivalent of task
    1 MET = SITING
    met minute is time engaged in activity

          

  260. rheumatoidDehydroepiandrosterone. Marketed as an anabolic steroi

          

  261. Name and describe the Myosin Isoformsfront/ back

          

  262. BIOMECHANICSAn inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, esp. the heart muscles.

          

  263. Vasodilationmovement around a longitudinal axis, either toward or away from the midline

          

  264. lower respiratory system
    The * automatic nervous system serves two important basic functions: the sympathetic nervous system (Stress) and para sympathetic nervous system (Relax).

          

  265. What is the purpose of screening1) normal: <120/80
    2) pre- : 120-139/80-89
    3) Stage 1: 140-159/90-99
    4) Stage 2: >160>100

          

  266. Cool Down ConsiderationsCarbs: 55%-60%
    Fat: 25%- 30%
    Protein: 10% - 15%
    6oz of grains (3oz of whole-grain), 2.5 cups veggies, 2 cups fruits, 3 cups milk

          

  267. What muscles retract the shoulder girdle?
    Infraspinatus, teres minor

          

  268. What one purpose of the cool downReturns pooled blood back to central circulation

          

  269. Symptoms of Angina (chest pain) and myocardial infaction (heart attack)Tension

          

  270. Self EfficancyRestriction of blood supply

          

  271. FITTE (resistance training)makes a division into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions

          

  272. Describe the substrate and duration of the oxidative System-CHO, Fats, Proteins --> ATP
    -byproducts are water and CO2

          

  273. Anterior Pelvic tiltthe smallest arteries that connect with the capillaries which allow the exchange of blood and other nutrients with various tissue

          

  274. What joint has a greater range of motion when running up hillthe ankle joint

          

  275. phosphorus
    Distal segment of a joint deviates medially.

          

  276. osteoarthritis
    exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature

          

  277. It is recommended to stretch each joint for60 seconds

          

  278. What are the 8 absolute contraindications for exercise testing?1) drop in SYS >10 mmHg w/out ischemia
    2) ST/QRS changes or marked axis shift
    3) Other arrythemias
    4) Fatigue, SOB, leg cramps, wheezing, claudication
    5) BBB or IV conduction
    6) Increasing chest pain
    7) Hypertensive response >250/115

          

  279. 2 types of hypertrophysarcoplasmic and myofibrillar

          

  280. Lordotic
    Relating to normal concave curvature of the cervical and lumbar spine regions

          

  281. kilocalariessimple sugars; glucose (most abundant), fluctose, and galactose

          

  282. What is recommended exercise for a healthy adult60 to 90 hr max duration of 20 to 60 min 3-5 days a week

          

  283. How long does the curl up test last300 to 500 daily

          

  284. VO2 max equation
    3.5 + 483 / T

          

  285. ballistic stretching
    Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.

          

  286. Dynamic Stretchingprevents system of allergic response

          

  287. USRDA food pyramid
    Hips/Waist (ex. 45" waist and 36" hips... 36/45=.8)
    ratios above .86 for women and .95 for men indicate abdominal adiposity

          

  288. Heart rate reserveThe difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate
    HRR = HRmax − HRrest

          

  289. Active Listeningprevents system of allergic response

          

  290. What body type is most associated with metabolic deciese
    android

          

  291. Type 1 diabetesanaerobic in nature. refered as fast glycolitic fibers

          

  292. concentric
    adducting the ankle

          

  293. torquerotary force

          

  294. What does Systolic BP give insight intoFunctioning of the heart and cardiovascular system

          

  295. Why do you want to avoid the carotid sinus when checking the pulse at the carotid arteryTo avoid reflexive slowing of heart rate

          

  296. Describe the ventilatory adaptations that occur with aerobic training-CHO, Fats, Proteins --> ATP
    -byproducts are water and CO2

          

  297. Describe the cardiopulmonary changes that occur in older adults-much lower sweating rate (rely more on convective heat loss through increased blood flow)
    - same # of sweat glands, but half the production of those glands
    - less acclimatization
    - greater surface area to BM ratio --> inc. loss of heat (cold env) or gain of heat (hot env.)

          

  298. Bones of the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum...-intention is the most important determinant of behavior
    -attitudes and subjective norms influence intention

          

  299. Blood Flowboth sides

          

  300. What vitemins are water soluble and need to be consumed regular64 to 70% and 94% of HR or between 40 to 60 and 89% of oxygen uptake reserve

          

  301. Age group that exercises the least is?65+

          

  302. It fitness testing madatoryNO

          

  303. What are the stages of hypertension?1) normal: <120/80
    2) pre- : 120-139/80-89
    3) Stage 1: 140-159/90-99
    4) Stage 2: >160>100

          

  304. 9 site skinfold locationsabs
    tricep
    bicep
    chest
    midaxillary
    subscapular
    suprailium
    thigh
    calf

          

  305. What is the resting absolute O2 consumption for a 70kg person? In athletes?0.245 L/min (up to 5.5 L/min in athletes)

          

  306. Between what speeds does the ACSM walking formula apply?between 50 and 100 m/min (1.9 - 3.7 mph)

          

  307. What are risky weight to hip ratios for men and women?Men - >.95
    Women - >.86

          

  308. RF Dyslipidemia low HDLLgreater than 130 mg/dL

          

  309. major joint action for
    -mid trap
    -pec minor
    -scapular retraction(add)
    -scapular protraction(abd)

          

  310. Center of GravityA 3D point where the total weight of the body may be considered to be concentrated.

          

  311. The clavicle preforms what functionfacilitates movement of the chest during inspiration and expiration

          

  312. Dynamic constant external resistance devicesisotonic muscle contraction; describes the type of muscle activity when exercising with external resistances in activities such as lifting weights

          

  313. How do you analyze postureanterior ,posterior and from both sides

          

  314. water soluble vitamens
    A vitamen that dissolves in water and cannot be stored in significant amounts consist of b and c vitamens

          

  315. cardiorespiratoryincreases the capacity of the heart, lungs, and blood carrying vessels to deliver oxygen; also called aerobic fitness

          

  316. Body composition testinga combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction

          

  317. major joint action for
    -gluteus maximus
    -Ilopsoas
    -scapular retraction(add)
    -scapular protraction(abd)

          

  318. What does 1 watt equal?6.0 kg/m/min

          

  319. What temp should water be22.2 c

          

  320. Describe Social Cognitive Theoryfront/ back

          

  321. What is gross Vo2? Net Vo2?M X A

          

  322. 1 kg = __.___Acute-onset muscle soreness; muscle fatigue and discomfort dimininishes when exercise stops

          

  323. high risk flexibilityShovel
    Force between axis and resistance, but closer to resistance
    Force arm < Resistance Arm
    Most common level

          

  324. How to do a proper calf raiseModel of public health Reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance

          

  325. What is the conversion factor for kg/m/min to watts?divide by 6

          

  326. What are the recommendations for dietary fiber?Carbs: 55%-60%
    Fat: 25%- 30%
    Protein: 10% - 15%
    6oz of grains (3oz of whole-grain), 2.5 cups veggies, 2 cups fruits, 3 cups milk

          

  327. retraction/protractionNo prior training 20 -30 60 - 1150 min total
    minimal 150 - 200
    intermediate 200- 300
    regular exercise 200 -300

          

  328. Intermittent Claudicationturning the sole of the foot toward the midline

          

  329. What does tropomyosin do?Covers actin binding site at rest, attached to troponin

          

  330. Left atriumthe upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.

          

  331. What is the idea behind Plyometricstotal mets x 3.5 x kg /200

          

  332. How much fluid should be consumed after high intensityMen 3 to 5 women 8 to 12

          

  333. Ellipsodal
    Ellipsoid joints are similar to a ball and socket joint. They allow the same type of movment to a lesser magnitude. The wrist is an ellipsoid joint.

          

  334. Define Rate Pressure ProductThe difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate
    HRR = HRmax − HRrest

          

  335. Describe the sliding filament theory1) CNS stimulates sarcolemma and Ca++ is released from the T-tubules of the SR
    2) Ca++ binds to troponin causing tropomyosin to shift shape, exposing active binding sites on the actin
    3) Myosin cross-bridges bind to active sites on actin
    4) ATPase in cross-bridge head cleaves ATP resulting in the power stroke
    5) ATP binds to cross-bridge head and calcium pump restores Ca++ to SR

          

  336. In what part of bone does hematopoiesis occur?plain

          

  337. waist-hip ratio
    Hips/Waist (ex. 45" waist and 36" hips... 36/45=.8)
    ratios above .86 for women and .95 for men indicate abdominal adiposity

          

  338. Q equationHR * SV

          

  339. Right atrium
    adducting the ankle

          

  340. Describe pulmonary responses to exercise in children- 10-20% inc. submax O2 consumption compared to adults in running and walking do to dec. economy
    - lower anerobic capacity
    - children reach metabolic steady state quicker than adults
    (less oxygen debt)
    - more rapid recovery of HR and BP post-ex

          

  341. gliding or plane joint
    the events that occur b/w actin and myosin during muscle contraction and relaxation

    -when nerve impulse is received, the cross bridges of myosin will put the actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere and tension is created

          

  342. Transtheoretical model of change
    Pre-contemplation: not ready to exercise
    Contemplation: thinking about behavior change
    Preparation:doing something related to exercise, but not meeting the guidelines
    Action: meeting set criteria of at least 6 months
    Maintenance: met criteria of 6 months, and continuing

          

  343. What is the equation for powerIdentify clients that should not exercise
    Identify clients with increased risk
    Identify clients with increased risk for disease
    Identify clients with disease
    Identify clients with special needs

          

  344. What is shaping?Model of public health Reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance

          

  345. Karavonen Method220 - age - rhr * .% + rhr

          

  346. Vasoconstriction
    Decrease in the diameter of blood vessels

          

  347. Leukocytesmovement done for improvement in one or more components of fitness

          

  348. What would be considered over trainingTwo intense days followed by easy.

          

  349. FRONTAL PLANEmakes a division into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions

          

  350. What are some Dynamic external devicesdumbells, kettle bells, medicine ball

          

  351. What is used when doing a dumbell pull overShoulder extention

          

  352. Lever 3further from the midline

          

  353. CIRCUMDUCTIONBest for high volume shorter rest

          

  354. What muscle abducts the armsubraspinatus

          

  355. What muscles act as dorsaflextion of the ankle
    Lat. Dorsi, Pec major, Teres Major, Post. Delt

          

  356. What exercise should people with hip replacement avoidinternal rotation

          

  357. Describe the Theory of Reasoned Action-intention is the most important determinant of behavior
    -attitudes and subjective norms influence intention

          

  358. What safeguards private informationimproved stroke volume, blood volume, lower heart rate

          

  359. Miniscus
    Fibrocartilage behind petalla

          

  360. InertiaRestriction of blood supply

          

  361. One mile walking or running expends100 kcal

          

  362. ACTINlying face up

          

  363. Direction of blood flowThe Right Atrium, receives "used blood" from the body. Blood will be pushed through the tricuspid valve to the
    Right Ventricle, the chamber which will pump to the lungs through the pulmonic valve to the
    Pulmonary Arteries, providing blood to both lungs. Blood is circulated through the lungs where carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen added. It returns through the
    Pulmonary Veins, which empty into the
    Left Atrium, a chamber which will push the Mitral Valve open. Blood then passes into the
    Left Ventricle. As it pumps, the pressure will close the mitral valve and open the aortic valve, with blood passing through to the
    Aorta, where it will be delivered to the rest of the body.

          

  364. Varus
    Distal segment of a joint deviates medially.

          

  365. What is an example of a condyloid joint and what is its characteristic motion?Wrist (radiocarpal) - circumduction, abd, add, flex/ext

          

  366. skinfold thigh
    Vertical fold
    Anterior midline of the thigh
    Midway between the proximal border of the patella (upper knee) and the inguinal crease (hip)

          

  367. What is the primary use of a leverIncrease amount of resistance that can be overcome by application of force

          

  368. smooth muscledelayed onset muscle soreness;muscle discomfort 24-36 hr after exercise

          

  369. How much should an athlete drink after training10 to 15 percent of the time

          

  370. INFERIOR (CAUDAL)above, toward the head

          

  371. 1RM table60% = 17
    70%=12
    80%= 8
    90%=5
    100%=1

          

  372. Shoulder press
    Shoulder abduction

          

  373. What method should sedentary people useshorter duration, and lower intensity

          

  374. What does force =6.0 kg/m/min

          

  375. Ballistic StretchingModel of public health Reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance

          

  376. Define 'Antecedent control'-loss of muscle tone and consciousness associated with diminished cerebral blood flow

          

  377. 2nd class levermay elevate HR,BP and respiratory response

          

  378. What are the 3 parts of the sternum?manubrium, body, xiphoid process

          

  379. regular physical activity can improve health and reduce health risks by...reduces...
    -cardiovascular disease
    -risk of stroke
    -reduces high blood pressure
    -risk of colon cancer, lowers
    -cholesterol/triglycerides,
    -depression/anxiety/stress

    Increases...
    -lipoproteins
    -self-esteem
    -healthy body

          

  380. ANTERIOR (VENTRAL)the lower part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium and pumps it through the pulmonary valve into the lungs via the pulmonary artery.

          

  381. Describe the substrate and duration of the Phosphagen SystemTibialis, peroneus, tertius, extensor

          

  382. lean body massinflammation of a tendon

          

  383. How are METs calculated?HRR = HRmax − HRrest

          

  384. exercise and pregnancy-Supine position should be avoided after 1st trimester
    -low/mod intensity
    -non-ballistic
    -proper clothing and hydration to prevent overheating

          

  385. Describe the substrate and duration of the nonoxidative System-CHO --> ATP
    -without oxygen, byproduct is lactic acid
    -main energy source for 30 sec --> 3 minutes

          

  386. How do you determine Heart rate range220- age -RH X 70% + HR

          

  387. Theory of planned behavior
    A theory stating that the best predictor of a behavior is one's behavioral intention, which is influenced by one's attitude toward the specific behavior, the subjective norms regarding the behavior, and one's perceived control over the behavior.

          

  388. consequences of physical inactivity3500

          

  389. Lever 2a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body
    Radial: thumb side of forearm
    Brachial: groove formed b/w tricep and bicep
    Carotid: anterior portion of the neck

          

  390. Types of supportEmotional, tangible, informational, appraisal

          

  391. RF Sedentary minutes of activity, days of week, past # of monthsless than 30 min/day, 3 days/week, for at least 3 months

          

  392. What plane does extention and Flexion occur most oftenSagital

          

  393. anorexia nervosa
    cause forceful expiration

          

  394. Impingement syndromeaffects rotator cuff, overuse injury, swelling, pain while sleeping, shoulder feels weak, bursitis as a result of pinching in acromion, point tenderness
    Gradual onset of anterior and lateral shoulder pain exacerbated by overhead activity. Night pain and difficulty sleeping on affected side.

          

  395. What are the ACSM developmental periods?Extention 0 to 150

          

  396. What are the 8 ACSM Risk Factors for Heart Disease?fruity breath
    blurred vision
    extreme thirst

          

  397. VERTEBRAL COLUMN (SPINE)serves as the main axial support for the body

          

  398. Blood Pressure
    Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell

          

  399. Valsalva Maneuver
    Any forced expiratory effort against a closed airway such as when an individual holds his or her breath and tightens his or her muscles in a concerted, strenuous effort to move a heavy object or change positions in bed.

          

  400. hyperextension

          

  401. Where can you find yellow marrow?During concentric

          

  402. Risk stratifications (high)Cardiac, peripheral vascular, or cerebrovascular disease
    Chronic OPD, asthma, interstitial lung disease, or cystic fibrosis
    Diabetes type 1 or 2, thyroid disorders, renal, or liver disease

          

  403. What muscles extend the shoulder?F w/t

          

  404. Dietery RecommendationsCarbs: 55%-60%
    Fat: 25%- 30%
    Protein: 10% - 15%
    6oz of grains (3oz of whole-grain), 2.5 cups veggies, 2 cups fruits, 3 cups milk

          

  405. What are the diagnostic features of bulimia nervosa?Neonatal: 0-3weeks
    Infancy: 3 weeks - 1 year
    Early Childhood: 1-6
    Middle Childhood: 7-10
    Prepuberty: 9-15 (girls) 12-16 (boys)
    Early adulthood: 20-29
    Middle adulthood: 30-44
    Later adulthood: 45-64

          

  406. What is the recommended cardio intensity20-35% for adults, 20-35 young children (2-3)
    <10% saturated
    <300 cholesterol
    no fat <20%

          

  407. Right ventriclethe lower part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium and pumps it through the pulmonary valve into the lungs via the pulmonary artery.

          

  408. Isokineticvariable force w. accommodating speed

          

  409. SA, AV ______ _______Helps cities compare their health with other cities

          

  410. antihistamineprevents system of allergic response

          

  411. fasciitisA widening of the diameter of a blood vessel.

          

  412. antihypertensive medsA progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin.

          

  413. normal acute cardiorespiratory response to aerobic exerciseelevated HR, SV, Cardiac output, BP, Blood Flow, Arteriovenous oxygen difference, pulmonary ventilation and oxygen consumption

          

  414. Principle of Adaptation/Overload Training and Progression-greater then normal demand is placed upon muscles,
    -to enhance the muscular fitness, the system must be progressively overloaded
    -tension required for strength gain is about 60% - 80% of 1RM
    -fleck and kraemer recommend 75 - 90%

    Progression involves increasing/changing one or more of the exercise training components to promote adaptations

          

  415. Isotonic/dynamic contractionchest press

          

  416. agonistmuscle responsible for producing joint movement
    ex. bicep during curl

          

  417. cardiac myocyteMalpractice is a type of negligence committed by a professional and Negligence is failure to exercise due care

          

  418. What is the Harris-Benedict Equation?
    a. cool, moist pale, ashen, or flushed skin b. headache, nausea, dizziness, c. weakness, exhaustion d. heavy sweating e. body temp will be near normal

          

  419. Forcemay extend endurance in moderate aerobic exercise

          

  420. HYPERLORDOSIS
    exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature

          

  421. SPIESblood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

          

  422. anti-arrhythmicAn arrhythmia is a disorder of the heart rate (pulse) or heart rhythm, such as beating too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

          

  423. What is the minimal time for static stretches10 seconds

          

  424. How many more calories should pregnant women eat300

          

  425. Define pulse pressure- difference between SYS and DIA
    - approx. 40 mmHg at rest

          

  426. What muscles adduct the hip?
    Adductors magnus, longus, brevis; gracialis, pectineus

          

  427. korotkoff
    FIVE PHASES OF SOUNDS HEARD WHEN TAKING A BLOOD PRESSURE

          

  428. What are the fat recommendations?20-35% for adults, 20-35 young children (2-3)
    <10% saturated
    <300 cholesterol
    no fat <20%

          

  429. What is the METS equationtotal mets x 3.5 x kg /200

          

  430. Principle of Specificity of TrainingThe body adapts to specific exercise training stimulus with specific physical and physiological adaptations.

          

  431. Should a sedentary person get clearance from their doctor?By dividing the relative O2 consumption by 3.5

          

  432. anterior/posteriorfront/ back

          

  433. Describe the metabolic responses to exercise in children- 10-20% inc. submax O2 consumption compared to adults in running and walking do to dec. economy
    - lower anerobic capacity
    - children reach metabolic steady state quicker than adults
    (less oxygen debt)
    - more rapid recovery of HR and BP post-ex

          

  434. What is the ROM for elbow flexiontest the flexibility of joints
    range of motion
    muscle imbalance
    baseline information

          

  435. What is the BMI if someone weighs 150 lbsLBS / HT INCH HT INCH 703

          

  436. bursitis
    Distal segment of a joint deviates medially.

          

  437. tendonsconnective tissue that connects muscles to bone

          

  438. 5 components of Physical Fitness
    a group of characteristics a person achieves/possesses related to physical activity and cardiorepiratory, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, body composition

          

  439. EVERSIONturning the sole of the foot away from the midline

          

  440. METS
    Contain throporin and tropomyson

          

  441. ACSM recommendation for cardio30 min 3 to 5 days a week

          

  442. Squats
    Leg extention

          

  443. What is the order of a assessmentHR, BP, Body comp, cardio, muscular, flexibility

          

  444. hamstringsmall arteries from the heart rich in oxygen

          

  445. What are the Long-term vascular adaptations to exercise?1) decreased SBP, DBP, and MAP at rest
    2) improved shunting of blood to muscles
    3) improved capillarity within muscle tissue (and increased mithochondrial density) --> improved oxygen extraction

          

  446. Describe Respiratory rate at rest and during exercise- about 3% at rest
    - 3-5% with moderate ex
    - 10% at max, (15% in highly trained)

          

  447. SAGITTAL PLANEmakes a division into right and left portions

          

  448. Sarcomeresmallest contractile unit of a muscle cell; composed of 2 types of muscle protein,
    -actin "thin filament", which contains troponin and tropomyosin
    -myosin "thick filament" : contains many cross bridges

          

  449. Golgi Tendonsinflammation of a tendon

          

  450. 4 Major curvatures of the adult vertebral columncervical curve, thoracic curve, lumbar curve,
    sacral curve

          

  451. hip musclesinvoluntary muscle tissue that lines the arterial walls and organs of the body

          

  452. Social Cognitive Theory
    Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavaties between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid.

          

  453. negligencethe trait of neglecting responsibilities and lacking concern

          

  454. What are effects of proper Hydrationimproved stroke volume, blood volume, lower heart rate

          

  455. major joint action for
    -gastrocnemius
    -tibialis anterior

    -spinal extension/flexion

          

  456. percent fatmuscle fibers creating cross bridges while shortening in length against the pull of gravity F>R

          

  457. horizontal adductionchest press

          

  458. What are the 5 A's of counseling?1) address the agenda
    2) assess
    3) advise
    4) Assist
    5) arrange follow-up

          

  459. POLYSACHARIDESlarge macromolecule formed from manosaccharides, starch, cellulose, glyxogen

          

  460. What is proper breathingtest the flexibility of joints
    range of motion
    muscle imbalance
    baseline information

          

  461. Left ventriclethe lower part of the that heart receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium and pumps it through the aortic valve to the entire body via the aorta, including to the heart muscle itself through the coronary arteries.

          

  462. What is the recommended range of body fatMen 3 to 5 women 8 to 12

          

  463. Cardio adaptations-resting heart rate decreases by approx 10 - 15 bpm
    -SV increases both at rest and during exercise
    -Resting SBP/DBP may decrease (if prev elevated)

          

  464. Synovial joints
    Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavaties between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid.

          

  465. female athlete triad
    amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and eating disorders; when left untreated they damage the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems

          

  466. What is minimal b fat that places people at risk
    Diaphragm

          

  467. alcoholdehydrating-may impair exercise tolerance and increase risk of heart injury

          

  468. proximal/distalmovement around a longitudinal axis, either toward or away from the midline

          

  469. Oxygen System (aerobic)the upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.

          

  470. fat soluble vitaminsanaerobic in nature. refered as fast glycolitic fibers

          

  471. How long does it take to get used to high altitude2 weeks

          

  472. Mechanical Workmuscle fibers creating cross bridges while shortening in length against the pull of gravity F>R

          

  473. SMART Goals
    Distal segment of a joint deviates laterally.

          

  474. sliding filament theory
    the events that occur b/w actin and myosin during muscle contraction and relaxation

    -when nerve impulse is received, the cross bridges of myosin will put the actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere and tension is created

          

  475. Training FocusNo prior training 20 -30 60 - 1150 min total
    minimal 150 - 200
    intermediate 200- 300
    regular exercise 200 -300

          

  476. If someone is at moderate risk do they need a submaximal fitness test or medical exam-CHO --> ATP
    -without oxygen, byproduct is lactic acid
    -main energy source for 30 sec --> 3 minutes

          

  477. One pound of fat is =3500

          

  478. What are the major agonist muscles during parallel bars
    posterior delt, triceps, pectoral major

          

  479. What muscle is the antagonist to Hamstringssartorius

          

  480. During a pushup what is the motion at the elbow joint during the down phase40 to 50% HHR

          

  481. How soon do most people quit3 to 6 monthsech

          

  482. What does down hill running workanterior ,posterior and from both sides

          

  483. Risk stratifications (med)reduces high blood pressure

          

  484. Arthritisinflammation of a joint
    -flex training recommended

          

  485. type IIBsmall arteries from the heart rich in oxygen

          

  486. Supination (Foot Ankle)scapula toward (add) and away from midline (abd)

          

  487. What does ACSM recommend for a extremely deconditioned individual60 seconds

          

  488. What is the best exercise to isolate the soleusIdentify clients that should not exercise
    Identify clients with increased risk
    Identify clients with increased risk for disease
    Identify clients with disease
    Identify clients with special needs

          

  489. When do you exhaleDuring concentric

          

  490. How many calories are spent by running/walking 1 mile?5 kcal (20.9 kJ)

          

  491. monosacharidessimple sugars; glucose (most abundant), fluctose, and galactose

          

  492. IscheriaSocial: support systems
    Physical: physical/phyiological well-being
    Intellectual: Open to Learn
    Emotional:Coping Skills
    Spiritual:living in harmony

          

  493. dose responsemajor bone of arm

          

  494. Cartilaginous jointCartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only a little movment, such as in the spine or ribs.

          

  495. muscle strength
    Fibers that are sensitive to change in length of muscle and rate of that change, major sensory organs of muscle. parallel to muscle fibers. transmit info to cns when stretched. causes muscle to contract to prevent overstretching/ stretching too fast.

          

  496. PAR QMedical form that rules out the fact that a client has to be medically cleared by a dr

          

  497. What are the diagnostic features of anorexia nervosa?Men: <102 cm
    Women: <88 cm

          

  498. Heart rate reserveHRR = HRmax − HRrest

          

  499. # of kilocalories in one gramCarbo= 4; fats=9; protein=4; alcohol=7

          

  500. anatomical sites of pulse
    carotid, brachial, radial, femoral

          

  501. What is the conversion factor for mph to mpm?multiply by 26.8

          

  502. 5 A's model behavior220 - age - rhr * .% + rhr

          

  503. What accounts for 90% of fat
    Iliacus, pectineus, psoas major, rectus femoris

          

  504. Stroke Volumethe smallest arteries that connect with the capillaries which allow the exchange of blood and other nutrients with various tissue

          

  505. When walking , running down hill what muscle is most active2 weeks

          

  506. How long should older adults hold static stretches2 weeks

          

  507. How much should a pt talkHeart related chest pain caused by Ischemia

          

  508. periodizationPlanned distribution or variation in training means and methods on a periodic cycle

          

  509. metabolic syndromefat deposited in the abdom. area is more highly correlated to heart disease

          

  510. carpal tunnel
    a disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist)

          

  511. What can tight hamstrings lead toW/T = Power

          

  512. Commonly found abnormal curves in the sagittal planehyperkyphosis and hyperlordosis

          

  513. benefits of resistance training-stress management
    -MET capacity
    -increased resting metabolism
    -osteoporosis prevention/management
    -injury prevention/rehab

          

  514. What are some components of motivational interviewingdumbells, kettle bells, medicine ball

          

  515. What is recommended for someone over 40Exercise test before vigorous exercise

          

  516. Pivot jointsturning the sole of the foot away from the midline

          

  517. humerus

          

  518. What are the Effects of training on Fiber Type?Right side of body
    maintain pinch
    retest if duplicate measurement is not 1 to 2 mm close

          

  519. What is EIMExercise in medicine
    Physicians encourage patients to exercise

          

  520. Internal intercostalsthe psychologically addictive cycle of binging/purging

          

  521. proneDehydroepiandrosterone. Marketed as an anabolic steroi

          

  522. Law of ReactionMacrocycle: largest cycle
    Mesocycle: next largest (4 - 6 in yr)
    Microcycle: smallest cycles (1 - 4 wks)

    Linear v Non Linear
    Linear changes intensity every 4- 6 wks
    -hypertrophy (high vol,short rest)
    -Strength/power (reduced vol,increase load/rest)
    -Peaking (low vol/high load/rest)
    -Recovery (active rest)
    Non Linear changes every day within a 4- 6 wk period

          

  523. arteriolssmall arteries from the heart rich in oxygen

          

  524. mitral valvelocated between the left atrium and left ventricle; prevents blood from flowing back into the LA after it has entered the LV

          

  525. What height do you use for depth jumpsLBS / HT INCH HT INCH 703

          

  526. Sacromeremovement done for improvement in one or more components of fitness

          

  527. Where in the lungs does gas exchange happenalveoli

          

  528. myofibrillaractin and myosin contractile proteins increase in number and add to muscular strength as well as a small increase in the size of the muscle

          

  529. What should a pt do during a motivational interviewWarm moist air

          

  530. antagonistopposing muscle to the prime mover

          

  531. Initial treatment for Musculoskeletal injury for the first 24-72 hrs(RICES) rest (prevents further injury, ice (reduces pain, swelling, and initiates inflammatory response) compression (reduces swelling and bleeding) elevation (controls edema and decreases blood flow) stabilization (assists in muscle relaxation, diminishing spasm

          

  532. What joint is moving during a chin upThe glenohumeral joint is moving in the sagital plane and is being extended

          

  533. What is a sign of preparationirregular exercise

          

  534. obesityexcessivly high amounts of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass

          

  535. Work =
    Physical Activity Readiness identifies people who should not be tested in a field setting. Proceed with caution if a client answers yes to one or more questions. May require physician clearance

          

  536. Automatic nervous systemAbducting and eversion medial part of foot

          

  537. How many kcal are spent consuming 1L O2?5 kcal (20.9 kJ)

          

  538. What are the rules of doing a skin fold testMen 3 to 5 women 8 to 12

          

  539. Good morning exerciseextention

          

  540. skinfold bicep
    vertical
    1 cm above mark of tricep on belly of bicep

          

  541. Define cardiovascular drift- movement of plasma out of the blood into the working muscles/ surrounding tissue
    - serves to prevent overheating but decreases SV and leads to hemoconcentration (high RBC concentrations, inc. hematocrit)

          

  542. major joint action for
    -rotator cuff muscles
    intensity of exercise

          

  543. What kind of event would you use TYPE11 fiberssubraspinatus

          

  544. Why are women more flexibleExtention 0 to 150

          

  545. Ipsilateralsame Side

          

  546. Sociological Model of change
    Deals with environment and how it effects change

          

  547. What is empathyRestriction of blood supply

          

  548. Cardiac Outputthe amount of blood pumped from the heart in one minute

          

  549. veinsblood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

          

  550. If a patient has only one risk factor what intensity can they start exercise with (Assessment Level)sub maximal assessment without doctors consent

          

  551. What muscles medially rotate the shoulder?
    Lat. Dorsi, Pec major, Teres Major, Post. Delt

          

  552. How often should kids exerciseshoulder flexion

          

  553. What head of the Bicep Femora acts on KneeLong

          

  554. What muscles should you focus on to strengthen the backabdominal, hip extensors, erector spinus

          

  555. First Class LeverSeesaw
    Axis between force and resistance

          

  556. Describe Minute Ventilation (VE) at rest and during exercisevolume of air expired or inspired over the course of 1 minute
    - about 6 L/min at rest
    - can increase to 20-25x at max. (result of increased tidal volume and respiratory rate)

          

  557. DISTAL
    Physical Activity Readiness identifies people who should not be tested in a field setting. Proceed with caution if a client answers yes to one or more questions. May require physician clearance

          

  558. Describe Cardiac Output (Q) at rest and during exercise- the amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of the resting phase (diastole)

    - at rest, 125 mL
    - at max, 160 mL

          

  559. flexionblood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

          

  560. infrapinatus / teres minor
    As the end diastolic volume is increased, the stroke volume is increased. The heart contracts more forcefully when it is subjected to an increasing degree of stretch.

          

  561. active listeninginflammation of a tendon

          

  562. What is the Antagonist for hip adductionGlutus maximus and hamstrings

          

  563. inferior/superiorbelow/ above

          

  564. Negative Risk FactorHDL greater than 60 mg/dL

          

  565. Define syncope-loss of muscle tone and consciousness associated with diminished cerebral blood flow

          

  566. major joint action for
    -latissimus dorsi
    -middle delt
    -shoulder adduction
    -shoulder abduction

          

  567. What muscles perform hip extentionhamstrings

          

  568. RF for family historybody mass of greater then or equal to 30kg/m2; waist girthgreater than 102 cm for men and 88 cm for women

          

  569. sarcoplasmic
    volume of sarcoplasmic fluid in the muscle cell increases with no accompanying increase in muscular strength

          

  570. What muscles abduct the hip?
    Glut. medius, piriformis

          

  571. Relationship marketinginvolves setting a series of intermediate goals that lead towards a long-term goal

          

  572. Goal setting theory

          

  573. nicotinemay elevate HR,BP and respiratory response

          

  574. DHEADehydroepiandrosterone. Marketed as an anabolic steroi

          

  575. Body Compositionresponsible for maintaining atri- ventrecular valve closure at the heart

          

  576. Heart Rate (HR)closer to midline/further from midline

          

  577. arterioles60% = 17
    70%=12
    80%= 8
    90%=5
    100%=1

          

  578. IschemiaAn inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, esp. the heart muscles.

          

  579. What are unique responses to exercise found in older adults?- blunted HR response
    - decreased blood volume, max SV and Q
    - decreased EF due to reductions in LV compliance
    -increased dead space in lungs (from 30% to 40-45%)
    -reductions in pulmonary alveolar compliance elevates BP in the lungs during exercise
    -similar or greater strength gains compared to young adults

          

  580. What are the effects of posture on cardiac functioning?- supine SV (e.g., swimming) is greater at any given intensity and HR is lower (same Q)

          

  581. Cardiac muscle
    a disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist)

          

  582. Subscapularis
    Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell

          

  583. order of exercise assessments1.resting mesurements (BP/HR/Body Fat/height/weight)
    2.cardio test
    3.muscular endurance
    4.flex

          

  584. informed consentextension beyond normal degree of extension

          

  585. What is the recommended intensity for aerobic exercise40 to 50% HHR

          

  586. Albuterolmidline of the chest

          

  587. skinfold Subscapulararterial pressure providing force for blood flow (systolic and diastolic pressure)

          

  588. Abduction and Adduction take place in the?central layer that divides muscle into compartments called fascicles

          

  589. tendonitisinflammation of a tendon

          

  590. KYPHOSIS "primary curves"bodily (musculoskeletal movement leading to caloric expenditure

          

  591. echinaceaThis herb treats colds, fevers & urinary tract infections. May interfere with immunosuppressive drugs, methotrexate and Ketoconizole.

          

  592. internal/external rotationtransverse plane rotation towards/away from midline

          

  593. What are the energy costs of breathing at rest and during exercise?- about 3% at rest
    - 3-5% with moderate ex
    - 10% at max, (15% in highly trained)

          

  594. rhabdomyolysisA widening of the diameter of a blood vessel.

          

  595. joints

          

  596. What are the BP contraindications to exercise?1) address the agenda
    2) assess
    3) advise
    4) Assist
    5) arrange follow-up

          

  597. Types of muscle tissuecardiac, smooth, and skeletal

          

  598. What is the conversion factor for rpm to m/min on a Monark arm ergometer?multiply by 2.4

          

  599. Anaerobic Glycolysisrefers to a joint's range of mobility (ROM)

          

  600. Eversionturning the sole of the foot toward the midline

          

  601. hypertrophyEnlargement of muscle

          

  602. What position would stroke volume be the highestSupine

          

  603. Describe Thermoregulation in children-much lower sweating rate (rely more on convective heat loss through increased blood flow)
    - same # of sweat glands, but half the production of those glands
    - less acclimatization
    - greater surface area to BM ratio --> inc. loss of heat (cold env) or gain of heat (hot env.)

          

  604. lateral flexiondecrease joint angle (elbow curl)

          

  605. Lever 1midline of the chest

          

  606. osteoarthritismuscle fibers creating cross bridges while returning to resting length while going with gravity R>F

          

  607. Describe the Anaerobic threshold- exercise intensity at which ATP demand cannot be met solely by aerobic metabolism and anerobically produced ATP is needed to satisfy the demand

    - point at which linear relationship between expired CO2 and minute ventilation

    - in untrained, occurs at about 55% of VO2max
    - in trained, occurs at about 80% - 85%

          

  608. What are the symptoms of hyperglycemiaLBS / HT INCH HT INCH 703