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608 Multiple choice questions

  1. planter flexion
    dorsiflexion
  2. extention
  3. simple sugars; glucose (most abundant), fluctose, and galactose
  4. improved stroke volume, blood volume, lower heart rate
  5. standing toe touches, barre streches, hurdler strech, neck circles, yoga plough, knee hyperflexion

  6. shoulder adduction ,
  7. plain
  8. Enlargement of muscle
  9. -CHO --> ATP
    -without oxygen, byproduct is lactic acid
    -main energy source for 30 sec --> 3 minutes
  10. decrease in joint angle (spine side bend, love handles)

  11. As the end diastolic volume is increased, the stroke volume is increased. The heart contracts more forcefully when it is subjected to an increasing degree of stretch.
  12. retaining existing clients is more important then new clients

  13. Iliacus, pectineus, psoas major, rectus femoris
  14. - increased ex. intensity at which anaerobic threshold occurs
  15. muscle fibers change length and joint angles; Work= force x distance; can concentric or eccentric
  16. Bundle of his, bundle of brachi, purkinje
  17. makes a division into right and left portions
  18. This herb treats colds, fevers & urinary tract infections. May interfere with immunosuppressive drugs, methotrexate and Ketoconizole.
  19. lower than, toward the feet
  20. 30 seconds
  21. chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints
  22. bodily (musculoskeletal movement leading to caloric expenditure
  23. A progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin.
  24. decrease in the mass of the muscle;Muscle atrophy results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), renal failure, starvation
  25. hands close to hips / waist or torso
  26. Shoulder extention

  27. Leg extention
  28. Using the PT's resistance
  29. Joint allowing for all type of movement except pivot (wrist, ankle)
  30. seated heal raise with bent knees
  31. 64 to 70% and 94% of HR or between 40 to 60 and 89% of oxygen uptake reserve

  32. SITS
    Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis
  33. 1 set 8 to 12 reps using 8 to 10 exercises that train major muscles groups upper and lower
  34. For women >35 is at risk. For men >40 is at risk. Those that are both obese and at risk in their waist line are at a greater risk
    (Above the navel and below lower part of sternum)

  35. WHITE BLOOD CELLS
  36. may elevate HR,BP and respiratory response
  37. An arrhythmia is a disorder of the heart rate (pulse) or heart rhythm, such as beating too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.
  38. Shovel
    Force between axis and resistance, but closer to resistance
    Force arm < Resistance Arm
    Most common level
  39. less than 30 min/day, 3 days/week, for at least 3 months
  40. 1) relapse prevention strategies
    2) elimination of 'all-or-none' thinking
  41. 5 kcal (20.9 kJ)
  42. the smallest arteries that connect with the capillaries which allow the exchange of blood and other nutrients with various tissue
  43. BW irrelevant; involves binging and purging;
  44. 140
  45. connective tissue that connects muscles to bone
  46. Heart related chest pain caused by Ischemia
  47. same Side
  48. A breakdown of muscle contents that results in the release of muscle fiber contents into the bloodstream
  49. HRR = HRmax − HRrest
  50. one side

  51. adducting the ankle
  52. Exercises that involve 2 or more primary joints and receive priority when one is selecting exercises because of their direct application to the sport.

  53. Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosis); glut max
  54. blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

  55. Hips/Waist (ex. 45" waist and 36" hips... 36/45=.8)
    ratios above .86 for women and .95 for men indicate abdominal adiposity
  56. Type I = slow twitch, high oxidative
    Type IIA = intermediate
    Type IIB(X) = fast twitch, low oxidative
  57. the height to weight ratio can be misleading because it does not consider body type
  58. anaerobic in nature. refered as fast glycolitic fibers
  59. sub maximal assessment without doctors consent

  60. Adductors magnus, longus, brevis; gracialis, pectineus
  61. NO
  62. Tension
  63. 85 KG
  64. When it is below 40
  65. An inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, esp. the heart muscles.
  66. Planned distribution or variation in training means and methods on a periodic cycle
  67. Abdominal fat
  68. Appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity serving to enhance venous return and decrease the chance of postexercise hypotension during recovery
  69. (men)chest, abs, thigh
    (women) triceps, suprailium, thigh
  70. Tibialis, peroneus, tertius, extensor
  71. above, toward the head
  72. aka max heart rate reserve method;
    training HR = (max HR - resting HR) X target intensity (40/50-85%) + resting HR
  73. -loss of muscle tone and consciousness associated with diminished cerebral blood flow
  74. Abducting and eversion medial part of foot
  75. 3500
  76. F w/t
  77. amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle in one beat
  78. Model of public health Reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance
  79. involuntary muscle tissue that lines the arterial walls and organs of the body
  80. Cardiac, peripheral vascular, or cerebrovascular disease
    Chronic OPD, asthma, interstitial lung disease, or cystic fibrosis
    Diabetes type 1 or 2, thyroid disorders, renal, or liver disease
  81. - difference between SYS and DIA
    - approx. 40 mmHg at rest
  82. Fasting Blood Glucose for Diabetes diagnosis
  83. Men 45 or older
    Women 55 or older
    and Those who meet the threshold for two or more positive risk factor are considered moderate risk; can participate in moderate(40%-60%) but need prior medical testing for vigorous (>60% VO2R) exercise
  84. refers to th ratio of lean body mass compared to fat mass
  85. one centimeter below the inferior angle of scapula
  86. Shoulder abduction
  87. -lower absolute minute ventilation
    -similar relative maximal minute ventilation but lower relative submax MV
    -VO2 is less trainable in children than adults
  88. excessivly high amounts of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass
  89. Functioning of the heart and cardiovascular system
  90. -stress management
    -MET capacity
    -increased resting metabolism
    -osteoporosis prevention/management
    -injury prevention/rehab

  91. Lat. Dorsi, Pec major, Teres Major, Post. Delt
  92. reduces resting and exercise heart rate and blood pressure
  93. 1 set 10-15 reps 8 to 10 exercises
  94. -much lower sweating rate (rely more on convective heat loss through increased blood flow)
    - same # of sweat glands, but half the production of those glands
    - less acclimatization
    - greater surface area to BM ratio --> inc. loss of heat (cold env) or gain of heat (hot env.)

  95. A saddle joint allows movement back and forth and up and down, bot does not allow for rotation like a ball and socket joint.
  96. 20-35% for adults, 20-35 young children (2-3)
    <10% saturated
    <300 cholesterol
    no fat <20%

  97. Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell
  98. cardiac muscle tissue is involuntary, it is the tissue of the heart
  99. calciem being drawn from bones and excreated in urin
  100. chest press
  101. intensity of exercise
  102. 60 seconds
  103. turning the sole of the foot away from the midline
  104. extension beyond normal degree of extension

  105. Elbow Joint Type
  106. 2 weeks
  107. Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance
  108. trunk flexion

  109. vertical fold
    posterior midline of middle right arm, halfway b/w the acromion(shoulder) and olecranon(elbow) processes
  110. systolic greater than or equal to 140; diastolic greater then or equal to 90; confirmed by 2 separate occasions or on hypertension meds
  111. body mass of greater then or equal to 30kg/m2; waist girthgreater than 102 cm for men and 88 cm for women
  112. Hips, knees ankles inline and flexing knees a little
  113. - 12/min at rest, 50/min at max
  114. Extention 0 to 150
  115. Glutus maximus and hamstrings
  116. Manifested by the absence of sweating (anhydrosis) dry skin causes cracks fissures.
  117. increases the capacity of the heart, lungs, and blood carrying vessels to deliver oxygen; also called aerobic fitness
  118. serves as the main axial support for the body

  119. 25-30 seconds of high intesity work (spints, weight lifting)
  120. -shoulder adduction
    -shoulder abduction
  121. 10 to 15 percent of the time
  122. variable force w. accommodating speed
  123. elevated HR, SV, Cardiac output, BP, Blood Flow, Arteriovenous oxygen difference, pulmonary ventilation and oxygen consumption
  124. Dehydroepiandrosterone. Marketed as an anabolic steroi
  125. Men - >.95
    Women - >.86
  126. Control blood cholesterol
  127. widens blood vessal
  128. muscle fibers creating cross bridges while returning to resting length while going with gravity R>F
  129. subraspinatus
  130. 0.245 L/min (up to 5.5 L/min in athletes)
  131. a series of quick but gentle bouncing or bobbing motions designed to stretch your muscles
  132. 1. fat, oils & sweets: use sparingly
    2. milk, yogurt &cheese 2-3 servings;
    3. meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, nuts, eggs: 2-3 servings;
    4. fruits: 3-5 serv;
    5. veggies: 3-5 serv.
    6. bread, cereal, rice, & pasta: 6-11 serv
  133. 1) normal: <120/80
    2) pre- : 120-139/80-89
    3) Stage 1: 140-159/90-99
    4) Stage 2: >160>100
  134. Identifies six major stages in the process of how people change: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, termination.
  135. abdominal, hip extensors, erector spinus
  136. Hip Extension
    Hip Flexion
  137. -scapular retraction(add)
    -scapular protraction(abd)
  138. - blunted HR response
    - decreased blood volume, max SV and Q
    - decreased EF due to reductions in LV compliance
    -increased dead space in lungs (from 30% to 40-45%)
    -reductions in pulmonary alveolar compliance elevates BP in the lungs during exercise
    -similar or greater strength gains compared to young adults
  139. 1) drop in SYS >10 mmHg w/ ischemia
    2) Severe angina
    3) SNS symptoms (syncope, ataxia, dizziness)
    4) Poor perfusion
    5) Technical difficulties with the EKG
    6) Subject wants to stop
    7) Sustained ventricular tachycardia
    8) > 1mm ST elevation w/out Q-waves

  140. nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx ...filters air

  141. The * automatic nervous system serves two important basic functions: the sympathetic nervous system (Stress) and para sympathetic nervous system (Relax).

  142. posterior delt, triceps, pectoral major
  143. men- 22%
    women-32%
  144. narrowing of airways brought about by allergens and stressors
    -avoid outdoor exercise in cold and high pollen or pollution
  145. 2.54
  146. 45 men, 55 women

  147. Assending / Desending / Bell Shaped
  148. opposite side
  149. By dividing the relative O2 consumption by 3.5
  150. 1. obtain medical history
    2. have client preform risk factor assessment
    3. administer fitness test
    4. interpret data
    5 prescribe exercise
  151. Seesaw
    Axis between force and resistance
  152. reduces blood sugar
  153. Emotional, tangible, informational, appraisal
  154. Sagital

  155. exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature
  156. - volume of blood ejected from the LV with each contraction
    - 70 mL at rest, 100mL during ex in untrained men, 170mL in highly trained
    - increases with exercise intensity until 50% of VO2max
  157. 40 to 50% HHR
  158. -caused by mechanical stress and destruction of hyaline cartilage in the joints
    -many degrees of severity
    -degenerative arthritis
  159. - amount of blood pumped each minute

    Q = HR(SV)

    - at rest, Q = 5L/min (72 BPM x 70 mL)
    - at max, Q = 5 - 6x (25-30 L/min)

    - 35-40 L/min in trained
  160. -sedentary individuals lose 20-40% of their muscle mass over the course of their life
    -muscle strength declines ~15% per decade in the 5th, 6th, and 7th, and 30% thereafter
  161. a. stop exercise immediately and place person ina comfortable sitting or lying position, b. 911, monitor HR, and be prepared to begin CPR, c. Automated External Defibrillator AED may be used if cardiac arrest

  162. 1. red, hot dry skin 2. rapid weak pulse, shallow breathing 3. changes in the level of consciousness 4. vomiting 5. body temp will be very high as high as 105
  163. Physical activity 3 to 7 days a week
    exercise v02 40% to 59%
  164. white fibrous tissue that cushions surfaces and prevents friction (cushions bones)
  165. have clients min. factors that influence heart rate including:
    -non prescription heart rate altering meds
    -caffeine
    -exercise
    -large meals
    -fatigue
    -test anxiety
  166. Listening to spoken statements, observing non verbal cues, understanding anxiety, Identify statements that indicate learning opportunities
  167. the upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.
  168. 1) Consciousness raising
    2) Dramatic relief (warning of risks)
    3) Environmental reevaluation
    4) Self-reevaluation
    5) Social liberation (increasing healthy opportunities)
  169. not fat tissue: muscle, bone, skin etc
  170. Yes before exercise

  171. curves of the thoracic and sacral regions

  172. any interaction b/w 2 objects producing a change in magnitude or direction of motion
  173. Best for high volume shorter rest
  174. 300 to 500 daily
  175. -composed of ATP and PCr stored in muscle fibers
    -creatine kinase + PCr yields phospate group to convert ADP to ATP
    -can sustain activity for <30 seconds
  176. closer to the midline
  177. Rhomboids, middle trap
  178. Quads in eccentric phase
  179. closer to trunk/further from trunk
  180. makes a division into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
  181. front/ back
  182. Increase amount of resistance that can be overcome by application of force

  183. Vertical fold
    maximum circumference of calf on the midline of medial border
  184. Right side of body
    maintain pinch
    retest if duplicate measurement is not 1 to 2 mm close
  185. increased capillary density
  186. Diagonal fold
    1 to 2 cm below the inferior angle of the scapula

  187. vertical
    1 cm above mark of tricep on belly of bicep
  188. greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL up to 126
  189. calculates RMR

    PA correction factors include:
    1) sedentary: RMR * 1.4
    2) Moderately active: RMR * 1.6
    3) Highly Active: RMR * 1.8
  190. may extend endurance in moderate aerobic exercise
  191. Tension develops by muscle while shortening or lengthening at a constant speed at maximal RO
  192. Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between a tendon and skin, or between a tendon and bone
  193. decreases running economy and increase breaking motion
  194. actin and myosin contractile proteins increase in number and add to muscular strength as well as a small increase in the size of the muscle
  195. within 6 months
  196. small arteries from the heart rich in oxygen

  197. Shoulder abduction
  198. men/women w/ 1 or less CVD; can participate in moderate(40%-60%) and vigorous (>60% VO2R) exercise w/o prior medical testing
  199. fruity breath
    blurred vision
    extreme thirst
  200. multiply by 2.4
  201. 100 kcal
  202. Hip abbduction, knee extention
  203. Exhale concentric and inhale eccentric
  204. Wrist (radiocarpal) - circumduction, abd, add, flex/ext
  205. BW 15% lowest value expected for height
    BMI < 17.5
  206. Internal rotation

  207. internal rotation
  208. 150-400 kcal
  209. 22.2 c
  210. -reduces muscle tension
    -promotes relaxation
    -muscle contractions become easier/smoother
    -improves ease of movement
  211. Start with small changes
  212. 28-40
  213. voluntary and made up of striated fibers
  214. smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell; composed of 2 types of muscle protein,
    -actin "thin filament", which contains troponin and tropomyosin
    -myosin "thick filament" : contains many cross bridges
  215. Men: <102 cm
    Women: <88 cm
  216. 1500 m race
  217. inflammation of a tendon
  218. BP = >200/105
    Glucose = >250 w/ketones or >300 w/out ketones

  219. -shoulder horizontal adduction
    -shoulder horizontal abduction

  220. a group of characteristics a person achieves/possesses related to physical activity and cardiorepiratory, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, body composition
  221. Diagonal fold
    Anterior axillary line immediately superior to the iliac crest
    in line with the natural angle of the iliac crest taken
  222. No prior training 20 -30 60 - 1150 min total
    minimal 150 - 200
    intermediate 200- 300
    regular exercise 200 -300

  223. vertical fold
    Midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum
  224. - aka double product
    - correlate of myocardial oxygen uptake & LV workload

    RPP = SBP(HR)

    - at rest, 8,640 (i.e., 120 mmHg x 72 BPM)

  225. CLOSER TO THE TRUNK
  226. based on observation or experiment
  227. expressing empathy
    developing discrepancy
    rolling with resistance
    supporting self efficiency
  228. metabolic equivalent of task
    1 MET = SITING
    met minute is time engaged in activity
  229. 22.80
  230. The difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate
    HRR = HRmax − HRrest

  231. iLIOPSOAS

  232. Pre-contemplation: not ready to exercise
    Contemplation: thinking about behavior change
    Preparation:doing something related to exercise, but not meeting the guidelines
    Action: meeting set criteria of at least 6 months
    Maintenance: met criteria of 6 months, and continuing

  233. (physics) the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force
  234. w = f*d
    2 sets 10 reps 100 lbs moved 3 feet
    10 times 100 = 1000 force x 3 feet = 3000 x 2 sets = 6000
  235. -HRmax decreases 6-10bpm per decade
    -RSV remains unchanged, but max SV decreases with age
    - these changes likely result from dec. compliance in the LV
    - capillary density decreases
    - LV hypertrophy --> inc. afterload/TPR
    - V02 max declines by 5-15% per decade after 25 (can be slowed by PA)
    -residual volume increases and vital capacity decreases
    - lung compliance increases
    -early LV diastolic function decreases
    -aging brings a 20% decreases in the work of respiratory muscles but a decrease in the strength of these muscles
  236. prevents system of allergic response
  237. - % of blood in ventricle during diastole actually pumped out during systole

    EF = SV/EDV

    - at rest, EF = 60% but can range from 50% - 75%
  238. mineral reservior, internal skeleton (levers)
  239. quads is most active vastus medius, vastus intermedius, vastus laterial, rectus femorus

  240. trachea, bronchi, bronchiloes, alveoli...puts oxygen into blood
  241. tendonitis, fasciitis, bursitis, osteoarthritis
  242. multiply by 26.8
  243. Lgreater than 130 mg/dL
  244. shoulder flexion
  245. scapula toward (add) and away from midline (abd)
  246. muscle responsible for producing joint movement
    ex. bicep during curl
  247. PT and Client agreement
    Health/ Medical History PARQ
    Medical clearance form
    Informed consent
    Client Goals
    Health and Fitness Assessment
    Assessment results

  248. Assessing, advising, agreeing, assisting, arranging.
  249. - supine SV (e.g., swimming) is greater at any given intensity and HR is lower (same Q)
  250. small veins that drain blood from the capillaries and then join to form a vein
  251. the study of human movement
  252. test the flexibility of joints
    range of motion
    muscle imbalance
    baseline information
  253. rotational movement, results in the palm facing upward/downward
  254. Men 3 to 5 women 8 to 12
  255. opposing muscle to the prime mover

  256. Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus
  257. Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands
  258. internal rotation

  259. primarly for balance;see saw, head on cervical vertebrea
  260. less than 40 mg/dL
  261. Knee extention and hip abduction
  262. foot dropping during heel strike
  263. makes a division into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions
  264. equivalent to losing 1 lb of fat 3500cal
  265. -heart disease
    -stroke
    -diabetes
    -hypertension
    -obesity
    -depression/anxiety
    -certain cancers
  266. Asthma

  267. Newton's 2nd law: an object will move in the direction of the force applied to it
  268. lying face down
  269. 10 - 25 %
  270. multiply by 6
  271. -lower Q at a given VO2
    -higher HR at submaximal loads
    -lower arterial blood pressure
  272. 3 to 6 monthsech
  273. Exercise test before vigorous exercise

  274. a disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist)

  275. Personality does not directly influence the relation between stress and illness. Instead, personality affects health indirectly, through health-promoting or health-degrading behaviors. This model suggests that personality influences the degree to which a person engages in various health-promoting or health-demoting behaviors.
  276. Men - 1,800
    Women - 1,200
  277. 30% - 45% HRR 57% - 67% vo2
  278. have aerobic and anaerobic capabilities and refered to as intermediate fibers, continuum fibers, fast oxidative glycolitic fibers
  279. both sides
  280. LBS / HT INCH HT INCH 703
  281. ~20% slower
  282. major bone of arm
  283. the total amount of weight that is measured as fat tissue
  284. a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body
    Radial: thumb side of forearm
    Brachial: groove formed b/w tricep and bicep
    Carotid: anterior portion of the neck
  285. Medical form that rules out the fact that a client has to be medically cleared by a dr
  286. rotary force
  287. volume of air expired or inspired over the course of 1 minute
    - about 6 L/min at rest
    - can increase to 20-25x at max. (result of increased tidal volume and respiratory rate)
  288. Considered the pace maker of the heart; Usually beasts at 60-80 bpm; Beginning of electrical pathway by setting the pace so the rest of the heart can follo
  289. Returns pooled blood back to central circulation
  290. total mets x 3.5 x kg /200
  291. relaxes bronchial passageways
  292. facilitates movement of the chest during inspiration and expiration
  293. Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only a little movment, such as in the spine or ribs.

  294. Distal segment of a joint deviates medially.
  295. cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
  296. irregular exercise
  297. multiply by 0.0254
  298. cervical curve, thoracic curve, lumbar curve,
    sacral curve

  299. Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.

  300. Glut. medius, piriformis

  301. The red bone marrow of the epiphysis (end of bones)
  302. NO
  303. - putting yourself in someone else's position so you feel what they're feeling
  304. for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
  305. 30 min intense 30 min moderate
  306. 1) decreased SBP, DBP, and MAP at rest
    2) improved shunting of blood to muscles
    3) improved capillarity within muscle tissue (and increased mithochondrial density) --> improved oxygen extraction

  307. Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavaties between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid.
  308. 14g/1000kcal
  309. 60% = 17
    70%=12
    80%= 8
    90%=5
    100%=1
  310. Wheelbarrow
    Resistance between force and axis
    Force arm > Resistance arm
  311. The diaphysis (shaft of the bone)
  312. CONDITION IN WHICH NO INSULIN IS PRODUCED BY THE BODY
  313. anterior ,posterior and from both sides
  314. a series of quick but gentle bouncing or bobbing motions designed to stretch your muscles
  315. further from the midline
  316. - average pressure exerted across the cardiac cycle

    MAP = DBP + (1/3)(PP)

    - approx 93 mm Hg at rest
  317. -results in smaller absolute but equal relative gains
    -no greater risk of injury
    -focus on participation and technique rather than resistance
    - muscle hypertrophy not a cause of increased strength in preadolescents
  318. alveoli
  319. 220- age -RH X 70% + HR
  320. 1.0-1.5 g CHO/kg within 30-60 min
  321. reduces high blood pressure
  322. joint structure
    health of soft tissue
    length of antagonist muscle
    temp
  323. affects rotator cuff, overuse injury, swelling, pain while sleeping, shoulder feels weak, bursitis as a result of pinching in acromion, point tenderness
    Gradual onset of anterior and lateral shoulder pain exacerbated by overhead activity. Night pain and difficulty sleeping on affected side.
  324. effective and cognitive

  325. A method of interviewing clients in a way that encourages them to honestly examine their beliefs and behaviors and that motivates clients to make a decision to change their behavior (This is different then active listening because the pt can give more direction)
  326. involves setting a series of intermediate goals that lead towards a long-term goal
  327. A widening of the diameter of a blood vessel.
  328. - about 3% at rest
    - 3-5% with moderate ex
    - 10% at max, (15% in highly trained)
  329. increase in joint angle
  330. male 30 women 35

  331. Relating to normal concave curvature of the cervical and lumbar spine regions
  332. midline of the chest
  333. cognitive phase:learn general skill concepts
    associative phase: practice and refine
    automatic phase: skill is developed and consistent
  334. muscle fibers creating cross bridges while shortening in length against the pull of gravity F>R
  335. using techniques to prompt the initiation of the behavior (e.g. alarm reminders, packing in advance, scheduling in time, etc)
  336. 25-29.9 (obese > 30)
  337. heart rate and work load

  338. 1) Family Hx (male relative <55, female <65 with MI, etc)
    2) Sedentary (<30min/week PA (40-60%) on 3 days for 3 months)
    3) Obesity (BMI >30 or men girth >102cm, >88cm women)
    4) Hypertension (>140/90)
    5) Dyslipidemia (LDL >130 or HDL < 40, TTG >200)
    6) Cigarette smoking (within 6 months)
    7) Pre-diabetes (IFG >100 or IGT >140)
    8) Age (Men >45, Women >55)

    HDL > 60 is negative risk factor
  339. greater than 200 mg/dL
  340. Used to flex hip joint
  341. amortization phase

  342. A major theory of learning based on observational and symbolic learning. Learning is influenced by what is reinforced, either extrinsically or through self-administered reinforcement, especially the anticipation of future events.

  343. curves of the cervical and lumbar region
  344. knee extension
    knee flexion

  345. the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
  346. The glenohumeral joint is moving in the sagital plane and is being extended
  347. 1) sudden drop in SBP (>15 mmHg)
    2) elevation of SBP > 260 mmHg
  348. a. chest pain, b. pressure discomfort in the chest, c.left jaw, neck or shoulder-may radiate distally, d. shortness of breath and lightheadedness, e. back pain, which may be experienced by some women
  349. the row
  350. STUDY OF MOVEMENT
  351. movement around a longitudinal axis, either toward or away from the midline
  352. HIPPAA
  353. elbow flexion
    elbow extension
  354. Malpractice is a type of negligence committed by a professional and Negligence is failure to exercise due care
  355. involves:
    1) observational learning (vicarious rewards)
    2) Behavioral capability (knowledge and skill)
    3) outcome expectations and expectancies
    4) Self-efficacy (confidence about performing a specific behavior)
    5) Self-control of performance (includes self-monitoring and goal-setting)
    6) Management of emotional arousal (e.g., cognitive restructuring, stress management, effective problem solving)
    7) Reinforcement (direct, vicarious, self)
  356. 10 seconds
  357. soleus
  358. Endomysium
  359. toward the back
  360. highest rate and amount of oxygen achieved at maximal physical exertion
  361. multiply by 3
  362. lets person know there is a risk to exercise
  363. toward the front
  364. Pec Minor, Serratus anterior
  365. sedentary individuals will demonstrate significicant improvements in fitness early in training program
  366. prevents/controls abnormal heart rhythms
  367. 20 seconds would be devided by 60 = .33 so 14:20 would be 14.33
  368. visual learner:
    Auditory Learner
    Kinesthetic Learner
  369. heart problem resulting from the mitral valve not regulating the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart
  370. Mediates impulses between the atria and ventricles and delays the impulse before transmitting it through the bunde of His and the ventricular Purkinje network. The intrinsic rate is normally between 40 and 60 bpm.
  371. sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar
  372. vertical fold
    2cm right of belly button

  373. -spinal extension/flexion
  374. Identify clients that should not exercise
    Identify clients with increased risk
    Identify clients with increased risk for disease
    Identify clients with disease
    Identify clients with special needs

  375. Deals with environment and how it effects change
  376. Should include appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity
  377. M X A
  378. Helps cities compare their health with other cities

  379. FIVE PHASES OF SOUNDS HEARD WHEN TAKING A BLOOD PRESSURE

  380. Adducting inversion of the foot
  381. inflammation of the fascia; fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together
  382. delayed onset muscle soreness;muscle discomfort 24-36 hr after exercise

  383. android
  384. 500-1000 cal daily to lose 1-2 lbs. per wk; same to increase
  385. - exercise intensity at which ATP demand cannot be met solely by aerobic metabolism and anerobically produced ATP is needed to satisfy the demand

    - point at which linear relationship between expired CO2 and minute ventilation

    - in untrained, occurs at about 55% of VO2max
    - in trained, occurs at about 80% - 85%
  386. HDL greater than 60 mg/dL
  387. Warm moist air

  388. Lat. Dorsi, Pec Major, Teres Major, Subscapularis
  389. the psychologically addictive cycle of binging/purging
  390. Flexion and eccentric
  391. difference between oxygen content of arterial and venous blood
  392. ...
  393. HR * SV
  394. between 50 and 100 m/min (1.9 - 3.7 mph)
  395. the disorder of self-induced starvation
  396. 1 min
  397. Ant. Delt., Pec Major
  398. 1500 m race
  399. - 10-20% inc. submax O2 consumption compared to adults in running and walking do to dec. economy
    - lower anerobic capacity
    - children reach metabolic steady state quicker than adults
    (less oxygen debt)
    - more rapid recovery of HR and BP post-ex
  400. isotonic muscle contraction; describes the type of muscle activity when exercising with external resistances in activities such as lifting weights
  401. 1) Precontemplation
    2) Contemplation
    3) Preperation
    4) Action
    5) Maintenance (> 6 months)
  402. Fiber
  403. tension is created within the muscle fiber, but the fiber change length and there is no change in joint angle F=R
  404. responsible for maintaining atri- ventrecular valve closure at the heart
  405. extends the theory of reasoned action by incorporating perceived behavioral control, which is determined by perceived power and control beliefs

  406. further from the trunk
  407. slow twitch, slow oxidative and red twitch fibers (aerobic)
  408. spinal rotation and lateral flexion

  409. rotation of the pelvis when sitting if there is an increase in lumbar lordosis
  410. 100 kcal
  411. lower back pain
  412. -shoulder abduction/ext rotation/int. rotation
  413. refers to a joint's range of mobility (ROM)

  414. Diaphragm
  415. manubrium, body, xiphoid process

  416. A, D, E, K
  417. the belife that one has the skill to achieve goals or producing a desired effect
  418. the trait of neglecting responsibilities and lacking concern
  419. elastic tissue with contractile properties (pulley)

  420. A ball and socket joint allows for radial movment in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. (Like a door knob)
  421. -transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available

    -glycolysis doesnt use oxygen and is considered anaerobic

    -The burning sensation in muscles during hard exercise can be attributed to the production of hydrogen ions which form lactic acid along with lactate
  422. make observations, express feelings, identify needs, make request
  423. increased body weight, in relation to height when compared to some standard of acceptable or desirable weight
  424. 1) Counter-conditioning (substituting alternatives)
    2) Helping relationships (enlisting social support)
    3) Reinforcement management (rewarding yourself)
    4) Self-liberation (committing yourself)
    5) Stimulus control (reminding yourself)
  425. 1.resting mesurements (BP/HR/Body Fat/height/weight)
    2.cardio test
    3.muscular endurance
    4.flex

  426. Decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
  427. Low resistance

  428. Contain throporin and tropomyson
  429. A = walking
    B= Jogging
    C= Cross Country sking
    D= Vigorous

  430. Pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in occlusive artery disease.

  431. Hip adductors: pectineus, adductor magnus, minimus, longus, brevis, and gracilis (which crosses the knee joint as well as the hip joint) Function as thigh stabilizers (ex. lunges)
  432. active: muscle is actively moved through ROM
    passive:muscle is actively moved through ROM by partner/device
  433. turning the sole of the foot toward the midline

  434. Entire pelvis tilted backward in the frontal plane
    Hip extention and lumbar flexes
  435. Carbo= 4; fats=9; protein=4; alcohol=7
  436. stimulus for vol. physical activity initiates in the brain and is then transformed into a movement pattern

  437. amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and eating disorders; when left untreated they damage the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems

  438. Infraspinatus, teres minor
  439. muscles involved in stabilizing, fixating or assisting at the joint
  440. proprioceptive neuroscience facilitation
  441. hamstrings
  442. C and B

  443. Any forced expiratory effort against a closed airway such as when an individual holds his or her breath and tightens his or her muscles in a concerted, strenuous effort to move a heavy object or change positions in bed.
  444. 28/3.5 = 8 METS
  445. Choices of exercise, order of exercises, resistance and repetitions used, number of sets for each exercise, and duration of rest period between sets and exercise

  446. In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Midcarpal and midtarsal joints are gliding joints

  447. Fibrocartilage behind petalla
  448. the lower part of the that heart receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium and pumps it through the aortic valve to the entire body via the aorta, including to the heart muscle itself through the coronary arteries.
  449. the amount of blood pumped from the heart in one minute
  450. primarly for power; wheel borrw, plater flexion during walking

  451. Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely
  452. -All training (endurance or resistance) causes a conversion of Type IIB(X) (fast twitch) to Type IIA (intermediate)

    -no training converts TI to TII or vice versa

  453. Right atrium
    Right ventricle
    Left atrium
    Left ventricle
  454. the amount of force a muscle can exert in a single all-out effort (1 Rep Mas/1RM)
  455. 13 mL/kg/min

  456. exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature
  457. Neonatal: 0-3weeks
    Infancy: 3 weeks - 1 year
    Early Childhood: 1-6
    Middle Childhood: 7-10
    Prepuberty: 9-15 (girls) 12-16 (boys)
    Early adulthood: 20-29
    Middle adulthood: 30-44
    Later adulthood: 45-64
  458. total # of times the heart contracts in one minute, increases with work-rate during exercise
  459. The Right Atrium, receives "used blood" from the body. Blood will be pushed through the tricuspid valve to the
    Right Ventricle, the chamber which will pump to the lungs through the pulmonic valve to the
    Pulmonary Arteries, providing blood to both lungs. Blood is circulated through the lungs where carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen added. It returns through the
    Pulmonary Veins, which empty into the
    Left Atrium, a chamber which will push the Mitral Valve open. Blood then passes into the
    Left Ventricle. As it pumps, the pressure will close the mitral valve and open the aortic valve, with blood passing through to the
    Aorta, where it will be delivered to the rest of the body.
  460. FIT VOLUME, PATTERN, PROGRESSION
  461. Cardiovascular activities that require skill "swimming"
  462. increased mitochondrial density and substrate storage in the muscle cells
  463. Social: support systems
    Physical: physical/phyiological well-being
    Intellectual: Open to Learn
    Emotional:Coping Skills
    Spiritual:living in harmony

  464. Abducting the ankle

  465. carotid, brachial, radial, femoral
  466. inflammation of synovial membrane, which then cause the body to initiate autoimmune response
  467. 20%
  468. Frontal plane
  469. Restriction of blood supply
  470. an imaginary vertical line drawn through an object's center of gravity
  471. HR, BP, Body comp, cardio, muscular, flexibility
  472. The body adapts to specific exercise training stimulus with specific physical and physiological adaptations.
  473. 220 - age - rhr * .% + rhr
  474. 4 weeks
  475. Stretch muscle statically, contract and stretch muscle statically beyond initial static stretch
  476. lying face up
  477. the ankle joint
  478. fat deposited in the abdom. area is more highly correlated to heart disease
  479. hyperkyphosis and hyperlordosis
  480. inflammation of a joint
    -flex training recommended

  481. sacroiliac, pubic symphysis, sacrococcygeal
  482. fuels activities lasting more than 2-3 min. Capacity is limited only by oxygen and fuel avail. to the cell
  483. Triglycerides
  484. Carbs: 55%-60%
    Fat: 25%- 30%
    Protein: 10% - 15%
    6oz of grains (3oz of whole-grain), 2.5 cups veggies, 2 cups fruits, 3 cups milk

  485. diagonal fold
    half the distance b/w anterior axillary line and nipple (men)
    1/3rd the distance b/w anterior axillary line and nipple (women)
  486. -CHO, Fats, Proteins --> ATP
    -byproducts are water and CO2
  487. 1) listing performance accomplishments
    2) observing through vicarious experience
    3) Using verbal persuasion
    4) Understanding psychological states

  488. Knee joint (femorotibial) is classified as what type of mobility?
  489. Yoga plough, knee hyperflexion, standing toe touch
  490. Exercise in medicine
    Physicians encourage patients to exercise
  491. shorter duration, and lower intensity
  492. below/ above
  493. the lower part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium and pumps it through the pulmonary valve into the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
  494. 30 min 3 to 5 days a week

  495. 3.5 + 483 / T

  496. Vertical fold
    Anterior midline of the thigh
    Midway between the proximal border of the patella (upper knee) and the inguinal crease (hip)
  497. 40 to 60 %
  498. refers to a muscle's ability to perform repeated contractions or hold static contractions
  499. During concentric
  500. a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction

  501. A vitamen that dissolves in water and cannot be stored in significant amounts consist of b and c vitamens

  502. The amount of Oxygen you can breathe in AND use at the muscle cell to produce energy AND your ability to clear the CO2 from the cell and back to your lungs to exhale.

  503. A motivation theory in which specific, challenging goals increase motivation and performance when the goals are accepted by subordinates and these subordinates receive feedback to indicate their progress toward goal achievement.
  504. 1) address the agenda
    2) assess
    3) advise
    4) Assist
    5) arrange follow-up
  505. - higher RHR and ExHR due to lower SV, hemoglobin and relative Q
    - VO2 max remains relatively unchanged throughout childhood and adolescence
    - lower BP
    -absolute VO2max (L/min) increases substantially through childhood but relative VO2max plateaus in boys during puberty and declines in girls
    -V02max is NOT related to endurance fitness in children and preadolescents
  506. 60 min a day
  507. -resting heart rate decreases by approx 10 - 15 bpm
    -SV increases both at rest and during exercise
    -Resting SBP/DBP may decrease (if prev elevated)
  508. 65+
  509. 1) improved production of RBCs (better O2 delivery)
    2) increased plasma volume (dec. hematocrit, i.e., runner's anemia)
    3) improved thermoregulation ability

  510. O2 cost of activity plus rest;
    O2 cost of activity - rest

    All ACSM formulas are for gross VO2
  511. 1) drop in SYS >10 mmHg w/out ischemia
    2) ST/QRS changes or marked axis shift
    3) Other arrythemias
    4) Fatigue, SOB, leg cramps, wheezing, claudication
    5) BBB or IV conduction
    6) Increasing chest pain
    7) Hypertensive response >250/115

  512. volume of sarcoplasmic fluid in the muscle cell increases with no accompanying increase in muscular strength
  513. Two intense days followed by easy.

  514. Middle deltoid and supraspinatus
  515. Pivot joints allow rotation arround an axis. The neck and forearms have pivot joints. In the neck the occipital bone spins over the top of the axis. In the forearms the radius and ulna twist arround each other.
  516. build strength and power using eccentric loading a explosive movements
  517. divide by 6
  518. myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or sudden death to a 1st degree family member when >55 male, >65 female
  519. Force x distance = work
  520. 1) CNS stimulates sarcolemma and Ca++ is released from the T-tubules of the SR
    2) Ca++ binds to troponin causing tropomyosin to shift shape, exposing active binding sites on the actin
    3) Myosin cross-bridges bind to active sites on actin
    4) ATPase in cross-bridge head cleaves ATP resulting in the power stroke
    5) ATP binds to cross-bridge head and calcium pump restores Ca++ to SR
  521. reduces...
    -cardiovascular disease
    -risk of stroke
    -reduces high blood pressure
    -risk of colon cancer, lowers
    -cholesterol/triglycerides,
    -depression/anxiety/stress

    Increases...
    -lipoproteins
    -self-esteem
    -healthy body
  522. Lower center of gravity
  523. - % of blood volume composed of RBCs
    - 45 % in men (due to inc. testosterone)
    - 42 % in women
  524. A 3D point where the total weight of the body may be considered to be concentrated.
  525. 1) no increase in HRmax
    2) Significantly lower HRrest
    3) increased SV (~85mL at rest)

  526. the events that occur b/w actin and myosin during muscle contraction and relaxation

    -when nerve impulse is received, the cross bridges of myosin will put the actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere and tension is created
  527. Frequency(2-3x a week),
    Intensity (2 to 4 sets of 8-12 reps w/ 2-3 mins b/w sets)
    Time no longer then 60 mins,
    Type (various resistance equipment),
    Enjoyment
  528. sagittal plane, frontal plane, transverse plane
  529. dehydrating-may impair exercise tolerance and increase risk of heart injury
  530. movement done for improvement in one or more components of fitness
  531. affects behavior
  532. 600 ml for 1 pound lost 1 pint
  533. 6.0 kg/m/min

  534. A theory stating that the best predictor of a behavior is one's behavioral intention, which is influenced by one's attitude toward the specific behavior, the subjective norms regarding the behavior, and one's perceived control over the behavior.
  535. range of motion; shovel, exbow flexion; we use this the most
  536. Macrocycle: largest cycle
    Mesocycle: next largest (4 - 6 in yr)
    Microcycle: smallest cycles (1 - 4 wks)

    Linear v Non Linear
    Linear changes intensity every 4- 6 wks
    -hypertrophy (high vol,short rest)
    -Strength/power (reduced vol,increase load/rest)
    -Peaking (low vol/high load/rest)
    -Recovery (active rest)
    Non Linear changes every day within a 4- 6 wk period

  537. Ellipsoid joints are similar to a ball and socket joint. They allow the same type of movment to a lesser magnitude. The wrist is an ellipsoid joint.
  538. movement away/into from midline
  539. arterial pressure providing force for blood flow (systolic and diastolic pressure)

  540. approx. 3-6 ounces of water every 1-2 miles of the race
  541. large macromolecule formed from manosaccharides, starch, cellulose, glyxogen

  542. 1-2 min of high intensity work 400-800m distance sprint
  543. W/T = Power
  544. the amount of energy transferred by a force
    Force - displacement
  545. AXIAL SKELETON
  546. situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle; controls the flow of blood from RA to RV

  547. When a muscle has extensive tension it is detected by the Golgi Tendon organs which inhibits muscle flexion (Safety device to prevent muscle enjury
  548. 60 to 90 hr max duration of 20 to 60 min 3-5 days a week
  549. 2.20
  550. Fibrous joints connect bones without allowing any movement. The bones of your skull and pelvis are held together by fibrous joints.
  551. Third trimester
  552. external rotation
  553. Skin Fold Caliper
    -Circumference (waist/hip)
    -Infra-red (x-ray)
    -BMI (mass(lb) x 703/ ((height(in))^2
    -bioelectrical Impedence
    -Hydro-static under water weighing
  554. 12" step
    96 bpm
    locate radial pulse first
    client steps up up down down for 3 mins @ 96bpm with no talking
    check pulse within 5 secs after test
  555. Diaphragm
  556. 30% of HHR
  557. 16 to 42

  558. a. cool, moist pale, ashen, or flushed skin b. headache, nausea, dizziness, c. weakness, exhaustion d. heavy sweating e. body temp will be near normal
  559. Supine
  560. The upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood from the body via the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava and pumps it through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.

  561. Proximal attachment the insertion is distal

  562. Lat. Dorsi, Pec major, Teres Major, Post. Delt

  563. Fibers that are sensitive to change in length of muscle and rate of that change, major sensory organs of muscle. parallel to muscle fibers. transmit info to cns when stretched. causes muscle to contract to prevent overstretching/ stretching too fast.
  564. restoration of ATP after intense exercise
  565. Stretching that involves moving the joints through their full range of motion to mimic a movement used in a sport or exercise to increase joint flexibility, core temp and circulation
  566. closer to midline/further from midline
  567. vol of air exchanged per minute
  568. reduces angina/chest pain
  569. -Supine position should be avoided after 1st trimester
    -low/mod intensity
    -non-ballistic
    -proper clothing and hydration to prevent overheating

  570. cause forceful expiration
  571. transverse plane rotation towards/away from midline
  572. where two bones meet (fulcrum and axis)
  573. -greater then normal demand is placed upon muscles,
    -to enhance the muscular fitness, the system must be progressively overloaded
    -tension required for strength gain is about 60% - 80% of 1RM
    -fleck and kraemer recommend 75 - 90%

    Progression involves increasing/changing one or more of the exercise training components to promote adaptations
  574. - movement of plasma out of the blood into the working muscles/ surrounding tissue
    - serves to prevent overheating but decreases SV and leads to hemoconcentration (high RBC concentrations, inc. hematocrit)

  575. principles of physics related to energy and force as they apply to the human body
  576. distribution of the cardiac output

  577. Distal segment of a joint deviates laterally.

  578. Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
  579. Harding of arteries
  580. connective tissue that connects bone to bone
  581. scoliosis
  582. -intention is the most important determinant of behavior
    -attitudes and subjective norms influence intention
  583. sartorius
  584. Dynamic eccentric
  585. abs
    tricep
    bicep
    chest
    midaxillary
    subscapular
    suprailium
    thigh
    calf
  586. (RICES) rest (prevents further injury, ice (reduces pain, swelling, and initiates inflammatory response) compression (reduces swelling and bleeding) elevation (controls edema and decreases blood flow) stabilization (assists in muscle relaxation, diminishing spasm
  587. Long
  588. 70-90 and 15-25 in abbuction and abduction
  589. - the amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of the resting phase (diastole)

    - at rest, 125 mL
    - at max, 160 mL

  590. Physical Activity Readiness identifies people who should not be tested in a field setting. Proceed with caution if a client answers yes to one or more questions. May require physician clearance
  591. METs your weight hours * .48= total calories burned

    Example: Jogging = 7 METs Running = 8 METs. So lets say you weight 150

    Running for 1 hour you will burn

    81501*.48= 576 calories.

    http://blue.utb.edu/mbailey/handouts/pdf/MetCalnew.pdf
  592. central layer that divides muscle into compartments called fascicles
  593. (FITTE) Frequency, Intensity, Time/Duration, Type/Mode, Enjoyment
  594. Covers actin binding site at rest, attached to troponin
  595. 40% to 60%
  596. decrease joint angle (elbow curl)
  597. To avoid reflexive slowing of heart rate
  598. located between the left atrium and left ventricle; prevents blood from flowing back into the LA after it has entered the LV
  599. dumbells, kettle bells, medicine ball
  600. Acute-onset muscle soreness; muscle fatigue and discomfort dimininishes when exercise stops
  601. 300