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  1. What is a dumbell raise
  2. What are some components of motivational interviewing
  3. What muscles should you focus on to strengthen the back
  4. skinfold midaxillary
  5. skinfold thigh
  6. infrapinatus / teres minor
  7. What muscles medially rotate the shoulder?
  8. What muscle is the antagonist to Hamstrings
  9. VAK
  10. What does Systolic BP give insight into
  11. What is the preferred walking speed of older adults relative to younger ones?
  12. anatomical sites of pulse
  13. osteoarthritis
  14. Impingement syndrome
  15. Group A, B, C, D
  16. Inertia
  17. What is active and passive force
  18. Multijoint exercises
  19. skeletal muscle
  20. What muscle is in charge of quite breathing
  21. mitral valve
  22. Sociological Model of change
  23. What is the BMI if someone weighs 150 lbs
  24. muscle endurance
  25. guidelines for losing weight
  26. major joint action for
    -rotator cuff muscles
  27. What is AFI
  28. What factor does not changes a CO increases
  29. What can be released due to stress
  30. What is the ROM for elbow flexion
  31. Waist measurement
  32. lateral flexion
  33. bursitis
  34. What is the purpose of screening
  35. Self Efficancy
  36. Bones of the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum...
  37. Describe the substrate and duration of the Phosphagen System
  38. Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference
  39. EVERSION
  40. Small Change model
  41. What are the BP contraindications to exercise?
  42. What are the minimum caloric intakes for men and women?
  43. major joint action for
    -latissimus dorsi
    -middle delt
  44. Internal intercostals
  45. What is the minimum VO2 needed for independent living?
  46. proximal/distal
  47. How do you change an oxygen uptake to METS
  48. Describe the metabolic responses to exercise in children
  49. cartilage
  50. What can tight hamstrings lead to
  51. What one purpose of the cool down
  52. myofibrillar
  53. HYPERLORDOSIS
  54. Describe Respiratory rate at rest and during exercise
  55. 3 site skinfold locations
  56. hamstring
  57. EPOC
  58. Relationship marketing
  59. Describe Minute Ventilation (VE) at rest and during exercise
  60. kilocalaries
  61. Valsalva Maneuver
  62. List two important cognitive restructuring techniques
  63. overuse/chronic muscle and joint injury
  64. percent fat
  65. AV node
  66. What are the post-exerices recommendations for CHO?
  67. What muscles act as dorsaflextion of the ankle
  68. order of exercise assessments
  69. First Class Lever
  70. Acute program variables
  71. hypertrophy
  72. During a pushup what is the motion at the elbow joint during the down phase
  73. Ellipsodal
  74. What are the fat recommendations?
  75. What are the diagnostic features of bulimia nervosa?
  76. Line of Gravity
  77. TRANSVERSE PLANE
  78. D.O.M.S
  79. vasodilator
  80. What is stretching most associated with
  81. Risk stratifications (med)
  82. What is empathy
  83. What can the wrist move in the sagital plane
  84. What are the major agonist muscles during parallel bars
  85. Shoulder press
  86. THREE CARDINAL BODY PLANES
  87. Center of Gravity
  88. consequences of physical inactivity
  89. RF Dyslipidemia Total Cholesterol
  90. 1RM table
  91. Mechanical Work
  92. tricuspid valve
  93. unilateral
  94. What is minimal b fat that places people at risk
  95. What muscles extend the shoulder?
  96. 1 inch = __ . ___ cm
  97. What is Agina pectoris
  98. Physical Activity
  99. bilateral
  100. supination/ pronation
  101. arteriols
  102. phosphorus
  103. alcohol
  104. Cool Down Considerations
  105. social learning theory
  106. What are the 3 parts of the sternum?
  107. What muscles protract the shoulder girdle?
  108. Describe the Anaerobic threshold
  109. What are the recommendations for dietary fiber?
  110. Define cardiovascular drift
  111. Golgi Tendon
  112. What are the steps to prescribing an exercise program
  113. % of fat for increased risk
  114. skinfold calf
  115. What is the recommended intensity for aerobic exercise
  116. Synovial joints
  117. Lunges
  118. CIRCUMDUCTION
  119. How long does the curl up test last
  120. What muscles abduct the shoulder?
  121. What safeguards private information
  122. What does force =
  123. Commonly found abnormal curve in the frontal plane
  124. What head of the Bicep Femora acts on Knee
  125. What muscles laterally rotate the shoulder?
  126. heart chambers
  127. Principle of Adaptation/Overload Training and Progression
  128. What intensity should you use during warm up and cool down
  129. What is the conversion factor for mph to mpm?
  130. VERTEBRAL COLUMN (SPINE)
  131. informed consent
  132. Exercise
  133. What is EIM
  134. STERNUM
  135. USRDA food pyramid
  136. major joint action for
    -erector spinae
    -abs
  137. SAGITTAL PLANE
  138. What is the Antagonist for hip adduction
  139. retraction/protraction
  140. What is a goniometerics
  141. RF for Obesity
  142. antihistamine
  143. Between what speeds does the ACSM walking formula apply?
  144. What are the Effects of training on Fiber Type?
  145. What is recommended for someone over 40
  146. What temp should water be
  147. cardiorespiratory
  148. What are the energy costs of breathing at rest and during exercise?
  149. Describe pulmonary responses to exercise in children
  150. What vitemins are water soluble and need to be consumed regular
  151. What does the knee join flex in sagital plane
  152. Anterior Pelvic tilt
  153. What are the 5 stages of change in the TTM?
  154. What are the rules of doing a skin fold test
  155. Transtheoretical Model stages of change
  156. Right ventricle
  157. What are the 5 cognitive processes of change?
  158. skinfold triceps
  159. What are the key points to know about strength training in children?
  160. Define Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
  161. medial/lateral
  162. major joint action for
    -pec major
    -post deltoid
  163. greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL
  164. hip muscles
  165. What are the ACSM developmental periods?
  166. What is the conversion factor for kg/m/min to watts?
  167. Subscapularis
  168. How many kcal are spent consuming 1L O2?
  169. Heart Rate (HR)
  170. arteriousclerosis
  171. skinfold suprailium
  172. Describe the musculoskeletal changes that occur in older adulthood
  173. Isotonic/dynamic contraction
  174. Arrhythmias
  175. Manual resistance
  176. What muscles adduct the shoulder?
  177. Antihyperlipemics
  178. It fitness testing madatory
  179. type 1 fibers
  180. sarcoplasmic
  181. Risk stratifications (low)
  182. Describe Social Cognitive Theory
  183. Cardio adaptations
  184. torque
  185. What height do you use for depth jumps
  186. How long should the initial conditioning phase be
  187. Ipsilateral
  188. ROTATION
  189. Describe Thermoregulation in children
  190. Describe the Theory of Reasoned Action
  191. One pound of fat is =
  192. Intermittent Claudication
  193. Ischeria
  194. 2nd class lever
  195. humerus
  196. high risk flexibility
  197. Define Hematocrit
  198. benefits of resistance training
  199. What type of activity would use type 2 fibers
  200. metabolic syndrome
  201. Heart rate reserve
  202. 3 min step test
  203. How many calories should come from protein
  204. carpal tunnel
  205. asthma
  206. What trimester should a women not lie in Supine position
  207. bulimia nervosa
  208. testing preliminaries
  209. Should a sedentary person get clearance from their doctor?
  210. skinfold Subscapular
  211. upper respiratory system
  212. What does the ACSM recommend for exercise intensity
  213. What muscles adduct the hip?
  214. ball and socket
  215. MEDIAL
  216. What is a sign of preparation
  217. Goal setting theory
  218. What does tropomyosin do?
  219. Stages of change
  220. How long should older adults hold static stretches
  221. synergists
  222. Vasoconstriction
  223. Albuterol
  224. RF for family history
  225. How much should an athlete drink after training
  226. POSTERIOR (DORSAL)
  227. Anaerobic Glycolysis
  228. neuromuscular activation
  229. Where do you measure the sub scapular skinfold
  230. What are the Long-term vascular adaptations to exercise?
  231. water soluble vitamens
  232. Cardiac Output
  233. The clavicle preforms what function
  234. Name 4 ways to increase self-efficacy
  235. 4 Major curvatures of the adult vertebral column
  236. How many more calories should pregnant women eat
  237. HYPERKYPHOSIS
  238. What joint is moving during a chin up
  239. How long does it take to get used to high altitude
  240. Describe Ejection fraction (EF) at rest and during exercise
  241. MET Equation
  242. lower respiratory system
  243. What should a pt do during a motivational interview
  244. LORDOSIS "secondary curves"
  245. What is used when doing a dumbell pull over
  246. ligaments
  247. What plane does extention and Flexion occur most often
  248. beta-blocker
  249. korotkoff
  250. 9 site skinfold locations
  251. Lever 3
  252. type IIB
  253. What joint has a greater range of motion when running up hill
  254. Pronation (Foot Ankle)
  255. What muscles perform hip extention
  256. Eversion
  257. major joint action for
    -gastrocnemius
    -tibialis anterior
  258. Risk stratifications (high)
  259. What muscle abducts the arm
  260. Describe Cardiac Output (Q) at rest and during exercise
  261. What kind of rotation do wheel chair users use
  262. Describe the sliding filament theory
  263. rheumatoid
  264. 5 A's model behavior
  265. Automatic nervous system
  266. How much fluid should be consumed after high intensity
  267. 1st class lever
  268. What are the 7 relative contraindications for exercise testing?
  269. What are the 5 A's of counseling?
  270. waist-hip ratio
  271. Empirical
  272. Ellipsoid joints
  273. What should people with Asthma avoid
  274. It is recommended to stretch each joint for
  275. anterior/posterior
  276. joints
  277. periodization
  278. eccentric
  279. How to do a proper calf raise
  280. What does ACSM recommend for a extremely deconditioned individual
  281. LATERAL
  282. horizontal abduction
  283. Golgi Tendons
  284. What is overweight on the BMI scale?
  285. What does ACSM recommend for strength and endurance
  286. What are unique responses to exercise found in older adults?
  287. Training Focus
  288. What is the ACSM's recommended energy expenditure per day?
  289. Body composition testing
  290. Dietery Recommendations
  291. fasciitis
  292. Karvonen formula
  293. muscle strength
  294. Static stretching
  295. What is the conversion factor for rpm to m/min on a Tunturi or Bodyguard ergometer?
  296. Oxygen System (aerobic)
  297. Fibrous joints
  298. SA node
  299. Periodization
  300. obesity
  301. caffine
  302. horizontal adduction
  303. What muscles extend the hip?
  304. Blood Flow
  305. brochodilator
  306. Social Cognitive Theory
  307. Mitral valve prolapse
  308. internal/external rotation
  309. Type 2 diabetes
  310. skinfold abs
  311. What kind of resistance training should people with hypertension avoid
  312. Why do you want to avoid the carotid sinus when checking the pulse at the carotid artery
  313. Transtheoretical model of change
  314. Direction of blood flow
  315. How many calories to increase muscle
  316. ACSM recommendation for cardio
  317. origin and insertion
  318. cable pulldown
  319. Lever 2
  320. RF Dyslipidemia low HDL
  321. 3rd class lever
  322. inferior/superior
  323. What kind of joint is the sacroliciac joint
  324. Define pulse pressure
  325. FRONTAL PLANE
  326. What can happen on a high protein diet
  327. venules
  328. pivot
  329. PAR Q
  330. Arthritis
  331. skinfold bicep
  332. Negative Risk Factor
  333. nicotine
  334. saddle joint
  335. What are the 8 ACSM Risk Factors for Heart Disease?
  336. Variable resistance device
  337. Where in the lungs does gas exchange happen
  338. What would be considered over training
  339. active listening
  340. ballistic stretching
  341. Sit and reach other name
  342. What accounts for 90% of fat
  343. DHEA
  344. Describe the Theory of Planned Behavior
  345. peripheral adaptation is
  346. What is the major muscle of respiration
  347. Isokinetic
  348. prone
  349. SPIES
  350. What is the conversion factor for rpm to m/min on a Monark leg ergometer?
  351. skinfold chest/pec
  352. Body Composition
  353. What is the equation for BMI
  354. What is the recommendation for child exercise
  355. Active Listening
  356. Why are women more flexible
  357. Suprasspinitus
  358. What muscles abduct the hip?
  359. Factors that determine flexibility
  360. Stroke Volume
  361. isometric/static contraction
  362. female athlete triad
  363. Describe the ventilatory adaptations that occur with aerobic training
  364. Varus
  365. smooth muscle
  366. anorexia nervosa
  367. Pivot joints
  368. Dynamic Stretching
  369. 1 kg = __.___
  370. Empathy is being _________ and ___________
  371. Anaerobic Glycolysis/Lactic Acid System (anaerobic)
  372. KYPHOSIS "primary curves"
  373. exercise and pregnancy
  374. Age group that exercises the least is?
  375. regular physical activity can improve health and reduce health risks by...
  376. In what part of bone does hematopoiesis occur?
  377. Artery
  378. BIOMECHANICS
  379. Karavonen Method
  380. flexion
  381. What is recommended exercise for a healthy adult
  382. major joint action for
    -obliques
  383. Lever 1
  384. A.O.M.S
  385. Define 'Antecedent control'
  386. What are some Dynamic external devices
  387. What are the cardiac adaptations to training?
  388. How are METs calculated?
  389. How does long-term training affect bioenergetics?
  390. RF Sedentary minutes of activity, days of week, past # of months
  391. ANTERIOR (VENTRAL)
  392. Cardiac muscle
  393. What are the effects of posture on cardiac functioning?
  394. What is the primary use of a lever
  395. Type 1 diabetes
  396. Where can you find yellow marrow?
  397. muscle tissue
  398. What body type is most associated with metabolic deciese
  399. Q equation
  400. negligence
  401. RF for cigarette smoking
  402. sliding filament theory
  403. ATP-PC phosphagen system (anaerobic)
  404. Iliopsoas
  405. tendons
  406. abduction/adduction
  407. What exercise should people with hip replacement avoid
  408. METS
  409. What position would stroke volume be the highest
  410. DISTAL
  411. Describe Stroke Volume at rest and during exercise
  412. pulmonary ventilation
  413. Signals of heat stroke
  414. Describe CV responses to exercise in children
  415. Abduction and Adduction take place in the?
  416. veins
  417. What stretches should you not do
  418. Warm up Considerations
  419. Principle of Specificity of Training
  420. VO2 max equation
  421. atrophy
  422. ACTIN
  423. Risk factor for Dyslipidemia LDL
  424. Name and describe the Myosin Isoforms
  425. One mile walking or running expends
  426. What does sub maximal cardio assessment estimate the relationship of
  427. RF Prediabetes fasting blood glucose
  428. rotator cuff muscles
  429. FITTE (resistance training)
  430. What muscles flex the shoulder?
  431. Commonly found abnormal curves in the sagittal plane
  432. Vasodilation
  433. ACSM Recommendation for older adults training
  434. What is RE- AIM
  435. Contralateral
  436. hyperextension
  437. What are the stages of hypertension?
  438. What is recommended exercise for those with type 2 diabetes
  439. How often should kids exercise
  440. Describe the substrate and duration of the oxidative System
  441. anti-arrhythmic
  442. How do you analyze posture
  443. Law of Reaction
  444. Intensity for sedentary people
  445. Describe the developmental cardiopulmonary changes in children
  446. dose response
  447. major joint action for
    -quads
    -hams
  448. major joint action for
    -biceps brachii
    -triceps brachii
  449. Signals of heat exhaustion
  450. What is gross Vo2? Net Vo2?
  451. What are some components of active listening
  452. anti-anginal
  453. rhabdomyolysis
  454. What is the fuction of the perimysium?
  455. What are the waist girth limits for men and women?
  456. What is the Harris-Benedict Equation?
  457. ISOTONIC MUSCLE REACTION
  458. Good morning exercise
  459. # of kilocalories in one gram
  460. Maximum Oxygen Consumption
  461. Define Rate Pressure Product
  462. agonist
  463. When does HDL become a risk factor
  464. What is the recommended cardio intensity
  465. What is the conversion factor for rpm to m/min on a Monark arm ergometer?
  466. type IIA fibers
  467. What muscle flexes when walking up hill
  468. Dynamic constant external resistance devices
  469. SAID
  470. Group C
  471. What is the conversion factor for inches to meters?
  472. What is the minimal time for static stretches
  473. Describe the cardiopulmonary changes that occur in older adults
  474. pelvic girdle joints
  475. Define syncope
  476. isokenetic
  477. lean body mass
  478. Cartilaginous joint
  479. What method should sedentary people use
  480. Left ventricle
  481. VO2
  482. psychotropic
  483. Force
  484. When walking , running down hill what muscle is most active
  485. flexibility
  486. RF Age men, women
  487. normal acute cardiorespiratory response to aerobic exercise
  488. What is shaping?
  489. What muscles flex the hip?
  490. autonomic neuropathy
  491. Symptoms of Angina (chest pain) and myocardial infaction (heart attack)
  492. Lordotic
  493. Par-Q
  494. Hydration recommendations according to ACSM
  495. extension
  496. Components of first PT visit
  497. 5 components of Physical Fitness
  498. posterior pelvic tilt
  499. Miniscus
  500. What is the METS equation
  501. What percentage is high for daily value
  502. What is 187 lbs in KG?
  503. INFERIOR (CAUDAL)
  504. Sacromere
  505. What does down hill running work
  506. echinacea
  507. bicondylar
  508. Types of muscle tissue
  509. SA, AV ______ _______
  510. 2 types of hypertrophy
  511. Health Behavior Model
  512. Theory of planned behavior
  513. Describe the substrate and duration of the nonoxidative System
  514. antihypertensive meds
  515. overweight
  516. If a patient has only one risk factor what intensity can they start exercise with (Assessment Level)
  517. Treatment for chest pain and heart attack symptoms
  518. What are risky weight to hip ratios for men and women?
  519. hypoglycemic
  520. Inversion
  521. Blood Pressure
  522. How do you spot a lunge
  523. What is ACSM recommendation fro resistance training
  524. What do lunges use
  525. What are the 8 absolute contraindications for exercise testing?
  526. What are the diagnostic features of anorexia nervosa?
  527. What happens if someone is over striding when running
  528. gliding or plane joint
  529. How much should a pt talk
  530. What is the best exercise to isolate the soleus
  531. Sarcomere
  532. How do you determine Heart rate range
  533. Hinge Joint
  534. Supination (Foot Ankle)
  535. Exercise Program Components
  536. What is proper breathing
  537. What do you need to subtract when figuring out calories
  538. cardiac myocyte
  539. SMART Goals
  540. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation PNF
  541. Frank Starling
  542. benefits of flexibility training
  543. What does weakness of dorsiflexors lead to
  544. What are effects of proper Hydration
  545. supine
  546. the learning process
  547. What is the recommended range of body fat
  548. fat soluble vitamins
  549. Work =
  550. Describe end-diastolic volume at rest and during exercise
  551. What does 1 watt equal?
  552. Squats
  553. What is the equation for power
  554. Types of support
  555. What is the order of a assessment
  556. What are the 5 behavioral processes of change?
  557. What muscles retract the shoulder girdle?
  558. Ball and socket joint
  559. antagonist
  560. What is the agonist when doing a hip extention
  561. RF for hypertensive
  562. malpractice
  563. monosacharides
  564. How do figure out seconds
  565. Leukocytes
  566. concentric
  567. Right atrium
  568. SUPERIOR (CRANIAL)
  569. INVERSION
  570. Law of Acceleration
  571. Left atrium
  572. Third Class Lever
  573. Bones
  574. POLYSACHARIDES
  575. What is an example of a condyloid joint and what is its characteristic motion?
  576. arterioles
  577. What is the connective tissue surrounding muscle fibers
  578. Second Class Lever
  579. tendonitis
  580. What is the idea behind Plyometrics
  581. What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia
  582. Ischemia
  583. Initial treatment for Musculoskeletal injury for the first 24-72 hrs
  584. What produces the greatest DOMS
  585. body mass index BMI
  586. Muscle Spindles
  587. What is the resting absolute O2 consumption for a 70kg person? In athletes?
  588. PROXIMAL
  589. Kinesiology
  590. major joint action for
    -mid trap
    -pec minor
  591. Motivational interviewing
  592. major joint action for
    -gluteus maximus
    -Ilopsoas
  593. What are the Long-term adaptations on blood composition?
  594. What should you limit in plyotraining
  595. When do you exhale
  596. What medical values (BP, glucose,etc) are contraindicative of exercise training?
  597. Valgus
  598. How soon do most people quit
  1. a relaxes bronchial passageways
  2. b
    Right atrium
    Right ventricle
    Left atrium
    Left ventricle
  3. c an imaginary vertical line drawn through an object's center of gravity
  4. d
    A theory stating that the best predictor of a behavior is one's behavioral intention, which is influenced by one's attitude toward the specific behavior, the subjective norms regarding the behavior, and one's perceived control over the behavior.
  5. e
    A ball and socket joint allows for radial movment in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. (Like a door knob)
  6. f 65+
  7. g refers to a muscle's ability to perform repeated contractions or hold static contractions
  8. h
    Diaphragm
  9. i Men 45 or older
    Women 55 or older
    and Those who meet the threshold for two or more positive risk factor are considered moderate risk; can participate in moderate(40%-60%) but need prior medical testing for vigorous (>60% VO2R) exercise
  10. j
    Deals with environment and how it effects change
  11. k Carbs: 55%-60%
    Fat: 25%- 30%
    Protein: 10% - 15%
    6oz of grains (3oz of whole-grain), 2.5 cups veggies, 2 cups fruits, 3 cups milk
  12. l Skin Fold Caliper
    -Circumference (waist/hip)
    -Infra-red (x-ray)
    -BMI (mass(lb) x 703/ ((height(in))^2
    -bioelectrical Impedence
    -Hydro-static under water weighing
  13. m Dehydroepiandrosterone. Marketed as an anabolic steroi
  14. n
    Contain throporin and tropomyson
  15. o increase in joint angle
  16. p Identify clients that should not exercise
    Identify clients with increased risk
    Identify clients with increased risk for disease
    Identify clients with disease
    Identify clients with special needs
  17. q difference between oxygen content of arterial and venous blood
  18. r F w/t
  19. s voluntary and made up of striated fibers
  20. t increased mitochondrial density and substrate storage in the muscle cells
  21. u 3 to 6 monthsech
  22. v
    diagonal fold
    half the distance b/w anterior axillary line and nipple (men)
    1/3rd the distance b/w anterior axillary line and nipple (women)
  23. w
    Knee joint (femorotibial) is classified as what type of mobility?
  24. x joint structure
    health of soft tissue
    length of antagonist muscle
    temp
  25. y one side
  26. z less than 40 mg/dL
  27. aa Two intense days followed by easy.
  28. ab isotonic muscle contraction; describes the type of muscle activity when exercising with external resistances in activities such as lifting weights
  29. ac anaerobic in nature. refered as fast glycolitic fibers
  30. ad
    Proximal attachment the insertion is distal
  31. ae Harding of arteries
  32. af
    Adducting inversion of the foot
  33. ag 10 - 25 %
  34. ah inflammation of the fascia; fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together
  35. ai toward the front
  36. aj increases the capacity of the heart, lungs, and blood carrying vessels to deliver oxygen; also called aerobic fitness
  37. ak Malpractice is a type of negligence committed by a professional and Negligence is failure to exercise due care
  38. al may elevate HR,BP and respiratory response
  39. am METs your weight hours * .48= total calories burned

    Example: Jogging = 7 METs Running = 8 METs. So lets say you weight 150

    Running for 1 hour you will burn

    81501*.48= 576 calories.

    http://blue.utb.edu/mbailey/handouts/pdf/MetCalnew.pdf
  40. an - % of blood in ventricle during diastole actually pumped out during systole

    EF = SV/EDV

    - at rest, EF = 60% but can range from 50% - 75%
  41. ao
    Hip adductors: pectineus, adductor magnus, minimus, longus, brevis, and gracilis (which crosses the knee joint as well as the hip joint) Function as thigh stabilizers (ex. lunges)
  42. ap the study of human movement
  43. aq 30 min 3 to 5 days a week
  44. ar delayed onset muscle soreness;muscle discomfort 24-36 hr after exercise
  45. as AXIAL SKELETON
  46. at have aerobic and anaerobic capabilities and refered to as intermediate fibers, continuum fibers, fast oxidative glycolitic fibers
  47. au the disorder of self-induced starvation
  48. av 85 KG
  49. aw reduces angina/chest pain
  50. ax Fasting Blood Glucose for Diabetes diagnosis
  51. ay w = f*d
    2 sets 10 reps 100 lbs moved 3 feet
    10 times 100 = 1000 force x 3 feet = 3000 x 2 sets = 6000
  52. az
    The * automatic nervous system serves two important basic functions: the sympathetic nervous system (Stress) and para sympathetic nervous system (Relax).
  53. ba Joint allowing for all type of movement except pivot (wrist, ankle)
  54. bb increased body weight, in relation to height when compared to some standard of acceptable or desirable weight
  55. bc vertical fold
    2cm right of belly button
  56. bd Asthma
  57. be Knee extention and hip abduction
  58. bf a. stop exercise immediately and place person ina comfortable sitting or lying position, b. 911, monitor HR, and be prepared to begin CPR, c. Automated External Defibrillator AED may be used if cardiac arrest
  59. bg where two bones meet (fulcrum and axis)
  60. bh total mets x 3.5 x kg /200
  61. bi irregular exercise
  62. bj 1.resting mesurements (BP/HR/Body Fat/height/weight)
    2.cardio test
    3.muscular endurance
    4.flex
  63. bk 12" step
    96 bpm
    locate radial pulse first
    client steps up up down down for 3 mins @ 96bpm with no talking
    check pulse within 5 secs after test
  64. bl Hip Extension
    Hip Flexion
  65. bm have clients min. factors that influence heart rate including:
    -non prescription heart rate altering meds
    -caffeine
    -exercise
    -large meals
    -fatigue
    -test anxiety
  66. bn smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell; composed of 2 types of muscle protein,
    -actin "thin filament", which contains troponin and tropomyosin
    -myosin "thick filament" : contains many cross bridges
  67. bo - increased ex. intensity at which anaerobic threshold occurs
  68. bp the amount of blood pumped from the heart in one minute
  69. bq
    1) Family Hx (male relative <55, female <65 with MI, etc)
    2) Sedentary (<30min/week PA (40-60%) on 3 days for 3 months)
    3) Obesity (BMI >30 or men girth >102cm, >88cm women)
    4) Hypertension (>140/90)
    5) Dyslipidemia (LDL >130 or HDL < 40, TTG >200)
    6) Cigarette smoking (within 6 months)
    7) Pre-diabetes (IFG >100 or IGT >140)
    8) Age (Men >45, Women >55)

    HDL > 60 is negative risk factor
  70. br An arrhythmia is a disorder of the heart rate (pulse) or heart rhythm, such as beating too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.
  71. bs seated heal raise with bent knees
  72. bt Appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity serving to enhance venous return and decrease the chance of postexercise hypotension during recovery
  73. bu
    Shoulder abduction
  74. bv - exercise intensity at which ATP demand cannot be met solely by aerobic metabolism and anerobically produced ATP is needed to satisfy the demand

    - point at which linear relationship between expired CO2 and minute ventilation

    - in untrained, occurs at about 55% of VO2max
    - in trained, occurs at about 80% - 85%
  75. bw decreases running economy and increase breaking motion
  76. bx BP = >200/105
    Glucose = >250 w/ketones or >300 w/out ketones
  77. by Men - 1,800
    Women - 1,200
  78. bz heart problem resulting from the mitral valve not regulating the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart
  79. ca connective tissue that connects bone to bone
  80. cb Cardiovascular activities that require skill "swimming"
  81. cc the lower part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood from the right atrium and pumps it through the pulmonary valve into the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
  82. cd
    vertical
    1 cm above mark of tricep on belly of bicep
  83. ce - amount of blood pumped each minute

    Q = HR(SV)

    - at rest, Q = 5L/min (72 BPM x 70 mL)
    - at max, Q = 5 - 6x (25-30 L/min)

    - 35-40 L/min in trained
  84. cf Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between a tendon and skin, or between a tendon and bone
  85. cg -greater then normal demand is placed upon muscles,
    -to enhance the muscular fitness, the system must be progressively overloaded
    -tension required for strength gain is about 60% - 80% of 1RM
    -fleck and kraemer recommend 75 - 90%

    Progression involves increasing/changing one or more of the exercise training components to promote adaptations
  86. ch -shoulder adduction
    -shoulder abduction
  87. ci affects behavior
  88. cj
    Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
  89. ck
    Lat. Dorsi, Pec major, Teres Major, Post. Delt
  90. cl 1) sudden drop in SBP (>15 mmHg)
    2) elevation of SBP > 260 mmHg
  91. cm FIT VOLUME, PATTERN, PROGRESSION
  92. cn tendonitis, fasciitis, bursitis, osteoarthritis
  93. co major bone of arm
  94. cp Abducting and eversion medial part of foot
  95. cq ~20% slower
  96. cr abdominal, hip extensors, erector spinus
  97. cs myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or sudden death to a 1st degree family member when >55 male, >65 female
  98. ct dehydrating-may impair exercise tolerance and increase risk of heart injury
  99. cu reduces...
    -cardiovascular disease
    -risk of stroke
    -reduces high blood pressure
    -risk of colon cancer, lowers
    -cholesterol/triglycerides,
    -depression/anxiety/stress

    Increases...
    -lipoproteins
    -self-esteem
    -healthy body
  100. cv same Side
  101. cw Rhomboids, middle trap
  102. cx Manifested by the absence of sweating (anhydrosis) dry skin causes cracks fissures.
  103. cy
  104. cz anterior ,posterior and from both sides
  105. da
    Elbow Joint Type
  106. db
    Lat. Dorsi, Pec major, Teres Major, Post. Delt
  107. dc 64 to 70% and 94% of HR or between 40 to 60 and 89% of oxygen uptake reserve
  108. dd Dynamic eccentric
  109. de C and B
  110. df Covers actin binding site at rest, attached to troponin
  111. dg 40 to 50% HHR
  112. dh facilitates movement of the chest during inspiration and expiration
  113. di external rotation
  114. dj
    Fibrocartilage behind petalla
  115. dk the smallest arteries that connect with the capillaries which allow the exchange of blood and other nutrients with various tissue
  116. dl fruity breath
    blurred vision
    extreme thirst
  117. dm range of motion; shovel, exbow flexion; we use this the most
  118. dn -stress management
    -MET capacity
    -increased resting metabolism
    -osteoporosis prevention/management
    -injury prevention/rehab
  119. do 40% to 60%
  120. dp 2 weeks
  121. dq muscles involved in stabilizing, fixating or assisting at the joint
  122. dr Diagonal fold
    Anterior axillary line immediately superior to the iliac crest
    in line with the natural angle of the iliac crest taken
  123. ds 300
  124. dt
    Physical Activity Readiness identifies people who should not be tested in a field setting. Proceed with caution if a client answers yes to one or more questions. May require physician clearance
  125. du Lgreater than 130 mg/dL
  126. dv - the amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of the resting phase (diastole)

    - at rest, 125 mL
    - at max, 160 mL
  127. dw multiply by 26.8
  128. dx Wrist (radiocarpal) - circumduction, abd, add, flex/ext
  129. dy Used to flex hip joint
  130. dz blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
  131. ea -scapular retraction(add)
    -scapular protraction(abd)
  132. eb midline of the chest
  133. ec HR * SV
  134. ed -caused by mechanical stress and destruction of hyaline cartilage in the joints
    -many degrees of severity
    -degenerative arthritis
  135. ee 1) drop in SYS >10 mmHg w/ ischemia
    2) Severe angina
    3) SNS symptoms (syncope, ataxia, dizziness)
    4) Poor perfusion
    5) Technical difficulties with the EKG
    6) Subject wants to stop
    7) Sustained ventricular tachycardia
    8) > 1mm ST elevation w/out Q-waves
  136. ef multiply by 6
  137. eg closer to trunk/further from trunk
  138. eh
    CLOSER TO THE TRUNK
  139. ei
    Hips/Waist (ex. 45" waist and 36" hips... 36/45=.8)
    ratios above .86 for women and .95 for men indicate abdominal adiposity
  140. ej distribution of the cardiac output
  141. ek 1500 m race
  142. el refers to th ratio of lean body mass compared to fat mass
  143. em
    Infraspinatus, teres minor
  144. en body mass of greater then or equal to 30kg/m2; waist girthgreater than 102 cm for men and 88 cm for women
  145. eo 22.2 c
  146. ep 6.0 kg/m/min
  147. eq below/ above
  148. er 20-35% for adults, 20-35 young children (2-3)
    <10% saturated
    <300 cholesterol
    no fat <20%
  149. es the lower part of the that heart receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium and pumps it through the aortic valve to the entire body via the aorta, including to the heart muscle itself through the coronary arteries.
  150. et 20%
  151. eu hands close to hips / waist or torso
  152. ev metabolic equivalent of task
    1 MET = SITING
    met minute is time engaged in activity
  153. ew sub maximal assessment without doctors consent
  154. ex
    exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature
  155. ey Fiber
  156. ez Exercise in medicine
    Physicians encourage patients to exercise
  157. fa closer to midline/further from midline
  158. fb 30% - 45% HRR 57% - 67% vo2
  159. fc greater than 200 mg/dL
  160. fd opposing muscle to the prime mover
  161. fe transverse plane rotation towards/away from midline
  162. ff - higher RHR and ExHR due to lower SV, hemoglobin and relative Q
    - VO2 max remains relatively unchanged throughout childhood and adolescence
    - lower BP
    -absolute VO2max (L/min) increases substantially through childhood but relative VO2max plateaus in boys during puberty and declines in girls
    -V02max is NOT related to endurance fitness in children and preadolescents
  163. fg dumbells, kettle bells, medicine ball
  164. fh 60 to 90 hr max duration of 20 to 60 min 3-5 days a week
  165. fi Physical activity 3 to 7 days a week
    exercise v02 40% to 59%
  166. fj trunk flexion
  167. fk make observations, express feelings, identify needs, make request
  168. fl
    1-2 min of high intensity work 400-800m distance sprint
  169. fm Men: <102 cm
    Women: <88 cm
  170. fn Exercise test before vigorous exercise
  171. fo the ankle joint
  172. fp
    O2 cost of activity plus rest;
    O2 cost of activity - rest

    All ACSM formulas are for gross VO2
  173. fq The body adapts to specific exercise training stimulus with specific physical and physiological adaptations.
  174. fr 1) improved production of RBCs (better O2 delivery)
    2) increased plasma volume (dec. hematocrit, i.e., runner's anemia)
    3) improved thermoregulation ability
  175. fs 220- age -RH X 70% + HR
  176. ft
    the events that occur b/w actin and myosin during muscle contraction and relaxation

    -when nerve impulse is received, the cross bridges of myosin will put the actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere and tension is created
  177. fu closer to the midline
  178. fv 60 min a day
  179. fw BW irrelevant; involves binging and purging;
  180. fx sagittal plane, frontal plane, transverse plane
  181. fy
    -shoulder horizontal adduction
    -shoulder horizontal abduction
  182. fz movement done for improvement in one or more components of fitness
  183. ga spinal rotation and lateral flexion
  184. gb PT and Client agreement
    Health/ Medical History PARQ
    Medical clearance form
    Informed consent
    Client Goals
    Health and Fitness Assessment
    Assessment results
  185. gc 5 kcal (20.9 kJ)
  186. gd Returns pooled blood back to central circulation
  187. ge
    a. cool, moist pale, ashen, or flushed skin b. headache, nausea, dizziness, c. weakness, exhaustion d. heavy sweating e. body temp will be near normal
  188. gf - movement of plasma out of the blood into the working muscles/ surrounding tissue
    - serves to prevent overheating but decreases SV and leads to hemoconcentration (high RBC concentrations, inc. hematocrit)
  189. gg male 30 women 35
  190. gh
    vertical fold
    Midaxillary line at the level of the xiphoid process of the sternum
  191. gi extends the theory of reasoned action by incorporating perceived behavioral control, which is determined by perceived power and control beliefs
  192. gj affects rotator cuff, overuse injury, swelling, pain while sleeping, shoulder feels weak, bursitis as a result of pinching in acromion, point tenderness
    Gradual onset of anterior and lateral shoulder pain exacerbated by overhead activity. Night pain and difficulty sleeping on affected side.
  193. gk
    Adductors magnus, longus, brevis; gracialis, pectineus
  194. gl
    further from the trunk
  195. gm Supine
  196. gn
    When a muscle has extensive tension it is detected by the Golgi Tendon organs which inhibits muscle flexion (Safety device to prevent muscle enjury
  197. go (RICES) rest (prevents further injury, ice (reduces pain, swelling, and initiates inflammatory response) compression (reduces swelling and bleeding) elevation (controls edema and decreases blood flow) stabilization (assists in muscle relaxation, diminishing spasm
  198. gp the amount of force a muscle can exert in a single all-out effort (1 Rep Mas/1RM)
  199. gq - 10-20% inc. submax O2 consumption compared to adults in running and walking do to dec. economy
    - lower anerobic capacity
    - children reach metabolic steady state quicker than adults
    (less oxygen debt)
    - more rapid recovery of HR and BP post-ex
  200. gr responsible for maintaining atri- ventrecular valve closure at the heart
  201. gs 1.0-1.5 g CHO/kg within 30-60 min
  202. gt -lower absolute minute ventilation
    -similar relative maximal minute ventilation but lower relative submax MV
    -VO2 is less trainable in children than adults
  203. gu decrease in joint angle (spine side bend, love handles)
  204. gv large macromolecule formed from manosaccharides, starch, cellulose, glyxogen
  205. gw 140
  206. gx opposite side
  207. gy
    As the end diastolic volume is increased, the stroke volume is increased. The heart contracts more forcefully when it is subjected to an increasing degree of stretch.
  208. gz 30 min intense 30 min moderate
  209. ha elbow flexion
    elbow extension
  210. hb connective tissue that connects muscles to bone
  211. hc narrowing of airways brought about by allergens and stressors
    -avoid outdoor exercise in cold and high pollen or pollution
  212. hd
    Newton's 2nd law: an object will move in the direction of the force applied to it
  213. he 10 seconds
  214. hf
    Abducting the ankle
  215. hg restoration of ATP after intense exercise
  216. hh Identifies six major stages in the process of how people change: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, termination.
  217. hi
    In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Midcarpal and midtarsal joints are gliding joints
  218. hj Medical form that rules out the fact that a client has to be medically cleared by a dr
  219. hk Shovel
    Force between axis and resistance, but closer to resistance
    Force arm < Resistance Arm
    Most common level
  220. hl widens blood vessal
  221. hm the row
  222. hn 100 kcal
  223. ho between 50 and 100 m/min (1.9 - 3.7 mph)
  224. hp - % of blood volume composed of RBCs
    - 45 % in men (due to inc. testosterone)
    - 42 % in women
  225. hq intensity of exercise
  226. hr simple sugars; glucose (most abundant), fluctose, and galactose
  227. hs (men)chest, abs, thigh
    (women) triceps, suprailium, thigh
  228. ht
    adducting the ankle
  229. hu involuntary muscle tissue that lines the arterial walls and organs of the body
  230. hv Mediates impulses between the atria and ventricles and delays the impulse before transmitting it through the bunde of His and the ventricular Purkinje network. The intrinsic rate is normally between 40 and 60 bpm.
  231. hw The upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-depleted blood from the body via the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava and pumps it through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.
  232. hx white fibrous tissue that cushions surfaces and prevents friction (cushions bones)
  233. hy
    Pre-contemplation: not ready to exercise
    Contemplation: thinking about behavior change
    Preparation:doing something related to exercise, but not meeting the guidelines
    Action: meeting set criteria of at least 6 months
    Maintenance: met criteria of 6 months, and continuing
  234. hz small veins that drain blood from the capillaries and then join to form a vein
  235. ia subraspinatus
  236. ib lets person know there is a risk to exercise
  237. ic 30% of HHR
  238. id inflammation of a tendon
  239. ie 25-29.9 (obese > 30)
  240. if BW 15% lowest value expected for height
    BMI < 17.5
  241. ig A = walking
    B= Jogging
    C= Cross Country sking
    D= Vigorous
  242. ih
    exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature
  243. ii 2.54
  244. ij involves:
    1) observational learning (vicarious rewards)
    2) Behavioral capability (knowledge and skill)
    3) outcome expectations and expectancies
    4) Self-efficacy (confidence about performing a specific behavior)
    5) Self-control of performance (includes self-monitoring and goal-setting)
    6) Management of emotional arousal (e.g., cognitive restructuring, stress management, effective problem solving)
    7) Reinforcement (direct, vicarious, self)
  245. ik Neonatal: 0-3weeks
    Infancy: 3 weeks - 1 year
    Early Childhood: 1-6
    Middle Childhood: 7-10
    Prepuberty: 9-15 (girls) 12-16 (boys)
    Early adulthood: 20-29
    Middle adulthood: 30-44
    Later adulthood: 45-64
  246. il
    Vertical fold
    maximum circumference of calf on the midline of medial border
  247. im Cardiac, peripheral vascular, or cerebrovascular disease
    Chronic OPD, asthma, interstitial lung disease, or cystic fibrosis
    Diabetes type 1 or 2, thyroid disorders, renal, or liver disease
  248. in proprioceptive neuroscience facilitation
  249. io Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only a little movment, such as in the spine or ribs.
  250. ip Start with small changes
  251. iq
  252. ir bodily (musculoskeletal movement leading to caloric expenditure
  253. is During concentric
  254. it Low resistance
  255. iu may extend endurance in moderate aerobic exercise
  256. iv rotational movement, results in the palm facing upward/downward
  257. iw front/ back
  258. ix
    nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx ...filters air
  259. iy Tibialis, peroneus, tertius, extensor
  260. iz 22.80
  261. ja
    trachea, bronchi, bronchiloes, alveoli...puts oxygen into blood
  262. jb
    a disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist)
  263. jc
    a group of characteristics a person achieves/possesses related to physical activity and cardiorepiratory, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, body composition
  264. jd the trait of neglecting responsibilities and lacking concern
  265. je -heart disease
    -stroke
    -diabetes
    -hypertension
    -obesity
    -depression/anxiety
    -certain cancers
  266. jf No prior training 20 -30 60 - 1150 min total
    minimal 150 - 200
    intermediate 200- 300
    regular exercise 200 -300
  267. jg -intention is the most important determinant of behavior
    -attitudes and subjective norms influence intention
  268. jh Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands
  269. ji reduces blood sugar
  270. jj cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
  271. jk within 6 months
  272. jl 28-40
  273. jm primarly for power; wheel borrw, plater flexion during walking
  274. jn Frontal plane
  275. jo
    1. red, hot dry skin 2. rapid weak pulse, shallow breathing 3. changes in the level of consciousness 4. vomiting 5. body temp will be very high as high as 105
  276. jp Listening to spoken statements, observing non verbal cues, understanding anxiety, Identify statements that indicate learning opportunities
  277. jq Shoulder abduction
  278. jr increased capillary density
  279. js less than 30 min/day, 3 days/week, for at least 3 months
  280. jt tension is created within the muscle fiber, but the fiber change length and there is no change in joint angle F=R
  281. ju Abdominal fat
  282. jv The Right Atrium, receives "used blood" from the body. Blood will be pushed through the tricuspid valve to the
    Right Ventricle, the chamber which will pump to the lungs through the pulmonic valve to the
    Pulmonary Arteries, providing blood to both lungs. Blood is circulated through the lungs where carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen added. It returns through the
    Pulmonary Veins, which empty into the
    Left Atrium, a chamber which will push the Mitral Valve open. Blood then passes into the
    Left Ventricle. As it pumps, the pressure will close the mitral valve and open the aortic valve, with blood passing through to the
    Aorta, where it will be delivered to the rest of the body.
  283. jw extention
  284. jx
    shoulder adduction ,
  285. jy reduces resting and exercise heart rate and blood pressure
  286. jz
    Entire pelvis tilted backward in the frontal plane
    Hip extention and lumbar flexes
  287. ka Men - >.95
    Women - >.86
  288. kb involves setting a series of intermediate goals that lead towards a long-term goal
  289. kc -All training (endurance or resistance) causes a conversion of Type IIB(X) (fast twitch) to Type IIA (intermediate)

    -no training converts TI to TII or vice versa
  290. kd standing toe touches, barre streches, hurdler strech, neck circles, yoga plough, knee hyperflexion
  291. ke muscle fibers change length and joint angles; Work= force x distance; can concentric or eccentric
  292. kf effective and cognitive
  293. kg
    Personality does not directly influence the relation between stress and illness. Instead, personality affects health indirectly, through health-promoting or health-degrading behaviors. This model suggests that personality influences the degree to which a person engages in various health-promoting or health-demoting behaviors.
  294. kh scapula toward (add) and away from midline (abd)
  295. ki calculates RMR

    PA correction factors include:
    1) sedentary: RMR * 1.4
    2) Moderately active: RMR * 1.6
    3) Highly Active: RMR * 1.8
  296. kj
    Glut. medius, piriformis
  297. kk To avoid reflexive slowing of heart rate
  298. kl actin and myosin contractile proteins increase in number and add to muscular strength as well as a small increase in the size of the muscle
  299. km Acute-onset muscle soreness; muscle fatigue and discomfort dimininishes when exercise stops
  300. kn
    A saddle joint allows movement back and forth and up and down, bot does not allow for rotation like a ball and socket joint.
  301. ko cognitive phase:learn general skill concepts
    associative phase: practice and refine
    automatic phase: skill is developed and consistent
  302. kp located between the left atrium and left ventricle; prevents blood from flowing back into the LA after it has entered the LV
  303. kq build strength and power using eccentric loading a explosive movements
  304. kr -lower Q at a given VO2
    -higher HR at submaximal loads
    -lower arterial blood pressure
  305. ks Best for high volume shorter rest
  306. kt Tension
  307. ku Shoulder extention
  308. kv -results in smaller absolute but equal relative gains
    -no greater risk of injury
    -focus on participation and technique rather than resistance
    - muscle hypertrophy not a cause of increased strength in preadolescents
  309. kw Enlargement of muscle
  310. kx retaining existing clients is more important then new clients
  311. ky Restriction of blood supply
  312. kz - difference between SYS and DIA
    - approx. 40 mmHg at rest
  313. la using techniques to prompt the initiation of the behavior (e.g. alarm reminders, packing in advance, scheduling in time, etc)
  314. lb
    Iliacus, pectineus, psoas major, rectus femoris
  315. lc the height to weight ratio can be misleading because it does not consider body type
  316. ld shoulder flexion
  317. le visual learner:
    Auditory Learner
    Kinesthetic Learner
  318. lf An inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, esp. the heart muscles.
  319. lg -reduces muscle tension
    -promotes relaxation
    -muscle contractions become easier/smoother
    -improves ease of movement
  320. lh
    rotation of the pelvis when sitting if there is an increase in lumbar lordosis
  321. li 4 weeks
  322. lj Using the PT's resistance
  323. lk
    primarly for balance;see saw, head on cervical vertebrea
  324. ll
    A method of interviewing clients in a way that encourages them to honestly examine their beliefs and behaviors and that motivates clients to make a decision to change their behavior (This is different then active listening because the pt can give more direction)
  325. lm slow twitch, slow oxidative and red twitch fibers (aerobic)
  326. ln stimulus for vol. physical activity initiates in the brain and is then transformed into a movement pattern
  327. lo HRR = HRmax − HRrest
  328. lp Force x distance = work
  329. lq
    A motivation theory in which specific, challenging goals increase motivation and performance when the goals are accepted by subordinates and these subordinates receive feedback to indicate their progress toward goal achievement.
  330. lr 0.245 L/min (up to 5.5 L/min in athletes)
  331. ls Bundle of his, bundle of brachi, purkinje
  332. lt Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance
  333. lu - blunted HR response
    - decreased blood volume, max SV and Q
    - decreased EF due to reductions in LV compliance
    -increased dead space in lungs (from 30% to 40-45%)
    -reductions in pulmonary alveolar compliance elevates BP in the lungs during exercise
    -similar or greater strength gains compared to young adults
  334. lv both sides
  335. lw The diaphysis (shaft of the bone)
  336. lx 14g/1000kcal
  337. ly CONDITION IN WHICH NO INSULIN IS PRODUCED BY THE BODY
  338. lz 1 set 8 to 12 reps using 8 to 10 exercises that train major muscles groups upper and lower
  339. ma
    Distal segment of a joint deviates laterally.
  340. mb - average pressure exerted across the cardiac cycle

    MAP = DBP + (1/3)(PP)

    - approx 93 mm Hg at rest
  341. mc a series of quick but gentle bouncing or bobbing motions designed to stretch your muscles
  342. md
    principles of physics related to energy and force as they apply to the human body
  343. me Diagonal fold
    1 to 2 cm below the inferior angle of the scapula
  344. mf test the flexibility of joints
    range of motion
    muscle imbalance
    baseline information
  345. mg sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar
  346. mh
  347. mi Stretch muscle statically, contract and stretch muscle statically beyond initial static stretch
  348. mj 1 min
  349. mk
    iLIOPSOAS
  350. ml
    sacroiliac, pubic symphysis, sacrococcygeal
  351. mm hamstrings
  352. mn calciem being drawn from bones and excreated in urin
  353. mo 1. obtain medical history
    2. have client preform risk factor assessment
    3. administer fitness test
    4. interpret data
    5 prescribe exercise
  354. mp rotary force
  355. mq 30 seconds
  356. mr
    any interaction b/w 2 objects producing a change in magnitude or direction of motion
  357. ms multiply by 3
  358. mt 500-1000 cal daily to lose 1-2 lbs. per wk; same to increase
  359. mu 40 to 60 %
  360. mv 220 - age - rhr * .% + rhr
  361. mw aka max heart rate reserve method;
    training HR = (max HR - resting HR) X target intensity (40/50-85%) + resting HR
  362. mx
    the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
  363. my -CHO, Fats, Proteins --> ATP
    -byproducts are water and CO2
  364. mz Yes before exercise
  365. na
    Distal segment of a joint deviates medially.
  366. nb 45 men, 55 women
  367. nc above, toward the head
  368. nd heart rate and work load
  369. ne
    internal rotation
  370. nf
    A, D, E, K
  371. ng elevated HR, SV, Cardiac output, BP, Blood Flow, Arteriovenous oxygen difference, pulmonary ventilation and oxygen consumption
  372. nh 600 ml for 1 pound lost 1 pint
  373. ni 1. fat, oils & sweets: use sparingly
    2. milk, yogurt &cheese 2-3 servings;
    3. meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, nuts, eggs: 2-3 servings;
    4. fruits: 3-5 serv;
    5. veggies: 3-5 serv.
    6. bread, cereal, rice, & pasta: 6-11 serv
  374. nj Type I = slow twitch, high oxidative
    Type IIA = intermediate
    Type IIB(X) = fast twitch, low oxidative
  375. nk
    SITS
    Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis
  376. nl makes a division into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions
  377. nm 28/3.5 = 8 METS
  378. nn scoliosis
  379. no Helps cities compare their health with other cities
  380. np Long
  381. nq
    3.5 + 483 / T
  382. nr
    Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosis); glut max
  383. ns divide by 6
  384. nt
    The red bone marrow of the epiphysis (end of bones)
  385. nu Ant. Delt., Pec Major
  386. nv 1) normal: <120/80
    2) pre- : 120-139/80-89
    3) Stage 1: 140-159/90-99
    4) Stage 2: >160>100
  387. nw
    carotid, brachial, radial, femoral
  388. nx NO
  389. ny
    approx. 3-6 ounces of water every 1-2 miles of the race
  390. nz The glenohumeral joint is moving in the sagital plane and is being extended
  391. oa chest press
  392. ob multiply by 0.0254
  393. oc Pivot joints allow rotation arround an axis. The neck and forearms have pivot joints. In the neck the occipital bone spins over the top of the axis. In the forearms the radius and ulna twist arround each other.
  394. od
    android
  395. oe 1) decreased SBP, DBP, and MAP at rest
    2) improved shunting of blood to muscles
    3) improved capillarity within muscle tissue (and increased mithochondrial density) --> improved oxygen extraction
  396. of Exercises that involve 2 or more primary joints and receive priority when one is selecting exercises because of their direct application to the sport.
  397. og
    Middle deltoid and supraspinatus
  398. oh Emotional, tangible, informational, appraisal
  399. oi - volume of blood ejected from the LV with each contraction
    - 70 mL at rest, 100mL during ex in untrained men, 170mL in highly trained
    - increases with exercise intensity until 50% of VO2max
  400. oj Sagital
  401. ok not fat tissue: muscle, bone, skin etc
  402. ol knee extension
    knee flexion
  403. om
  404. on HDL greater than 60 mg/dL
  405. oo 13 mL/kg/min
  406. op
    Ellipsoid joints are similar to a ball and socket joint. They allow the same type of movment to a lesser magnitude. The wrist is an ellipsoid joint.
  407. oq Carbo= 4; fats=9; protein=4; alcohol=7
  408. or situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle; controls the flow of blood from RA to RV
  409. os By dividing the relative O2 consumption by 3.5
  410. ot mineral reservior, internal skeleton (levers)
  411. ou 1) Precontemplation
    2) Contemplation
    3) Preperation
    4) Action
    5) Maintenance (> 6 months)
  412. ov -HRmax decreases 6-10bpm per decade
    -RSV remains unchanged, but max SV decreases with age
    - these changes likely result from dec. compliance in the LV
    - capillary density decreases
    - LV hypertrophy --> inc. afterload/TPR
    - V02 max declines by 5-15% per decade after 25 (can be slowed by PA)
    -residual volume increases and vital capacity decreases
    - lung compliance increases
    -early LV diastolic function decreases
    -aging brings a 20% decreases in the work of respiratory muscles but a decrease in the strength of these muscles
  413. ow makes a division into right and left portions
  414. ox one centimeter below the inferior angle of scapula
  415. oy Control blood cholesterol
  416. oz 1) drop in SYS >10 mmHg w/out ischemia
    2) ST/QRS changes or marked axis shift
    3) Other arrythemias
    4) Fatigue, SOB, leg cramps, wheezing, claudication
    5) BBB or IV conduction
    6) Increasing chest pain
    7) Hypertensive response >250/115
  417. pa decrease in the mass of the muscle;Muscle atrophy results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), renal failure, starvation
  418. pb quads is most active vastus medius, vastus intermedius, vastus laterial, rectus femorus
  419. pc
    The amount of Oxygen you can breathe in AND use at the muscle cell to produce energy AND your ability to clear the CO2 from the cell and back to your lungs to exhale.
  420. pd men- 22%
    women-32%
  421. pe men/women w/ 1 or less CVD; can participate in moderate(40%-60%) and vigorous (>60% VO2R) exercise w/o prior medical testing
  422. pf the upper part of the heart that receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.
  423. pg Extention 0 to 150
  424. ph plain
  425. pi further from the midline
  426. pj Men 3 to 5 women 8 to 12
  427. pk hyperkyphosis and hyperlordosis
  428. pl
    Fibers that are sensitive to change in length of muscle and rate of that change, major sensory organs of muscle. parallel to muscle fibers. transmit info to cns when stretched. causes muscle to contract to prevent overstretching/ stretching too fast.
  429. pm Pec Minor, Serratus anterior
  430. pn refers to a joint's range of mobility (ROM)
  431. po 2.20
  432. pp Yoga plough, knee hyperflexion, standing toe touch
  433. pq -much lower sweating rate (rely more on convective heat loss through increased blood flow)
    - same # of sweat glands, but half the production of those glands
    - less acclimatization
    - greater surface area to BM ratio --> inc. loss of heat (cold env) or gain of heat (hot env.)
  434. pr Frequency(2-3x a week),
    Intensity (2 to 4 sets of 8-12 reps w/ 2-3 mins b/w sets)
    Time no longer then 60 mins,
    Type (various resistance equipment),
    Enjoyment
  435. ps
  436. pt muscle fibers creating cross bridges while returning to resting length while going with gravity R>F
  437. pu
    WHITE BLOOD CELLS
  438. pv
    A vitamen that dissolves in water and cannot be stored in significant amounts consist of b and c vitamens
  439. pw Seesaw
    Axis between force and resistance
  440. px for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
  441. py highest rate and amount of oxygen achieved at maximal physical exertion
  442. pz 1) address the agenda
    2) assess
    3) advise
    4) Assist
    5) arrange follow-up
  443. qa HIPPAA
  444. qb
    Lat. Dorsi, Pec Major, Teres Major, Subscapularis
  445. qc makes a division into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
  446. qd volume of air expired or inspired over the course of 1 minute
    - about 6 L/min at rest
    - can increase to 20-25x at max. (result of increased tidal volume and respiratory rate)
  447. qe
  448. qf
    Pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in occlusive artery disease.
  449. qg a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body
    Radial: thumb side of forearm
    Brachial: groove formed b/w tricep and bicep
    Carotid: anterior portion of the neck
  450. qh -sedentary individuals lose 20-40% of their muscle mass over the course of their life
    -muscle strength declines ~15% per decade in the 5th, 6th, and 7th, and 30% thereafter
  451. qi - aka double product
    - correlate of myocardial oxygen uptake & LV workload

    RPP = SBP(HR)

    - at rest, 8,640 (i.e., 120 mmHg x 72 BPM)
  452. qj Fibrous joints connect bones without allowing any movement. The bones of your skull and pelvis are held together by fibrous joints.
  453. qk Heart related chest pain caused by Ischemia
  454. ql Quads in eccentric phase
  455. qm Should include appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity
  456. qn 60 seconds
  457. qo M X A
  458. qp Functioning of the heart and cardiovascular system
  459. qq
    posterior delt, triceps, pectoral major
  460. qr Third trimester
  461. qs 150-400 kcal
  462. qt Hip abbduction, knee extention
  463. qu active: muscle is actively moved through ROM
    passive:muscle is actively moved through ROM by partner/device
  464. qv
    Vertical fold
    Anterior midline of the thigh
    Midway between the proximal border of the patella (upper knee) and the inguinal crease (hip)
  465. qw toward the back
  466. qx 1) no increase in HRmax
    2) Significantly lower HRrest
    3) increased SV (~85mL at rest)
  467. qy
    curves of the thoracic and sacral regions
  468. qz
    Decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
  469. ra 20 seconds would be devided by 60 = .33 so 14:20 would be 14.33
  470. rb -transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available

    -glycolysis doesnt use oxygen and is considered anaerobic

    -The burning sensation in muscles during hard exercise can be attributed to the production of hydrogen ions which form lactic acid along with lactate
  471. rc 1) Counter-conditioning (substituting alternatives)
    2) Helping relationships (enlisting social support)
    3) Reinforcement management (rewarding yourself)
    4) Self-liberation (committing yourself)
    5) Stimulus control (reminding yourself)
  472. rd elastic tissue with contractile properties (pulley)
  473. re For women >35 is at risk. For men >40 is at risk. Those that are both obese and at risk in their waist line are at a greater risk
    (Above the navel and below lower part of sternum)
  474. rf This herb treats colds, fevers & urinary tract infections. May interfere with immunosuppressive drugs, methotrexate and Ketoconizole.
  475. rg
    A major theory of learning based on observational and symbolic learning. Learning is influenced by what is reinforced, either extrinsically or through self-administered reinforcement, especially the anticipation of future events.
  476. rh amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle in one beat
  477. ri lying face up
  478. rj the total amount of weight that is measured as fat tissue
  479. rk When it is below 40
  480. rl Right side of body
    maintain pinch
    retest if duplicate measurement is not 1 to 2 mm close
  481. rm Flexion and eccentric
  482. rn turning the sole of the foot away from the midline
  483. ro prevents/controls abnormal heart rhythms
  484. rp -shoulder abduction/ext rotation/int. rotation
  485. rq the belife that one has the skill to achieve goals or producing a desired effect
  486. rr
    volume of sarcoplasmic fluid in the muscle cell increases with no accompanying increase in muscular strength
  487. rs A 3D point where the total weight of the body may be considered to be concentrated.
  488. rt Stretching that involves moving the joints through their full range of motion to mimic a movement used in a sport or exercise to increase joint flexibility, core temp and circulation
  489. ru muscle responsible for producing joint movement
    ex. bicep during curl
  490. rv
    Basic contracting unit of muscle cell consits of actin and myosin filaments between z-lines in a muscle cell
  491. rw foot dropping during heel strike
  492. rx Planned distribution or variation in training means and methods on a periodic cycle
  493. ry movement around a longitudinal axis, either toward or away from the midline
  494. rz 70-90 and 15-25 in abbuction and abduction
  495. sa
    vertical fold
    posterior midline of middle right arm, halfway b/w the acromion(shoulder) and olecranon(elbow) processes
  496. sb (FITTE) Frequency, Intensity, Time/Duration, Type/Mode, Enjoyment
  497. sc
    Any forced expiratory effort against a closed airway such as when an individual holds his or her breath and tightens his or her muscles in a concerted, strenuous effort to move a heavy object or change positions in bed.
  498. sd - supine SV (e.g., swimming) is greater at any given intensity and HR is lower (same Q)
  499. se arterial pressure providing force for blood flow (systolic and diastolic pressure)
  500. sf
  501. sg lower than, toward the feet
  502. sh amortization phase
  503. si
    cause forceful expiration
  504. sj variable force w. accommodating speed
  505. sk Diaphragm
  506. sl A progressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulin.
  507. sm reduces high blood pressure
  508. sn
    25-30 seconds of high intesity work (spints, weight lifting)
  509. so -resting heart rate decreases by approx 10 - 15 bpm
    -SV increases both at rest and during exercise
    -Resting SBP/DBP may decrease (if prev elevated)
  510. sp internal rotation
  511. sq inflammation of a joint
    -flex training recommended
  512. sr lying face down
  513. ss Considered the pace maker of the heart; Usually beasts at 60-80 bpm; Beginning of electrical pathway by setting the pace so the rest of the heart can follo
  514. st Increase amount of resistance that can be overcome by application of force
  515. su inflammation of synovial membrane, which then cause the body to initiate autoimmune response
  516. sv
    curves of the cervical and lumbar region
  517. sw cardiac muscle tissue is involuntary, it is the tissue of the heart
  518. sx
    Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely
  519. sy vol of air exchanged per minute
  520. sz 1) CNS stimulates sarcolemma and Ca++ is released from the T-tubules of the SR
    2) Ca++ binds to troponin causing tropomyosin to shift shape, exposing active binding sites on the actin
    3) Myosin cross-bridges bind to active sites on actin
    4) ATPase in cross-bridge head cleaves ATP resulting in the power stroke
    5) ATP binds to cross-bridge head and calcium pump restores Ca++ to SR
  521. ta sedentary individuals will demonstrate significicant improvements in fitness early in training program
  522. tb -CHO --> ATP
    -without oxygen, byproduct is lactic acid
    -main energy source for 30 sec --> 3 minutes
  523. tc alveoli
  524. td Triglycerides
  525. te Model of public health Reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, maintenance
  526. tf systolic greater than or equal to 140; diastolic greater then or equal to 90; confirmed by 2 separate occasions or on hypertension meds
  527. tg serves as the main axial support for the body
  528. th -loss of muscle tone and consciousness associated with diminished cerebral blood flow
  529. ti movement away/into from midline
  530. tj planter flexion
    dorsiflexion
  531. tk Glutus maximus and hamstrings
  532. tl fat deposited in the abdom. area is more highly correlated to heart disease
  533. tm - about 3% at rest
    - 3-5% with moderate ex
    - 10% at max, (15% in highly trained)
  534. tn
    Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavaties between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid.
  535. to Social: support systems
    Physical: physical/phyiological well-being
    Intellectual: Open to Learn
    Emotional:Coping Skills
    Spiritual:living in harmony
  536. tp central layer that divides muscle into compartments called fascicles
  537. tq A widening of the diameter of a blood vessel.
  538. tr multiply by 2.4
  539. ts small arteries from the heart rich in oxygen
  540. tt soleus
  541. tu Choices of exercise, order of exercises, resistance and repetitions used, number of sets for each exercise, and duration of rest period between sets and exercise
  542. tv
    (physics) the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force
  543. tw
    Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus
  544. tx improved stroke volume, blood volume, lower heart rate
  545. ty sartorius
  546. tz excessivly high amounts of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass
  547. ua 300 to 500 daily
  548. ub -composed of ATP and PCr stored in muscle fibers
    -creatine kinase + PCr yields phospate group to convert ADP to ATP
    -can sustain activity for <30 seconds
  549. uc manubrium, body, xiphoid process
  550. ud Endomysium
  551. ue 10 to 15 percent of the time
  552. uf -Supine position should be avoided after 1st trimester
    -low/mod intensity
    -non-ballistic
    -proper clothing and hydration to prevent overheating
  553. ug - putting yourself in someone else's position so you feel what they're feeling
  554. uh 1 set 10-15 reps 8 to 10 exercises
  555. ui shorter duration, and lower intensity
  556. uj prevents system of allergic response
  557. uk
    Relating to normal concave curvature of the cervical and lumbar spine regions
  558. ul 1) Consciousness raising
    2) Dramatic relief (warning of risks)
    3) Environmental reevaluation
    4) Self-reevaluation
    5) Social liberation (increasing healthy opportunities)
  559. um lower back pain
  560. un Lower center of gravity
  561. uo
    Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
  562. up a. chest pain, b. pressure discomfort in the chest, c.left jaw, neck or shoulder-may radiate distally, d. shortness of breath and lightheadedness, e. back pain, which may be experienced by some women
  563. uq turning the sole of the foot toward the midline
  564. ur Hips, knees ankles inline and flexing knees a little
  565. us
    Assending / Desending / Bell Shaped
  566. ut expressing empathy
    developing discrepancy
    rolling with resistance
    supporting self efficiency
  567. uu A breakdown of muscle contents that results in the release of muscle fiber contents into the bloodstream
  568. uv ...
  569. uw total # of times the heart contracts in one minute, increases with work-rate during exercise
  570. ux fuels activities lasting more than 2-3 min. Capacity is limited only by oxygen and fuel avail. to the cell
  571. uy 3500
  572. uz greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL up to 126
  573. va HR, BP, Body comp, cardio, muscular, flexibility
  574. vb equivalent to losing 1 lb of fat 3500cal
  575. vc
    amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and eating disorders; when left untreated they damage the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems
  576. vd a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
  577. ve the psychologically addictive cycle of binging/purging
  578. vf Internal rotation
  579. vg
    FIVE PHASES OF SOUNDS HEARD WHEN TAKING A BLOOD PRESSURE
  580. vh Warm moist air
  581. vi abs
    tricep
    bicep
    chest
    midaxillary
    subscapular
    suprailium
    thigh
    calf
  582. vj Wheelbarrow
    Resistance between force and axis
    Force arm > Resistance arm
  583. vk Exhale concentric and inhale eccentric
  584. vl 60% = 17
    70%=12
    80%= 8
    90%=5
    100%=1
  585. vm muscle fibers creating cross bridges while shortening in length against the pull of gravity F>R
  586. vn Tension develops by muscle while shortening or lengthening at a constant speed at maximal RO
  587. vo 1) listing performance accomplishments
    2) observing through vicarious experience
    3) Using verbal persuasion
    4) Understanding psychological states
  588. vp - 12/min at rest, 50/min at max
  589. vq
    Leg extention
  590. vr based on observation or experiment
  591. vs
    -spinal extension/flexion
  592. vt extension beyond normal degree of extension
  593. vu 16 to 42
  594. vv decrease joint angle (elbow curl)
  595. vw
    Assessing, advising, agreeing, assisting, arranging.
  596. vx 1) relapse prevention strategies
    2) elimination of 'all-or-none' thinking
  597. vy LBS / HT INCH HT INCH 703
  598. vz cervical curve, thoracic curve, lumbar curve,
    sacral curve