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243 True/False questions

  1. Regarding knee injury, what cruciate ligament is more often injuredAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) as compared to posterior

          

  2. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Dumbell front raise or incline bench pressAbduction

          

  3. Movements of the hip joint1. Abduction - adduction
    2. Flexion - extension
    3. Internal- external rotation

          

  4. Scapulothoracic joint movement associated with performing a seated rowElevation

          

  5. Definition of Stroke Volume (SV)1. Tibiofemoral
    2. Patellofoemoral

          

  6. Define a "cam" pulley in terms of moment armMoment arm changes with location on circumference

          

  7. Downward rotationAbduction of the wrist in the frontal plane

          

  8. Heart Rate (HR)Number of times heart beats per minute

          

  9. Myostatic stretch reflexEffort force in the middle (Elbow Flexion)

          

  10. Spinal deviations in the sagittal plane are:Ellipsoidal

          

  11. DepressionIncrease the joint angle (posteriorly in the sagittal plane)

          

  12. Joints of the knee1. Tibiofemoral
    2. Patellofoemoral

          

  13. LateralAway from the midline of the body; to the side

          

  14. What are 3 primary anatomical structures of the musculoskeletal system1. Bones
    2. Joints
    3. Muscles

          

  15. ProneMovement of the scapula inferior in the frontal plane

          

  16. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Dumbbell lateral raise or dumbbell pressExternal rotation

          

  17. Common causes of low back pain (IFML)Study of motion and causes of motion of living things using a branch of physics known as mechanics

          

  18. What are the primary mechanisms underlying the increase in VO2maxForceful plantarflexion while the knee is extended

          

  19. Examples of sesamoid bonesPatella

          

  20. Pulmonary Ventilation (Ve)Movement of the scapula toward the spine in the frontal plane

          

  21. Q angle above normalKnee-knocked

          

  22. OppositionDiagonal movement of thumb across palm to make contact with 5th digit

          

  23. Early strength gains can be partly attributed to changes in:Fast Twitch

          

  24. VO2max is defined physiologicallyHighest rate of oxygen transport and use that can be achieved at maximal physical exertion

          

  25. What is the mechanism of an Achilles tendon rupter1. Humerus
    2. Scapula
    3. Clavicle

          

  26. Muscle fiber type of the GastrocnemiusFast Twitch

          

  27. Anterior group of muscles of the lumbar spineAbdominal

          

  28. What are the ligaments of the knee1. Cruciate (Anterior and Posterior)
    2. Collateral (Medial and Lateral)

          

  29. The skeletal system consists of:Patella

          

  30. Wrist joint movements associated with both wrist curls and reverse wrist curlsFlexion

          

  31. Horizontal AbductionMovement away from the midline of the body in the transverse plane (horizontal humerus movement during shoulder flexion at 90)

          

  32. Radioulnar joint movement associated with a dumbbell curl twisting upFlexion

          

  33. What defines the "terrible triad"Knee

          

  34. Eccentric contractionInverts the foot

          

  35. Majority of hip dislocations arePosterior

          

  36. Low arch of the foot is known as1. Abduction - adduction
    2. Flexion - extension
    3. Internal- external rotation

          

  37. ElevationMovement of the scapula toward the spine in the frontal plane

          

  38. Training volume can be defined asFemur, humerus, ulna, radius,

          

  39. How many ligaments are in the ankle and foot region29

          

  40. Compound movement of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and hip joints:1. Bronchi
    2. Bronchioles
    3. Alevoli

          

  41. Muscle or group of muscles responsible for the action or movementPrime mover or agonist

          

  42. Primary joint in the wristStiff hip or knee

          

  43. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing rotator cuff exercises - dumbbell side lying or cable in, or external rotator cuff - dumbbell side lyingExternal rotation

          

  44. Spinal JointsIntervertebral (connects adjacent bodies) and Zygapophysial (connects adjacent facets)

          

  45. Muscle fiber type of the SoleusSlow Twitch

          

  46. High arch of the foot is known asRight atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) - collecting deoxygenated blood and pumping through the lungs

          

  47. A mechanism that defines the tibia externally rotating on the femur during the final few degrees of extension of the knee."Screwing Home"

          

  48. Radioulnar joint movement associated with a dumbbell twisting downSupination

          

  49. Isokinetic exerciseSpeed of movement is controlled. Advantage to maximal muscle tension throughout ROM

          

  50. Identify Skinfold sites that are vertical foldsEllipsoidal

          

  51. Identify Skinfold sites that are diagonal foldsAbdominal, Biceps, Medial Calf, Midaxillary, Triceps, Thigh

          

  52. Quadricep muscles are also located and identified asAnterior knee muscles used to extend the knee joint

          

  53. Kinesiology is based on what 3 science fields1. Biomechanics
    2. Musculoskeletal Anatomy
    3. Neuromuscular Physiology

          

  54. What is term used to describe the outer covering of bonesPeriosteum

          

  55. What is the primary factor of impingement syndrome regarding the shoulder?Muscle imbalance

          

  56. Muscle group that supports primary movement muscle group1. Flexor-extensor
    2. Internal-external rotator
    3. Abductor-adductor

          

  57. Maximal Heart Rate (HR) determinationRotation in the transverse plane toward the midline of the body

          

  58. What is the common cause of "Golfer's Elbow"Repeated valgus stresses on the arm

          

  59. Hip joint movement associated with performing a squat, leg press, lunge, or machine leg extensionAdduction

          

  60. Hamstring muscles are also located and identified asPosterior knee and composed of the bicep femoris containing a long head and a short head

          

  61. The end of the bone(s) are termed theEpiphysis

          

  62. What is the cause of Carpal tunnel syndromeMedian nerve entrapment at the anterior wrist

          

  63. 5 factors that account for joint stability (LMFAJ)Synovial, hinge-type

          

  64. Examples of flat bonesTarsals, carpals

          

  65. SacromereSmallest contractile unit of a muscle cell containing Actin (thin filament) and Myosin (thick filament)

          

  66. Elbow joint movement associated with performing dips, pulley tricep extension, close grip bench, dumbbell kick backExtension

          

  67. Primary function of posterior lumbar musclesAn imbalance often exists Anterior > Posterior. Swimmer's or Thrower's shoulder

          

  68. Short leg gaitLeg length difference

          

  69. BilateralThin filament of the smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell, Actin contains both Troponin and Tropomyosin

          

  70. 3 Examples of opposing pairs of muscle groups:Vertebral column, sacrum, coccyx

          

  71. Definition of KinesiologyStudy of mechanics of human movement and specifically elevates muscles, joints, and skeletal structures in their movement

          

  72. Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle possess characteristics of : (EEEC)Extensibility, Elasticity, Excitability, and Contractility. Which are voluntary, which are involuntary?

          

  73. Scapulothoracic joint movement associated with performing a push upRetraction

          

  74. InsertionMovement toward the midline of the body (movement in the frontal plane)

          

  75. The primary ventricle for pumping bloodLV

          

  76. Scapulothoracic joint movement associated with performing a Shoulder ShrugElevation

          

  77. Strength word association with "StaticIsotonic

          

  78. Ankle sprains are more common on what sideLateral (vs Medial)

          

  79. "Closed-Chain" joint movementFemur, humerus, ulna, radius,

          

  80. Inferior muscles of the shoulder joint1. Biceps brachii
    2. Brachialis
    3. Brachioradialis

          

  81. Peroneus tertiusLying face down

          

  82. What are the components of the Ventilatory Pump1. Abduction-adduction
    2. Horizontal abduction-adduction
    3. Flexion-extension and circumduction
    4. Internal-external rotation

          

  83. What are the movements of the wrist1. Abduction-adduction
    2. Horizontal abduction-adduction
    3. Flexion-extension and circumduction
    4. Internal-external rotation

          

  84. Definition of Bio Mechanics1. Rotation in transverse plane
    2. Lateral tilt in frontal plane
    3. Anterior / Posterior tilt in sagittal plane

          

  85. What is the function of the ankle joints known as the metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal jointsFlexion and Extension of the digits

          

  86. Region of mature bone where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis is known as the:Hypersupination

          

  87. Class I LeverLoad or resistance in the middle (Plantar Flex)

          

  88. Internal (medial) rotationInferior and medial movement of the inferior angle of the scapula in the frontal plane

          

  89. What are the 3 anatomical planes of the bodyStretching, orthodics, physiotherapy modalities, and medication for inflammation

          

  90. Rhomboids and trapezius muscles existAn imbalance often exists Anterior > Posterior. Swimmer's or Thrower's shoulder

          

  91. 3 components of the lower respiratory tract:1. Bronchi
    2. Bronchioles
    3. Alevoli

          

  92. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a bent-over row, rotator cuff exercises, parallel bar dipInternal rotation

          

  93. Class III LeverEffort force in the middle (Elbow Flexion)

          

  94. Anterior muscles of the hipIliopsoas, pectinueus, rectus femoris

          

  95. DorsiflexionFlexing ankle, foot moves anteriorly in the sagittal plane

          

  96. What is the function of the ankle joint known as the talocrural jointsupport: soft tissue, protect internal organs, source of nutrients and blood constituents.

          

  97. Equinus gaitInadequate dorsiflexion

          

  98. What are functions of the Periosteum1. Abduction-adduction
    2. Horizontal abduction-adduction
    3. Flexion-extension and circumduction
    4. Internal-external rotation

          

  99. Anterior spinal convexityIntervertebral (connects adjacent bodies) and Zygapophysial (connects adjacent facets)

          

  100. Identify the Skinfold Sites (ABCMMSSTT)1. Abdominal
    2. Biceps
    3. Chest/Pectoral
    4. Medial Calf
    5. Midaxillary
    6. Subscapular
    7. Suprailiac
    8. Triceps
    9. Thigh

          

  101. ContralateralAway from the midline of the body; to the side

          

  102. Characteristics of an ankle joint1. Abduction - adduction
    2. Flexion - extension
    3. Internal- external rotation

          

  103. FlexionDecrease the joint angle (anteriorly in the sagittal plane)

          

  104. What is plantar facitisIntervertebral (connects adjacent bodies) and Zygapophysial (connects adjacent facets)

          

  105. EversionAbducting the ankle

          

  106. Identify muscles in the rotator cuffSITS

          

  107. Angular Work can be expressedRotational moment x angle of rotational ROM

          

  108. What is Excess Postexercise Oxygen Uptake (EPOC)Difference between oxygen content of arterial blood and the oxygen content of the venous blood

          

  109. CircumductionA compound circular movement involving; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction...

          

  110. VarusSmallest contractile unit of a muscle cell containing Actin (thin filament) and Myosin (thick filament)

          

  111. 2 Major principals that describe the theory of muscle contraction1. Sliding-filament theory
    2. All-or-nothing principal

          

  112. What is the largest joint in the body?Knee

          

  113. How many bones in the wrist, hands, and fingersHyperpronation

          

  114. Difference between amount of blood in the LV before contraction and the amount left in the LV after contractionStroke Volume (SV)

          

  115. Anterior muscles of the shoulder jointPatella

          

  116. MedialToward the midline of the body

          

  117. Right side of the heart is composed of:Bone marrow

          

  118. Contraction phase of the ventricleIliopsoas, pectinueus, rectus femoris

          

  119. Hip joint movement associated with leg raise, sit-up, or machine crunchExtension

          

  120. Ulnar deviationMovement of the scapula superior in the frontal plane

          

  121. Pronation (foot/ankle)Combined movements of abduction / eversion resulting in lowering of medial margin of the foot

          

  122. How can work and power be defined in terms of jumpingLoad (weight) x displacement x reps x sets

          

  123. Definition of a tendon1. Tibiofemoral
    2. Patellofoemoral

          

  124. Class II LeverLoad or resistance in the middle (Plantar Flex)

          

  125. 3 Posterior muscle groups of the lumbar spine1. infraspinatus
    2. teres minor

          

  126. Articulations in the elbow (synovial) joint are essentiallySystolic blood pressure

          

  127. Exercise physiology definitionRotation in the transverse plane away from the midline of the body

          

  128. Wrist ligament sprains are commonly caused byAxial loading of the palm during a fall

          

  129. Mechanical work is defined as:Intervertebral (connects adjacent bodies) and Zygapophysial (connects adjacent facets)

          

  130. Cavity inside the diaphysis is composed of:Bone marrow

          

  131. ExtensionIncrease the joint angle (posteriorly in the sagittal plane)

          

  132. During exercise, what % of Q is selectively delivered to working muscles85-90%

          

  133. Relaxation phase of the ventricle1. Tibiofemoral
    2. Patellofoemoral

          

  134. Total muscle force is arithmetic sum of :Active and Passive muscle force

          

  135. Concept of functional strength"Negative" occurs when active muscle lengthened

          

  136. Active muscle force stimulated byNeural muscular system

          

  137. The shoulder region (GASS) is composed of what 4 joints?1. infraspinatus
    2. teres minor

          

  138. ValgusLying face up

          

  139. InversionAdducting the ankle

          

  140. Anterior muscles of the arm (elbow)1. Biceps brachii
    2. Brachialis
    3. Brachioradialis

          

  141. Anterior and Posterior deltoidsLordosis

          

  142. Passive muscle forceSmallest contractile unit of a muscle cell containing Actin (thin filament) and Myosin (thick filament)

          

  143. Wrist joint movement associated with a dumbbell reverse wrist curlExtension

          

  144. Examples of short bones1. Rotation in transverse plane
    2. Lateral tilt in frontal plane
    3. Anterior / Posterior tilt in sagittal plane

          

  145. External (lateral) rotationRotation in the transverse plane away from the midline of the body

          

  146. AV nodeDecrease the joint angle (anteriorly in the sagittal plane)

          

  147. Strength word association with "Dynamic"Isotonic

          

  148. AbductionMuscle attachment on the distal bone that moves more

          

  149. Muscle group that also acts as fixators or stabilizersSlow Twitch

          

  150. Tibialis anteriorInverts the foot

          

  151. What is the common cause of "Tennis Elbow"Repeated valgus stresses on the arm

          

  152. RetractionThin filament of the smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell, Actin contains both Troponin and Tropomyosin

          

  153. The Metaphysis region of bone is synonymous are also known as theEpiphyseal plate (immature bones this is the growth plate)

          

  154. KetonesMovement of the scapula superior in the frontal plane

          

  155. > 140/90 mmHgStiff hip or knee

          

  156. What spinal regions does Lordosis exist1. Attachments for ligaments/tendons
    2. Bone growth
    3. Repair
    4. Nutrition

          

  157. Opposing muscle group that relax to permit the primary movement.1. Erector spinae
    2. Multifidus muscles
    3. Intrinsic rotators

          

  158. UnilateralMuscle attachment on the distal bone that moves more

          

  159. Blood Pressure (BP)Product of the amount of blood pumped (Cardiac Output) and Resistance of flow in the vessel

          

  160. What are (2) types of bones1. Cruciate (Anterior and Posterior)
    2. Collateral (Medial and Lateral)

          

  161. Wrist joint movement associated with a dumbbell wrist curlFlexion

          

  162. What are treatments of Plantar facitisInflammatory condition with pain caused by chronic pulling on the plantar fascia, or tight Achilles, or flat feet (hyperpronation)

          

  163. What is the most mobile region of the spineCervical

          

  164. Identify 4 Ankle Plantarflexors (SGSP)1. Superficial posterior
    2. Gastrocnemius
    3. Soleus
    4. Plantaris

          

  165. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Dumbbell pull over or chin upExtension

          

  166. What is the cause of Thoracic outlet syndrome regarding the shoulder?Knee

          

  167. Posterior muscles of the arm (elbow)1. Triceps brachii
    2. Anconeus

          

  168. Mechanism for injury for lateral ankle sprainsInversion (rolling of the ankle)

          

  169. Joints with excessive and restricted ROM are respectively termed:60-80% of muscle's maximum force; however, 75-90% (1RM) is recommended

          

  170. The resultant force of the bicep is the product of:Epiphysis

          

  171. Radial deviationMovement of the scapula superior in the frontal plane

          

  172. 4 Types of Parallel arrangement muscles in regard to the angle of pullFusiform (spindle), Longitudinal (straplike), Quadrate (four-sided flat), Fan-shape/Triangular (radiate - Pec major e.g.)

          

  173. Elbow joint movement associated with performing dumbbell, preacher, or hammer curlsFlexion

          

  174. Degree of knee hyperextension in men and women1 degree men, 1.6 degree women

          

  175. Energy cost of an activity is defined as a:Metabolic Equivalent (MET) 3.5mL/kg.min

          

  176. IpsilateralBoth sides

          

  177. Pec minor, serratus anterior, and subclavius existAnterior shoulder girdle

          

  178. What is the content of the Motor unit1. Humerus
    2. Scapula
    3. Clavicle

          

  179. What direction do muscle fibers in regard to the angle of pull Pennate muscleOblique to the angle of pull

          

  180. What are 5 distinct features of a synovial joint1. Abduction-adduction
    2. Flexion-extension

          

  181. Movements of the pelvisEffort force in the middle (Elbow Flexion)

          

  182. What is claudication(1) Fibrous(skull, tibia, fibula, tibiofibular), (2)Cartilaginous (sternum and rib), (3)Synovial (Hinge, Ellipsoidal, Saddle, Ball/Socket, Pivot, Plane)

          

  183. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a flat bench chest fly, pec dec, or cable cross-overFlexion

          

  184. Regarding the knee injury, what meniscus is more often injuredMedial meniscus (as compared to lateral)

          

  185. Relative VO2max per weight (example 200 lb)3.5x1000 = 3500/90.9 = 38.5 which is equivalent to 38.5/3.5 = 11.0 METS

          

  186. Common overuse injuries to the hip and pelvis include:1. Arthritis
    2. Bursitis
    3. Tendonitis

          

  187. What is the function of the ankle joint known as the subtalar jointInversion and Eversion in the frontal plane

          

  188. Rotation (right or left)Combined movements of adduction / inversion resulting in raising of medial margin of the foot

          

  189. What are the 3 bones of the shoulder region1. Humerus
    2. Scapula
    3. Clavicle

          

  190. What spinal regions does Kyphosis existCervical and Lumbar

          

  191. Moment (rotational) Force of Bicep example may be expressed asParallel force (forearm) + Perpendicular force (Elbow)

          

  192. Posterior muscles of the hipLordosis

          

  193. Ankle joint movement associated with performing calf raiseProtraction

          

  194. 4 components of the upper respiratory tract (NSPL)1. Chest Wall
    2. Respiratory Muscles
    3. Pleural Space

          

  195. ProprioceptorsSpecialized sensory receptors in the muscles and tendons sensitive to stretch, tension, and pressure

          

  196. 3 ligaments that stabilize the elbow(1) Fibrous(skull, tibia, fibula, tibiofibular), (2)Cartilaginous (sternum and rib), (3)Synovial (Hinge, Ellipsoidal, Saddle, Ball/Socket, Pivot, Plane)

          

  197. 3 Joint classifications(1) Fibrous(skull, tibia, fibula, tibiofibular), (2)Cartilaginous (sternum and rib), (3)Synovial (Hinge, Ellipsoidal, Saddle, Ball/Socket, Pivot, Plane)

          

  198. SupineDistal segment of a joint that deviates laterally

          

  199. What is the function of ankle joints known as the mid- and tarsometatarsal jointsCervical

          

  200. Mitro valve also known as the left atrioventricular valve (AV)Controls blood from the LA and LV

          

  201. Upward rotationSuperior and lateral movements of the inferior angle of the scapula in the frontal plane

          

  202. Bones that exist in the knee joint are1. Abduction - adduction
    2. Flexion - extension
    3. Internal- external rotation

          

  203. Examples of irregular bones1. Tibiofemoral
    2. Patellofoemoral

          

  204. Knee joint movement associated with performing a leg curlFlexion

          

  205. At rest, what % of Q is distributed to the skeletal muscles15-20%

          

  206. Hypertrophy occurs through the process ofRemodeling of proteins within the muscle cell and most results from resistance training

          

  207. How many articulating bones are in the foot1. Abduction-adduction
    2. Flexion-extension

          

  208. "Open-Chain" joint movementProprioceptor that serves as a protective sensory system to prevent muscle injury resulting from over-contraction

          

  209. Q angle below normalBow legged

          

  210. Examples of long bonesVertebral column, sacrum, coccyx

          

  211. ActinMovement away from the midline of the body (movement in frontal plane)

          

  212. Tricuspid valve also known as the atrioventricular valve (AV)Systolic blood pressure

          

  213. Left side of the heart is composed of:Left atrium (LA) and left ventricle (LV) - collects blood from lungs and pumps to all parts of the body via arteries etc

          

  214. Spinal deviations in the frontal plane:Scoliosis

          

  215. Arteriovenous Oxygen DifferenceLordosis

          

  216. AdductionMovement toward the midline of the body (movement in the frontal plane)

          

  217. PlantarflexionExtending the ankle, foot moves posteriorly in the sagittal plane

          

  218. The intrinsic pacemaker of the heart is identified as the:Sinoatrial (SA) node originates electrical signals

          

  219. What are functions of bones in regards to the skeletal systemsupport: soft tissue, protect internal organs, source of nutrients and blood constituents.

          

  220. Arthrogenic gaitInadequate dorsiflexion

          

  221. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a prone reverse dumbbell fly or reverse cable flyExtension

          

  222. Axial skeleton is composed (SSHVR):Skull, hyhoid, vertebral column, sternum, ribs

          

  223. Knee joint movement associated with performing a lunge, squats or machine leg extensionExtension

          

  224. Stroke Volume (SV) in regards to body postureLoad (weight) x displacement x reps x sets

          

  225. Posterior muscles of the shoulder joint1. infraspinatus
    2. teres minor

          

  226. Supination (foot/ankle)Combined movements of adduction / inversion resulting in raising of medial margin of the foot

          

  227. Antalgic gaitStiff hip or knee

          

  228. Muscle group that acts as a "brake."Left atrium (LA) and left ventricle (LV) - collects blood from lungs and pumps to all parts of the body via arteries etc

          

  229. Cardiac Output (Q) volume of blood pumped by the heart per minuteProduct of Heart Rate (HR) x Stroke Volume = Q

          

  230. Lateral flexion (right or left)Movement away from the midline of the body in the frontal plane (movement used to describe neck and trunk movements)

          

  231. 3 Movements of the lower trunk:1. Flexion-extension
    2. Lateral flexion
    3. Rotation

          

  232. Golgi Tendon OrganFlexing ankle, foot moves anteriorly in the sagittal plane

          

  233. The spine is composed of 24 vertebrae and broken down as:7 - Cervical
    12 - Thoracic
    5 - Lumbar

          

  234. Common reasons for shoulder (Glenohumeral) dislocationRotation in the transverse plane away from the midline of the body

          

  235. How can work and power be defined in terms of lifting weightWork (jump) = jumping force x height jumped. Power = Work (jump) / time

          

  236. Posterior spinal convexityRight or left rotation in the transverse plane (describes neck and trunk movement)

          

  237. Main portion of a long bone (or shaft) is known as the1. Latissimus dorsi
    2. Teres Major
    3. Long head of the tricep brachii

          

  238. Superior muscles of the shoulder joint1. Deltoid
    2. Supraspinatus

          

  239. What are 4 movements of the shoulder1. Abduction-adduction
    2. Flexion-extension

          

  240. Isolation of abdominal muscles during trunk flexion exercise:Flexing hips and knees (e.g. flexed vs. straight knee situps)

          

  241. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Lat pull down, seated row, cable cross-over, or a flat bench flyFlexion

          

  242. ProtractionThin filament of the smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell, Actin contains both Troponin and Tropomyosin

          

  243. What is the tension required for a strength gain?60-80% of muscle's maximum force; however, 75-90% (1RM) is recommended