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233 Matching questions

  1. Characteristics of an ankle joint
  2. Difference between amount of blood in the LV before contraction and the amount left in the LV after contraction
  3. Identify Skinfold sites that are vertical folds
  4. Ankle sprains are more common on what side
  5. Adduction
  6. Total muscle force is arithmetic sum of :
  7. Pronation (foot/ankle)
  8. What are the primary mechanisms underlying the increase in VO2max
  9. Common reasons for shoulder (Glenohumeral) dislocation
  10. What are the movements of the wrist
  11. What is the function of the ankle joint known as the subtalar joint
  12. Anterior spinal convexity
  13. Primary function of posterior lumbar muscles
  14. Anterior muscles of the shoulder joint
  15. What is the largest joint in the body?
  16. Joints with excessive and restricted ROM are respectively termed:
  17. What spinal regions does Kyphosis exist
  18. Isolation of abdominal muscles during trunk flexion exercise:
  19. High arch of the foot is known as
  20. Definition of a tendon
  21. 3 components of the lower respiratory tract:
  22. Degree of knee hyperextension in men and women
  23. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a flat bench chest fly, pec dec, or cable cross-over
  24. Maximal Heart Rate (HR) determination
  25. Exercise physiology definition
  26. What is the common cause of "Tennis Elbow"
  27. AV node
  28. Spinal deviations in the frontal plane:
  29. Muscle group that also acts as fixators or stabilizers
  30. What is the common cause of "Golfer's Elbow"
  31. During exercise, what % of Q is selectively delivered to working muscles
  32. Equinus gait
  33. What are the 3 anatomical planes of the body
  34. 3 Examples of opposing pairs of muscle groups:
  35. Low arch of the foot is known as
  36. What are 4 movements of the shoulder
  37. Flexion
  38. Radial deviation
  39. Bones that exist in the knee joint are
  40. Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle possess characteristics of : (EEEC)
  41. Concept of functional strength
  42. Muscle or group of muscles responsible for the action or movement
  43. Cavity inside the diaphysis is composed of:
  44. Retraction
  45. Posterior muscles of the arm (elbow)
  46. Anterior muscles of the hip
  47. Movements of the pelvis
  48. Movements of the hip joint
  49. What are (2) types of bones
  50. "Open-Chain" joint movement
  51. Upward rotation
  52. Stroke Volume (SV) in regards to body posture
  53. The intrinsic pacemaker of the heart is identified as the:
  54. The primary ventricle for pumping blood
  55. Abduction
  56. Opposition
  57. What is plantar facitis
  58. Blood Pressure (BP)
  59. Ankle joint movement associated with performing calf raise
  60. Circumduction
  61. Scapulothoracic joint movement associated with performing a push up
  62. What is term used to describe the outer covering of bones
  63. What are the ligaments of the knee
  64. Plantarflexion
  65. Regarding the knee injury, what meniscus is more often injured
  66. What is the function of the ankle joints known as the metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
  67. Q angle above normal
  68. Relaxation phase of the ventricle
  69. Valgus
  70. Lateral flexion (right or left)
  71. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a prone reverse dumbbell fly or reverse cable fly
  72. Passive muscle force
  73. 3 Joint classifications
  74. Definition of Kinesiology
  75. Examples of irregular bones
  76. At rest, what % of Q is distributed to the skeletal muscles
  77. Prone
  78. Lateral
  79. Insertion
  80. Antalgic gait
  81. Ketones
  82. Primary joint in the wrist
  83. What defines the "terrible triad"
  84. Main portion of a long bone (or shaft) is known as the
  85. Elbow joint movement associated with performing dips, pulley tricep extension, close grip bench, dumbbell kick back
  86. Proprioceptors
  87. Moment (rotational) Force of Bicep example may be expressed as
  88. Isokinetic exercise
  89. Common overuse injuries to the hip and pelvis include:
  90. Anterior and Posterior deltoids
  91. Myostatic stretch reflex
  92. What is claudication
  93. Ipsilateral
  94. Downward rotation
  95. VO2max is defined physiologically
  96. Inferior muscles of the shoulder joint
  97. Elevation
  98. Strength word association with "Dynamic"
  99. Region of mature bone where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis is known as the:
  100. What spinal regions does Lordosis exist
  101. What are 5 distinct features of a synovial joint
  102. A mechanism that defines the tibia externally rotating on the femur during the final few degrees of extension of the knee.
  103. What are functions of bones in regards to the skeletal system
  104. The skeletal system consists of:
  105. Arthrogenic gait
  106. Wrist joint movements associated with both wrist curls and reverse wrist curls
  107. Varus
  108. Class I Lever
  109. Eversion
  110. Peroneus tertius
  111. Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference
  112. Regarding knee injury, what cruciate ligament is more often injured
  113. Hypertrophy occurs through the process of
  114. Compound movement of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and hip joints:
  115. Define a "cam" pulley in terms of moment arm
  116. Cardiac Output (Q) volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute
  117. Mitro valve also known as the left atrioventricular valve (AV)
  118. Definition of Stroke Volume (SV)
  119. The spine is composed of 24 vertebrae and broken down as:
  120. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Lat pull down, seated row, cable cross-over, or a flat bench fly
  121. 5 factors that account for joint stability (LMFAJ)
  122. Hamstring muscles are also located and identified as
  123. What is the tension required for a strength gain?
  124. Elbow joint movement associated with performing dumbbell, preacher, or hammer curls
  125. Right side of the heart is composed of:
  126. Q angle below normal
  127. What is the cause of Carpal tunnel syndrome
  128. Quadricep muscles are also located and identified as
  129. The Metaphysis region of bone is synonymous are also known as the
  130. How many bones in the wrist, hands, and fingers
  131. The end of the bone(s) are termed the
  132. Examples of short bones
  133. Superior muscles of the shoulder joint
  134. What are treatments of Plantar facitis
  135. 3 Posterior muscle groups of the lumbar spine
  136. Strength word association with "Static
  137. Early strength gains can be partly attributed to changes in:
  138. Pulmonary Ventilation (Ve)
  139. Mechanical work is defined as:
  140. Examples of flat bones
  141. Mechanism for injury for lateral ankle sprains
  142. Examples of sesamoid bones
  143. Rhomboids and trapezius muscles exist
  144. Angular Work can be expressed
  145. Supine
  146. Medial
  147. What is the function of ankle joints known as the mid- and tarsometatarsal joints
  148. Inversion
  149. 4 components of the upper respiratory tract (NSPL)
  150. Identify the Skinfold Sites (ABCMMSSTT)
  151. Anterior group of muscles of the lumbar spine
  152. How many ligaments are in the ankle and foot region
  153. Majority of hip dislocations are
  154. Radioulnar joint movement associated with a dumbbell curl twisting up
  155. Rotation (right or left)
  156. External (lateral) rotation
  157. Examples of long bones
  158. What are the components of the Ventilatory Pump
  159. Radioulnar joint movement associated with a dumbbell twisting down
  160. Muscle fiber type of the Soleus
  161. The resultant force of the bicep is the product of:
  162. How many articulating bones are in the foot
  163. Posterior muscles of the hip
  164. Axial skeleton is composed (SSHVR):
  165. Training volume can be defined as
  166. > 140/90 mmHg
  167. How can work and power be defined in terms of jumping
  168. Short leg gait
  169. What is the function of the ankle joint known as the talocrural joint
  170. Tricuspid valve also known as the atrioventricular valve (AV)
  171. Dorsiflexion
  172. Pec minor, serratus anterior, and subclavius exist
  173. Joints of the knee
  174. 3 ligaments that stabilize the elbow
  175. Identify 4 Ankle Plantarflexors (SGSP)
  176. Contralateral
  177. Identify Skinfold sites that are diagonal folds
  178. What is the most mobile region of the spine
  179. What direction do muscle fibers in regard to the angle of pull Pennate muscle
  180. How can work and power be defined in terms of lifting weight
  181. 3 Movements of the lower trunk:
  182. "Closed-Chain" joint movement
  183. Internal (medial) rotation
  184. Class III Lever
  185. Depression
  186. Definition of Bio Mechanics
  187. Unilateral
  188. Scapulothoracic joint movement associated with performing a seated row
  189. Muscle fiber type of the Gastrocnemius
  190. Heart Rate (HR)
  191. Contraction phase of the ventricle
  192. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing rotator cuff exercises - dumbbell side lying or cable in, or external rotator cuff - dumbbell side lying
  193. Ulnar deviation
  194. Anterior muscles of the arm (elbow)
  195. Posterior muscles of the shoulder joint
  196. What is Excess Postexercise Oxygen Uptake (EPOC)
  197. 4 Types of Parallel arrangement muscles in regard to the angle of pull
  198. Sacromere
  199. Actin
  200. Spinal Joints
  201. Active muscle force stimulated by
  202. 2 Major principals that describe the theory of muscle contraction
  203. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a bent-over row, rotator cuff exercises, parallel bar dip
  204. Tibialis anterior
  205. Bilateral
  206. Posterior spinal convexity
  207. Protraction
  208. Spinal deviations in the sagittal plane are:
  209. What is the cause of Thoracic outlet syndrome regarding the shoulder?
  210. Supination (foot/ankle)
  211. Golgi Tendon Organ
  212. The shoulder region (GASS) is composed of what 4 joints?
  213. Scapulothoracic joint movement associated with performing a Shoulder Shrug
  214. Articulations in the elbow (synovial) joint are essentially
  215. What are the 3 bones of the shoulder region
  216. Relative VO2max per weight (example 200 lb)
  217. Left side of the heart is composed of:
  218. Identify muscles in the rotator cuff
  219. Opposing muscle group that relax to permit the primary movement.
  220. Common causes of low back pain (IFML)
  221. What are 3 primary anatomical structures of the musculoskeletal system
  222. Energy cost of an activity is defined as a:
  223. What is the primary factor of impingement syndrome regarding the shoulder?
  224. Extension
  225. What is the content of the Motor unit
  226. What is the mechanism of an Achilles tendon rupter
  227. Eccentric contraction
  228. Kinesiology is based on what 3 science fields
  229. Wrist ligament sprains are commonly caused by
  230. Class II Lever
  231. Horizontal Abduction
  232. What are functions of the Periosteum
  233. Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Dumbbell lateral raise or dumbbell press
  1. a Epiphyseal plate (immature bones this is the growth plate)
  2. b Abduction
  3. c 3.5x1000 = 3500/90.9 = 38.5 which is equivalent to 38.5/3.5 = 11.0 METS
  4. d Nervous system
  5. e Inversion and Eversion in the frontal plane
  6. f Inflammatory condition with pain caused by chronic pulling on the plantar fascia, or tight Achilles, or flat feet (hyperpronation)
  7. g Compound Trunk Extension (Lumbopelvic Rhythm)
  8. h Combined movements of adduction / inversion resulting in raising of medial margin of the foot
  9. i Distal segment of a joint that deviates medially
  10. j Muscle imbalance
  11. k Movement of the scapula superior in the frontal plane
  12. l 100
  13. m (1) Fibrous(skull, tibia, fibula, tibiofibular), (2)Cartilaginous (sternum and rib), (3)Synovial (Hinge, Ellipsoidal, Saddle, Ball/Socket, Pivot, Plane)
  14. n 1. Bronchi
    2. Bronchioles
    3. Alevoli
  15. o Anterior knee muscles used to extend the knee joint
  16. p Flexing hips and knees (e.g. flexed vs. straight knee situps)
  17. q Flexion
  18. r Retraction
  19. s Dense cords of connective tissue anchoring muscle to periosteum of bone
  20. t Movement of the scapula inferior in the frontal plane
  21. u 1. Sagittal
    2. Frontal (coronal)
    3. Transverse (horizontal)
  22. v Posterior
  23. w Flexing ankle, foot moves anteriorly in the sagittal plane
  24. x 60-80% of muscle's maximum force; however, 75-90% (1RM) is recommended
  25. y Thin filament of the smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell, Actin contains both Troponin and Tropomyosin
  26. z 1. Ligaments
    2. Muscles and tendons
    3. Fascia
    4. Atmospheric pressure
    5. Joint Bony Structure
  27. aa Extension
  28. ab Protraction
  29. ac Movement away from the midline of the body in the frontal plane (movement used to describe neck and trunk movements)
  30. ad Controls blood from the LA and LV
  31. ae Force x linear displacement
  32. af Intervertebral (connects adjacent bodies) and Zygapophysial (connects adjacent facets)
  33. ag Abduction of the wrist in the frontal plane
  34. ah Abdominal
  35. ai Increase the joint angle (posteriorly in the sagittal plane)
  36. aj Parallel force (forearm) + Perpendicular force (Elbow)
  37. ak Remodeling of proteins within the muscle cell and most results from resistance training
  38. al Movement of the scapula toward the spine in the frontal plane
  39. am Patella
  40. an Stroke Volume (SV)
  41. ao 1 degree men, 1.6 degree women
  42. ap Flexion and Extension of the digits
  43. aq Leg length difference
  44. ar SITS
  45. as Lying face down
  46. at Horizontal abduction
  47. au Extensibility, Elasticity, Excitability, and Contractility. Which are voluntary, which are involuntary?
  48. av Consists of the motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates
  49. aw Away from the midline of the body; to the side
  50. ax Hypertension
  51. ay Adduction
  52. az Ellipsoidal
  53. ba Synergists
  54. bb 1. Abduction - adduction
    2. Flexion - extension
    3. Internal- external rotation
  55. bc Distal segment moves in space (more often "open pack" ligaments most loose)
  56. bd Maintain Posture and stabilize the spine
  57. be Specialized sensory receptors in the muscles and tendons sensitive to stretch, tension, and pressure
  58. bf Active and Passive muscle force
  59. bg Fulcrum in the middle (Neck Extension)
  60. bh Work (jump) = jumping force x height jumped. Power = Work (jump) / time
  61. bi Movement away from the midline of the body (movement in frontal plane)
  62. bj Inadequate dorsiflexion
  63. bk Fast Twitch
  64. bl 1. Biomechanics
    2. Musculoskeletal Anatomy
    3. Neuromuscular Physiology
  65. bm Chest/pectoralis, Subscapular, Suprailiac
  66. bn 1. Triceps brachii
    2. Anconeus
  67. bo Kyphosis
  68. bp Product of Heart Rate (HR) x Stroke Volume = Q
  69. bq Bow legged
  70. br On the same side
  71. bs 1. pec major
    2. subscapularis
    3. coracobrachialis
    4. biceps brachii
  72. bt Slow Twitch
  73. bu Movement of the scapula away fro the spine in the frontal plane
  74. bv Tarsals, carpals
  75. bw Repeated valgus stresses on the arm
  76. bx Highest rate of oxygen transport and use that can be achieved at maximal physical exertion
  77. by Median nerve entrapment at the anterior wrist
  78. bz 1. Genohumeral (shoulder)
    2. Acromioclavicular
    3. Sternoclavicular
    4. Scapulothoracic
  79. ca 1. Nose
    2. Sinus
    3. Pharynx
    4. Larynx
  80. cb Prime mover or agonist
  81. cc Smallest contractile unit of a muscle cell containing Actin (thin filament) and Myosin (thick filament)
  82. cd 1. Tibiofemoral
    2. Patellofoemoral
  83. ce 1. Intervertebral disc herniation
    2. Facet joint inflammation
    3. Muscular strains
    4. Ligamentous sprains
  84. cf Effort force in the middle (Elbow Flexion)
  85. cg "Negative" occurs when active muscle lengthened
  86. ch support: soft tissue, protect internal organs, source of nutrients and blood constituents.
  87. ci Fusiform (spindle), Longitudinal (straplike), Quadrate (four-sided flat), Fan-shape/Triangular (radiate - Pec major e.g.)
  88. cj 1. Increased maximal SV
    2. Increased Cardiac Output Q
  89. ck 15-20%
  90. cl Plantar flexion
  91. cm Diastolic blood pressure
  92. cn Posterior shoulder girdle
  93. co Excessive abduction, external rotation, or extension of the shoulder
  94. cp An imbalance often exists Anterior > Posterior. Swimmer's or Thrower's shoulder
  95. cq Elastic force (when stretched)
  96. cr Neural muscular system
  97. cs Postexercise metabolism elevated more for HIIT than other, it is the consumption of more than usual amounts of oxygen after exercise.
  98. ct Delays electrical signals by 0.12 seconds
  99. cu Periosteum
  100. cv Supination
  101. cw Elevation
  102. cx Gliding motion
  103. cy Inferior and medial movement of the inferior angle of the scapula in the frontal plane
  104. cz Inverts the foot
  105. da Distal segment remains closed in space (more often "closed pack" maximum tautness of joint capsule)
  106. db 7 - Cervical
    12 - Thoracic
    5 - Lumbar
  107. dc Rotation in the transverse plane away from the midline of the body
  108. dd Rotational moment x angle of rotational ROM
  109. de Injury protection gait
  110. df Oblique to the angle of pull
  111. dg 1. Arthritis
    2. Bursitis
    3. Tendonitis
  112. dh 1. Deltoid
    2. Supraspinatus
  113. di Difference between oxygen content of arterial blood and the oxygen content of the venous blood
  114. dj Posterior knee and composed of the bicep femoris containing a long head and a short head
  115. dk Forceful plantarflexion while the knee is extended
  116. dl Knee-knocked
  117. dm Lying face up
  118. dn Simultaneous injury of the ACL, MCL and medial meniscus
  119. do Movement away from the midline of the body in the transverse plane (horizontal humerus movement during shoulder flexion at 90)
  120. dp Vertebral column, sacrum, coccyx
  121. dq Anterior shoulder girdle
  122. dr Hinge joints
  123. ds Abdominal, Biceps, Medial Calf, Midaxillary, Triceps, Thigh
  124. dt Load (weight) x displacement x reps x sets
  125. du Metaphysis
  126. dv 1. Biceps brachii
    2. Brachialis
    3. Brachioradialis
  127. dw Response to stretch of a muscle in which through reflex action, initiate stronger muscle action to reduce stretch
  128. dx Work performed against resistance = strength gained benefits the execution of daily life/movements associated with sports
  129. dy Cervical and Lumbar
  130. dz Antagonist
  131. ea Cervical
  132. eb Internal rotation
  133. ec Extending the ankle, foot moves posteriorly in the sagittal plane
  134. ed Diagonal movement of thumb across palm to make contact with 5th digit
  135. ee Bone marrow
  136. ef Eccentric overload of forearm extensor muscles
  137. eg Abducting the ankle
  138. eh Lordosis
  139. ei One side
  140. ej 1. Latissimus dorsi
    2. Teres Major
    3. Long head of the tricep brachii
  141. ek 85-90%
  142. el Left atrium (LA) and left ventricle (LV) - collects blood from lungs and pumps to all parts of the body via arteries etc
  143. em Cramping in lower leg during walking or exercising caused by blocked arteries
  144. en 1. Abdominal
    2. Biceps
    3. Chest/Pectoral
    4. Medial Calf
    5. Midaxillary
    6. Subscapular
    7. Suprailiac
    8. Triceps
    9. Thigh
  145. eo Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) as compared to posterior
  146. ep Dorsiflextion and Plantarflextion in the sagittal plane
  147. eq Knee
  148. er Medial meniscus (as compared to lateral)
  149. es 1. Flexion-extension
    2. Lateral flexion
    3. Rotation
  150. et Pronation
  151. eu 1. Cruciate (Anterior and Posterior)
    2. Collateral (Medial and Lateral)
  152. ev Stiff hip or knee
  153. ew LV
  154. ex 1. Humerus
    2. Scapula
    3. Clavicle
  155. ey Gluteus (maximum, medius, minimus), 6 lateral rotators, hamstrings
  156. ez Lateral (vs Medial)
  157. fa Everts the foot
  158. fb Amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle during a single contraction
  159. fc Sternum, ribs, scapula, pelvis
  160. fd Cartilage, Periosteum, and bone tissue
  161. fe Controls blood from RA to the RV
  162. ff Speed of movement is controlled. Advantage to maximal muscle tension throughout ROM
  163. fg 1. Erector spinae
    2. Multifidus muscles
    3. Intrinsic rotators
  164. fh Horizontal adduction
  165. fi Adducting the ankle
  166. fj Product of the amount of blood pumped (Cardiac Output) and Resistance of flow in the vessel
  167. fk M(biceps) = F(perpendic) x distance of attachment of the bicep to the center of rotation
  168. fl Volume of air exchanged in 1 minute (avg 6 L/min resting - male)
  169. fm A compound circular movement involving; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction...
  170. fn Load or resistance in the middle (Plantar Flex)
  171. fo Epiphysis
  172. fp Combined movements of abduction / eversion resulting in lowering of medial margin of the foot
  173. fq Study of mechanics of human movement and specifically elevates muscles, joints, and skeletal structures in their movement
  174. fr 1. Rotation in transverse plane
    2. Lateral tilt in frontal plane
    3. Anterior / Posterior tilt in sagittal plane
  175. fs 220-age in years
  176. ft Distal segment of a joint that deviates laterally
  177. fu 26
  178. fv 1. infraspinatus
    2. teres minor
  179. fw Diaphysis
  180. fx Synovial, hinge-type
  181. fy Movement toward the midline of the body (movement in the frontal plane)
  182. fz Increases in prone or supine positions
  183. ga External rotation
  184. gb 1. Abduction-adduction
    2. Flexion-extension
  185. gc 1. Distal femur
    2. Proximal Tibia
    3. Patella
  186. gd Isotonic
  187. ge Decrease the joint angle (anteriorly in the sagittal plane)
  188. gf Hyperpronation
  189. gg Metabolic Equivalent (MET) 3.5mL/kg.min
  190. gh Stretching, orthodics, physiotherapy modalities, and medication for inflammation
  191. gi Proprioceptor that serves as a protective sensory system to prevent muscle injury resulting from over-contraction
  192. gj Hyperkyphosis and Hyperlordosis
  193. gk Hypermobile and Hypomobile
  194. gl Adduction of the wrist in the frontal plane
  195. gm Toward the midline of the body
  196. gn "Screwing Home"
  197. go 1. Chest Wall
    2. Respiratory Muscles
    3. Pleural Space
  198. gp 1. Bones
    2. Joints
    3. Muscles
  199. gq 1. Enclosed by fibrous joint capsule
    2. Joint capsule encloses joint cavity
    3. Joint cavity is lined with synovial membrane
    4. Synovial fluid occupies the joint cavity
  200. gr Muscle attachment on the distal bone that moves more
  201. gs Systolic blood pressure
  202. gt Isometric
  203. gu Sinoatrial (SA) node originates electrical signals
  204. gv Number of times heart beats per minute
  205. gw 1. Sliding-filament theory
    2. All-or-nothing principal
  206. gx Hypersupination
  207. gy Moment arm changes with location on circumference
  208. gz Study of motion and causes of motion of living things using a branch of physics known as mechanics
  209. ha 1. Abduction-adduction
    2. Horizontal abduction-adduction
    3. Flexion-extension and circumduction
    4. Internal-external rotation
  210. hb 29
  211. hc Compression of neurovascular bundle. Experience weakness, pain, tingling/numbness in 4th and 5th digits of the hand.
  212. hd Both sides
  213. he Rotation in the transverse plane toward the midline of the body
  214. hf Axial loading of the palm during a fall
  215. hg Right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) - collecting deoxygenated blood and pumping through the lungs
  216. hh 1. Flexor-extensor
    2. Internal-external rotator
    3. Abductor-adductor
  217. hi Iliopsoas, pectinueus, rectus femoris
  218. hj Skull, hyhoid, vertebral column, sternum, ribs
  219. hk 1. Ulnar (medial) collateral ligament
    2. Radial (lateral) collateral ligament
    3. Annular ligament
  220. hl Right or left rotation in the transverse plane (describes neck and trunk movement)
  221. hm Work (lift) = lifting force (weight) x displacement(3ft). Power = Work (lift) / time
  222. hn Inversion (rolling of the ankle)
  223. ho 1. Superficial posterior
    2. Gastrocnemius
    3. Soleus
    4. Plantaris
  224. hp How body systems react to stress of exercise
  225. hq Test for diabetes such that fat is being used for energy b/c not enough insulin is available to use necessary glucose
  226. hr 1. Attachments for ligaments/tendons
    2. Bone growth
    3. Repair
    4. Nutrition
  227. hs Femur, humerus, ulna, radius,
  228. ht Scoliosis
  229. hu Abduction and adduction
  230. hv On the opposite side
  231. hw Thoracic and Sacral
  232. hx 1. Compact (dense)
    2. Cancellous (spongy)
  233. hy Superior and lateral movements of the inferior angle of the scapula in the frontal plane