ACSM Domain 2 flashcards |

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Physiological Changes of aging and growth (effects on them)

cardiovascular (HR,CO,Resting BP, max O2 consumption)
environmental (Cold/Heat)
Musculoskeletal (LBM, FM, strength, flexibility, bone density)
Metabolic (glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity)
Balande/reaction time

Program goals for clients with CVD

maintain and improve muscular fitness levels for ADLs
reduce cardiovascular demands (lower HR/BP) associated with performing these tasks

Program goals for clients with diabetes

improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control and decrease insulin requirements
improve cardiorespiratory fitness, BP, blood lipids,
improve muscular strength and endurance through enhancing skeletal muscle mass
improve ROM and flexibility
reduce body weight

Program goals for clients with obesity

maximize caloric expenditure
maintain or increase lean body mass
lower risk of comorbidities
lower mortality risk
promote appetite control
improve mood state

Program goals for clients with hypertension

lower BP at rest and exercise
lower risk of mortality from CVD (MI,stroke, heart failure)
incorporate opportunities for other lifestyle changes

Risk factors that may need consultation with MD prior to physical activity

Absolute - unstable angina, recent change in ECG, acute systemic infection, fever, body aches. swollen lymph glands
Relative - severe hypertension, moderate stenotic valvular disease, tachydysrhythmia

Health related physical fitness components

cardiorespiratory endurance
body comp
myscular strength
muscular endurance

skill related physical fitness components


exercise in environments

heat - high fluid, risk of hyperthermia and dehydration can be minimized by monitoring environment, modify activities in hot,humid, wear appropriate clothing
cold - cold stress can increase risk of morbidity with individuals with CVD asthamic conditions. Risk of frostbite is <5% temp -15C, dress appropriately will decrease risk of cold injuries
altitude - physical performance decreases with increase in altitude >4000ft. Should minimize activity until susceptibility to altitude is reduced, should maintain same exercise HR at high altitudes.


Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands - adaptations will be specific exercises placed on the individual - i.e. high reps will lead to muscular endurance


no one program should be used without changing the exercise stimulus over time ex. periodization


phasic manipulation of training variables as means of optimizing desired physiological outcomes while concurrently reducing incidence of overtraining. Allows for optimal training and recovery time.


only muscles that are trained will adapt and change in response to a given program

Progressive overload

as body adapts, an increase in stimulus is needed for adaptations and improvements , i.e. load should increase overtime, if not progress is limited

Cardiorespiratory Modes

A - endurance activities
B - vigorous activities
C - endurance + skill activities
D - recreational sports

Olympic Lifting

total-body resistance exercises that recruit most major muscle groups (snatch, clean and jerk)

Plyometric exercises

is a form of training of explosive exercise that targets power development (sprints, vertical jump)

ballistic resistance training

plyometric modality aimed at increasing muscle power and strength

Performance increasing for plyometrics

jump height and power, sprinting ability agility, and muscle strength

multijoint exercise

require coordination action of two or more muscle groups and joints (bench, squat, deadlift)

single joint exercise

exercise that attempt to isolate a muscle group (bicep curl, leg extension)


lifting both (bi) or single (uni), unilateral play an important role in helping maintain equal strength in both limbs (dumbbell bicep curl)

Benefits of ROM exercises

improvement of ROM and improvement of ADL

Risks of ROM exercises

joint hypermobility, decreased strength, ineffectiveness

Types of stretching

static - slow, sustained

passive - assisted by another person

active/dynamic - muscle being stretched is actively moved through ROM

active assistive - may require some help b/c muscle weakness or restrictive ROM

proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation - post-isometric relaxation (contract-relax; contract-relax-contract)

dynamic/phasic/ballistic - quick

Benefits of Cardiovascular Training (based on client skill level)

decreased risk from premature death
reduction in death
increased health benefits

i.e walking, jogging, skiing, racquet sports

FITT Seniors CV

F - 3-5 times week mod-vig intensity
I - 5-6 times a week mod, 7-8 times a week vig
T - 30-60 min mod, 20-30 min vig
T - any that does not impose excessive orthopedic stress

FITT Seniors Resistance

F - 2 times a week min
I - mod to vig
T - progressive weight training/weight bearing/balance/calisthetics

FITT Chilren/Adolescents

F - 3-4 times a week, pref all
I - mod to vif
T - 30 mod + 30 vig
T - variety

FITT Pregnancy

adjust for symptoms and contraindications

F - 3 times a week pref. 4
I - mod RPE 12-14
T - 15-30 min total 150min a week
T - dynamic and rhythmic - use large muscle groups (sleep on side 3rd tri)

Components of Exercise

Warm Up - 5-10min low to mod CV exercises
Conditioning - 20-60 min of aerobic/anaerobic, stability/sports activities
Cool Down - 5-10min low to mod CV exercises
Stretching - at least 10 min after warm up and cool down

Metabolic Equations

Target VO2 = ((% x (VO2Max-VO2Rest)) + VO2Rest

Finding Target HR

HRmax = 220-age
THR = 220-age x .64 - low
THR = 220-age x .94 - high
Intensity 64/70%-94%

Finding Target HR Karvonen Formula

HRR = HRmax-HRrest
THR = ((.4 x HRR) + HRrest))
THR = ((.85 x HRR) + HRrest))
Intensity 40/50% - 85%

Reps/Sets/Rest Periods for resistance training

Muscle Strength - 8-12 reps 60-80% 1RM
Muclse Endurance - 15-25 reps no more than 50% 1RM

1RM Test results

use % of 1RM 70-85%
RM: maximum load one can lift for 1 rep
absolute resistance - a certain amount of reps

Functional Capacity

Page 30

Valsalva Maneuver

forced exhaustion against a closed glottis, causing an increase in intrathoracic pressure
Increase in BP response, changes in cardiac physiology

Concept of detraining or reversibility

when training is stopped of reduced, system readjusts in accordance to dmimished physiologic stimuli, adaptations to exercises are gradually reduced or lost

Signs and Symptoms of Overtraining

page 31

Communication Techniques

Visual - learn through seeing, demonstration, video, image
Auditory - learn through hearing, verbal instructions, cues
Kinesthetic - learn by involvement after short explanation, guide client through movement


to prevent injury
good communication
alternate grip (bench)
know reps of lifter/plan of action if injury occurs

Normal Response To Exercise

HR/BP and respiratory rate increases as work increases
Termination - abnormal response in HR/BP, chest pain, poor perfusion

Technique for using CV equipment

provide cues for proper biomechanics
review manufactur instructions
safety instruction

Proper form for flexibility

exhale when you feel muscle being relaxed, stretched, and softened
do not force or bounce stretch while holding breathe
do not stretch past limits

Communication - active listening, cues, constuctive feedback

feedback should be immediate, nonthreatening, supportive, clarifying
cues - verbal, physical, visual


move from wide to smaller base of support, supported to unsupported, bilat to unilat, short to long lever, simple to complex, single joint to compound exercises


high volume -- short rest periods
rest - 2-3min
reps - 8-12
sets - 1-3


reduced volume, increased load and rest periods
rest - 2-3 min
reps - 3-6
sets 3-6 sets

CV endurance

once frequency is established, increase intensity and vary modes (interval)


vary base of support, use unstable surfaces, change perturbations


use different modes and techniques, increase frequncy

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